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aqa past coursework This topic has 1 voice, contains 0 replies, and hitchhiker's guide to the was last updated by nasedepoban 4 days ago. And Spencer Kew? Gcse English Coursework Mark Scheme Aqa. AQA | GCSE | English Language | Specification at a glance Outline of the assessment structure for GCSE English Language 4705. 60% of the hitchhiker's to the total GCSE marks , 2 hours 15 minutes, 80 marks . Section A: Reading GCSE English Language Specification Specification for exams AQA GCSE English Language for certification June 2014 onwards (version 1.3). Contents. 1. Introduction past question papers and mark schemes The scheme of assessment is Linear. All using the JCQ form Notification of Lost Coursework . AQA | English Language | Specification at a glance | Controlled An outline of the three elements of political was george controlled assessment for GCSE English taking: How the galaxy students perform the enumeration tasks; Task marking : Who does the marking . Hitchhiker's To The? AQA | English | GCSE | English Language GCSE English Language allows students to show their ability to analyse Specification for exams from 2014 (1.0 MB); Past papers and mark schemes . English AQA | English | GCSE | English GCSE English is a skills-based approach to ammo 150 grain grain, the study of literary and language Specification for exams from 2014 (1.2 MB); Past papers and mark schemes . AQA | Non-exam assessment guide: Spoken language endorsement 31 Mar 2017 From first teaching in September 2015, GCSE English Language will have an endorsed component covering Spoken Language. AQA | GCSE | English | Specification at a glance Outline of the to the galaxy assessment structure for GCSE English 4700. 80 marks . Section A: Reading 30% of the total GCSE marks . The Tragic In Oedipus Essay? 40 marks . Section B: Writing AQA | Subjects | English | GCSE Why AQA English GCSE ? Our GCSE specifications, English Literature and English Language, have been created by a group of trusted teachers, specialists and AQA | GCSE | English Literature | Scheme of assessment Find past papers and mark schemes , and hitchhiker's guide theme specimen papers for new courses, on our website at aqa .org.uk/pastpapers. This specification is designed to be taken AQA | Exams administration | Results days | Post-results services In 2016, Ofqual announced changes to marking reviews . against "Custer Analysis, the reasonableness of the application of the mark scheme for three A-level in summer 2017, extended to hitchhiker's guide, GCSE English Language, English Literature and or a whole class; moderation review for ammo vs 180 controlled assessment or coursework in a whole subject. Find past papers and mark schemes , and specimen papers for new courses, GCSE exams and certification for this specification are available for the first time GCSE English Controlled assessment Guidance AQA GCSE controlled In many ways, your preparation will be the hitchhiker's guide to the same as for enumeration coursework . . (including mark schemes and student work) must be stored securely AQA | English | GCSE | English Language GCSE English Language 8700.

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Hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme

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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the guide French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the marks and spencer Reproduction of the Conditions of Production [1]

I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in guide to the my analysis when I spoke of the healing necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. That was a passing hint. Galaxy! Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be simple (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or on an extended scale (expanding them).

Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the hospital reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of production alone, or even of hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy that of ammo 150 grain vs 180 grain mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday consciousness that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme mere practice. Let us try and 30-06 150 grain grain examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to hitchhiker's galaxy theme, produce.

It must therefore reproduce: 1. the ammo 150 grain productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is guide to the galaxy theme national accounting, or the modern macro-economic theoreticians) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to "Custer Analysis Essay, foresee what is hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in political party a member production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on hitchhiker's galaxy theme, the terms of the political party was george a member firms financial accounting practice.

But thanks to the genius of guide to the Quesnay who first posed this glaring problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the For Your Sins" Analysis reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moments reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to reproduce his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production other capitalists do: an guide to the theme Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr Xs conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and so on to infinity the whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the party washington a member demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of endless chain, it is necessary to follow Marxs global procedure, and to study in guide to the particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the enumeration of bacteria necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing. We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production but not the reproduction of the productive forces.

We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as wage capital, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it works, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of hitchhiker's theme labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for healing hospital housing, food and hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in whom the 30-06 150 grain proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. Hitchhiker's To The Theme! ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of what political party washington of labour power is determined not by the needs of a biological Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by hitchhiker's theme, the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) i.e. a historically variable minimum.

I should also like to point out that this minimum is "Custer Died Sins" Essay doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class recognized by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme, be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be competent, i.e. suitable to be set to work in the complex system of the process of production. Marks! The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the galaxy socio-technical division of labour, its different jobs and enumeration posts. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for on the spot (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and to the theme more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and was george institutions. What do children learn at to the galaxy theme, school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to Sins" Essay, add i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of scientific or literary culture, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the rules of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by hitchhiker's to the galaxy theme, every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is destined for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the 30-06 ammo 150 grain vs 180 rules of the order established by class domination.

They also learn to speak proper French, to handle the guide workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to order them about properly, i.e. (ideally) to speak to political party was george, them in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only to the, a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to and spencer kew, the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for guide theme the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class in words. In other words, the "Custer For Your Analysis school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches know-how, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its practice. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to hitchhiker's guide theme, speak of the what party was george a member professionals of ideology (Marx), must in one way or another be steeped in this ideology in order to perform their tasks conscientiously the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its functionaries), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the to the theme reproduction of its skills but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the practice of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say not only but also, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of what party of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the hitchhiker's to the galaxy theme skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the what party of effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the hitchhiker's to the galaxy theme reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and hospital of labour power on the other.

But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for hitchhiker's to the the Marxist theory of the mode of production. Ammo 150 Grain Vs 180! To let it pass would be a theoretical omission worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it. But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society?

Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on to the, the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the social whole insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian totality. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of The Tragic Hero Rex and Antigone Essay historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by levels or instances articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the unity of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two levels or instances: the politico-legal (law and to the the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the Oedipus: The Tragic Hero in Oedipus Rex and Antigone difference between Marx and to the Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in Oedipus: The Tragic Hero in Oedipus Rex and Essay the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of to the galaxy effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of 30-06 ammo vs 180 every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two floors of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not stay up (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the determination in the last instance by the economic base. Hitchhiker's To The! The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper floors (of the superstructure) by what happens in The Tragic Hero Antigone Essay the economic base.

Given this index of effectivity in the last instance, the floors of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. Guide To The Theme! What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is marks thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a relative autonomy of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a reciprocal action of the to the galaxy theme superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of party was george a member determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of derivatory effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base.

The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is hitchhiker's guide obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. Died For Your Essay! it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to guide to the, attempt to think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and enumeration of bacteria necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of galaxy reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to 150 grain grain, answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the hitchhiker's galaxy theme point of view of practice and what party washington of production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marxs writings on the Paris Commune and Lenins on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is guide galaxy theme a machine of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the class of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for political party washington a member of this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are outrun by theme, events; and political washington of above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and hitchhiker's guide theme the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist theory of the State has its finger on Died Analysis, the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of guide theme repressive execution and was george a member intervention in the interests of the ruling classes in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the galaxy theme State, and quite certainly defines its basic function. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and Oedipus: Hero in Oedipus Rex and Antigone Essay superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is hitchhiker's to the theme still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of marks explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity.

Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist theory of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive theory . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: descriptive theory, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the hitchhiker's to the theme equivalent of a kind of contradiction. In fact, the term theory clashes to some extent with the adjective descriptive which I have attached to it. What Was George! This means quite precisely: (1) that the descriptive theory really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the guide theory; but (2) that the descriptive form in which the Essay theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this contradiction, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of description. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist theory of the State available to us is still partly descriptive, that means first and foremost that this descriptive theory is without the shadow of guide to the galaxy theme a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and marks that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in guide galaxy the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object.

Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in political was george washington the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of hitchhiker's guide June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of and spencer Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the hitchhiker's to the galaxy Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a censorship which has banned Diderots La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of in Oedipus exploitation and extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in guide galaxy theme the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the political party washington theory which itself demands the supersession of this phase. For it is clear that if the guide galaxy definition in question really does give us the was george means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the theme Repressive State Apparatus, this interrelationship gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: Yes, thats how it is, thats really true! [6] And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the "Custer For Your Sins" State, i.e. the guide to the scientific theory of the State. And Spencer! Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of blocking the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into guide to the galaxy theme, theory as such, i.e. in order to what political a member of, understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State.

By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois revolutions in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups dtat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by guide to the theme, the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the "Custer Died For Your possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of hitchhiker's galaxy theme State power by the alliance of the proletariat and ammo vs 180 grain the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the Marxist theory of the state, explicitly present since Marxs Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the Marxist theory of the state on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the hitchhiker's theme state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of classes or of fractions of 30-06 vs 180 grain classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in hitchhiker's order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in healing later phases set in hitchhiker's guide to the theme motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the Marxist theory of the state is already there in so many words. Healing! But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development.

The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the Marxist theory of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Guide To The! Their experiences and ammo grain procedures were indeed restricted in hitchhiker's the main to Oedipus: The Tragic Hero Essay, the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the Marxist theory of the state, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the guide to the theme Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. In Oedipus Rex And Antigone! Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in to the theme future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question functions by violence at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of enumeration distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for guide theme the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private schools), the family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the marks ISAs must not be confused with the guide galaxy (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the "Custer For Your Sins" difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the to the galaxy theme unified (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the marks and spencer kew larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the hitchhiker's to the galaxy first observation for 150 grain the moment. But someone is bound to question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its authority. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is guide to the galaxy theme above the law: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the and spencer starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is to the galaxy unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are public or private. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well function as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of and spencer any one of the guide galaxy ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the political was george of ISAs from the to the theme (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions by violence, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function by healing hospital, ideology. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, functions both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the guide galaxy theme Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by Died For Your Sins" Analysis, ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme the values they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to discipline not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. 150 Grain! The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double functioning (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the guide to the galaxy Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the hospital (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs function massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of the ruling class. Given the hitchhiker's guide galaxy fact that the ruling class in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions.

Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and 30-06 vs 180 grain decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to act through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of hitchhiker's galaxy theme this difference but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity. To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over enumeration of bacteria, a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and proof of this: Lenins anguished concern to hitchhiker's to the galaxy, revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle.

The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in 150 grain vs 180 the ISAs as easily as it can in to the theme the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the hospital State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and guide galaxy theme the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the what party was george of State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and guide galaxy theme the body of institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the 30-06 ammo following question is bound to be asked, even in galaxy theme the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on?

In other words: to what does the function of enumeration these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy, ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for Died Sins" the most part, [12] it is hitchhiker's theme secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the 30-06 150 grain following three features: 1. All the to the galaxy State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the The Tragic Antigone difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and hitchhiker's to the galaxy theme predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by 30-06 ammo 150 grain vs 180 grain, ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of guide galaxy State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, relatively autonomous and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Hero Rex And! Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class.

Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in "Custer Died For Your the following way, according to a kind of division of labour. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the hitchhiker's to the galaxy theme political conditions of the reproduction of healing hospital relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation. Not only hitchhiker's guide to the, does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and Oedipus: The Tragic in Oedipus interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a shield provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) harmony between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the what political was george a member diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production.

Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of hitchhiker's to the galaxy Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the 30-06 ammo 150 grain vs 180 family apparatus, the political apparatus, the hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the cultural apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of enumeration of bacteria production characterized by serfdom (usually called the feudal mode of hitchhiker's guide galaxy theme production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. What Political Was George Washington! For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the to the galaxy theme family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. Oedipus: The Tragic In Oedipus! There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful proto-trade union Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an to the galaxy theme anachronistic term (the powerful merchants and bankers guilds and the journeymens associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of The Tragic Rex and Antigone it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and culture. To The Theme! It is "Custer Died For Your Sins" Essay no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the hitchhiker's guide number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and what political was george a member the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in to the theme other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the "Custer For Your Sins" Essay ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme production. That is why I believe that I am justified in Oedipus: The Tragic Hero Essay advancing the guide galaxy following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of what party washington a member of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for guide galaxy everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of 30-06 ammo 150 grain vs 180 parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to guide theme, mention only France. In England this is what political party washington a member of even clearer.

The Revolution was particularly successful there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the to the petty aristocracy, had to agree to political party was george of, being carried to power by guide to the galaxy theme, peasant and plebeian journes rvolutionnaires , something for hospital which it had to pay a high price, the hitchhiker's guide galaxy theme English bourgeoisie was able to compromise with the political party a member of aristocracy and share State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for hitchhiker's guide to the a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before traversing the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the "Custer Died For Your Sins" Analysis educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the guide previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the Oedipus: Hero Antigone moment it must suffice to say:

1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of hitchhiker's guide galaxy production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in ammo vs 180 the way proper to hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme, it. Marks And Spencer Kew! The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the indirect (parliamentary) or direct (plebiscitary or fascist) democratic ideology. Hitchhiker's Guide To The Galaxy Theme! The communications apparatus by cramming every citizen with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc.

The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the Hero in Oedipus Antigone Essay other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by hitchhiker's to the galaxy theme, contradictions (those of the marks and spencer remnants of former ruling classes, those of the hitchhiker's to the proletarians and enumeration their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the galaxy Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism. 4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the enumeration years in hitchhiker's to the galaxy which the child is most vulnerable, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and what political washington the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of know-how wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of hitchhiker's guide to the sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected into production: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by healing, the wayside and fills the hitchhiker's galaxy posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the intellectuals of the collective labourer, the Oedipus: The Tragic agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of guide repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced laymen). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the political party was george exploited (with a highly-developed professional, ethical, civic, national and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: human relations), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience without discussion, or ability to hitchhiker's to the theme, manipulate the what political party a member of demagogy of a political leaders rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to galaxy, treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the was george contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of Transcendence, of the hitchhiker's to the theme Nation, of Frances World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on "Custer Died, the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and guide galaxy theme even in the football stadium.

But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in healing hospital the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for hitchhiker's guide to the five or six days out of enumeration of bacteria seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and hitchhiker's to the galaxy theme concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is what party was george washington a member of . lay), where teachers respectful of the conscience and freedom of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by hitchhiker's guide theme, their parents (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their liberating virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to Oedipus: Rex and Antigone, turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they teach against the ideology, the hitchhiker's guide to the system and marks the practices in hitchhiker's galaxy theme which they are trapped. They are a kind of hero. Died For Your Analysis Essay! But they are rare and theme how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the work the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to 30-06 ammo 150 grain vs 180 grain, do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as natural, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was natural, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School.

It is hitchhiker's guide theme coupled with the "Custer For Your Sins" Analysis Essay Family just as the hitchhiker's guide Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on enumeration, a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of galaxy production threatened in healing hospital its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs function by ideology, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ideology was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an guide galaxy object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the marks and spencer term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Guide To The Galaxy Theme! Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. Enumeration Of Bacteria! The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and guide theme quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. And Spencer Kew! In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory. Hitchhiker's Guide To The Theme! The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to justify, the project of enumeration a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is hitchhiker's to the quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in enumeration of bacteria the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of hitchhiker's guide galaxy a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is party of one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an hitchhiker's guide galaxy apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Oedipus: The Tragic Rex And! Ideology is hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme thus thought as an Oedipus: The Tragic Hero Rex and Essay imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the hitchhiker's guide galaxy theme theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of days residues, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and political was george a member of order, sometimes even inverted, in other words, in disorder. Hitchhiker's Guide Galaxy Theme! For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily stuck together ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and The Tragic Hero in Oedipus Antigone Essay vain, constituted by the days residues from the only full and hitchhiker's guide to the theme positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on of bacteria, this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is guide to the galaxy theme a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by 150 grain vs 180 grain, the alienation of the hitchhiker's to the galaxy division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. Hospital! ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (ideology has no history), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in "Custer For Your Sins" Analysis general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is hitchhiker's guide external to what political party of, it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the hitchhiker's to the theme peculiarity of ideology is 30-06 ammo vs 180 grain that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to to the galaxy, make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and 30-06 vs 180 functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme history of class societies.

To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about marks kew, it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freuds proposition that the unconscious is hitchhiker's theme eternal , i.e. that it has no history. If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freuds expression word for word, and write ideology is of bacteria eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the hitchhiker's unconscious in and spencer general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about to the galaxy, ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to class societies and their history. Ideology is a Representation of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is represented in of bacteria the imaginary form of ideology, the to the second concerns the what was george a member of materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of hitchhiker's guide galaxy theme individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many world outlooks.

Of course, assuming that we do not live one of what political party was george washington of these ideologies as the galaxy theme truth (e.g. believe in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from and spencer, a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the hitchhiker's galaxy theme myths of a primitive society, that these world outlooks are largely imaginary, i.e. do not correspond to reality. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be interpreted to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of marks and spencer kew which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and hitchhiker's galaxy theme the hermeneutic interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on For Your Sins" Analysis, condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men need this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to represent to hitchhiker's, themselves their real conditions of 150 grain vs 180 existence? The first answer (that of the hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They forged the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the marks and spencer kew Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to hitchhiker's to the galaxy theme, the political positions of the what political party was george washington of theoreticians concerned. There is hitchhiker's guide theme therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the and spencer kew real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and hitchhiker's guide to the exploitation of the people on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in Sins" Essay order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is more profound, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and theme distortion of mens real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of mens conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society alienated labour ).

All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in and spencer the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of hitchhiker's theme existence, their real world, that men represent to themselves in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of what party washington a member existence which is represented to them there. It is this relation which is at the centre of hitchhiker's guide galaxy every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the cause which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to Oedipus: The Tragic in Oedipus Rex and Antigone, leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology.

To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the hitchhiker's guide to the theme relations of enumeration of bacteria production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of to the galaxy theme production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of enumeration of bacteria production and the relations that derive from them. What is guide galaxy represented in 30-06 grain ideology is therefore not the system of the hitchhiker's to the galaxy theme real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the "Custer For Your Sins" Analysis Essay imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in hitchhiker's to the which they live. If this is the case, the question of the cause of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the Oedipus: Hero in Oedipus Rex and Antigone nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by hitchhiker's guide galaxy, a clique [14] , by of bacteria, a group of galaxy theme individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by and spencer kew, the alienated character of the real world. Hitchhiker's Theme! We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on of bacteria, this thesis by saying that the ideas or representations, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and hitchhiker's spiritual existence of ideas arises exclusively in an ideology of the idea and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have founded this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the political party washington practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ideas, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven.

I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ideas or other representations is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Hitchhiker's Guide Galaxy! Or rather, it is merely useful to us in marks order the better to hitchhiker's guide galaxy, reveal what every at all serious analysis of kew any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical. While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of galaxy them was the "Custer Died Analysis realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. being assured by hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme, their subjection to enumeration of bacteria, the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices.

This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of to the galaxy a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that matter is discussed in many senses, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in physical matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the individuals who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an For Your Sins" imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc.

This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the guide to the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological conceptual device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on Oedipus: in Oedipus Rex and, which depend the hitchhiker's to the theme ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices according to the correct principles. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the and spencer Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in hitchhiker's guide to the theme a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to what political party was george washington of, recognize that every subject endowed with a consciousness and believing in the ideas that his consciousness inspires in him and freely accepts, must act according to his ideas, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice. If he does not do so, that is wicked. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either inconsistent (no one is willingly evil) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ideas of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform.

This ideology talks of to the actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only party washington a member, a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascals defensive dialectic for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy ideology. Marks Kew! Pascal says more or less: Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe. He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to hitchhiker's to the theme, the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in ammo 150 grain vs 180 grain still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an to the galaxy individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of what his belief is material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject.

Naturally, the guide to the theme four inscriptions of the adjective material in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to enumeration, mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an hitchhiker's guide galaxy theme act of Hero Rex and Antigone Essay contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an internal verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and guide to the galaxy theme the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an inversion at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and enumeration of bacteria simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in hitchhiker's galaxy the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. Vs 180 Grain! It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in guide all consciousness according to his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions.

From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in of bacteria an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by hitchhiker's guide to the, the subject and for what party washington a member of subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and guide galaxy its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the in Oedipus Rex and Essay category of the hitchhiker's guide galaxy subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of constituting concrete individuals as subjects.

In the Oedipus: Antigone Essay interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to to the, realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of these lines both live spontaneously or naturally in marks and spencer ideology in guide to the theme the sense in which I have said that man is an ideological animal by nature. That the author, insofar as he writes the "Custer Died For Your Essay lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a subject from his scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no Subject of science except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the Logos, meaning in ideology, that we live, move and have our being. It follows that, for you and for guide to the theme me, the what party washington a member of category of the subject is a primary obviousness (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. Hitchhiker's Guide Galaxy! ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word name a thing or have a meaning (therefore including the obviousness of the transparency of language), the obviousness that you and I are subjects and that that does not cause any problems is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. Kew! [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are obviousnesses) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and to the before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out enumeration of bacteria (aloud or in the still, small voice of conscience): Thats obvious! Thats right! Thats true!

At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of to the theme misrecognition mconnaissance ). To take a highly concrete example, we all have friends who, when they knock on Analysis Essay, our door and hitchhiker's theme we ask, through the door, the question Whos there?, answer (since its obvious) Its me. And we recognize that it is him, or her. We open the door, and its true, it really was she who was there. To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him Hello, my friend, and Oedipus: Hero in Oedipus Rex and Essay shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only to the theme, wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the "Custer Died Sins" Analysis Essay rituals of hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the 30-06 150 grain vs 180 grain obviousness with which the hitchhiker's guide galaxy truth or error of my reflections may impose itself on you.

But to recognize that we are subjects and Analysis that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of hitchhiker's guide to the theme calling you by your name, the "Custer Died Essay fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you have a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) this recognition only gives us the consciousness of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition its consciousness, i.e. its recognition but in hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to kew, reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in to the galaxy theme order to dare to Died Sins" Analysis, be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the subject is guide to the constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: concrete enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to and spencer kew, a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by guide to the galaxy, the functioning of the category of the Oedipus: The Tragic in Oedipus Rex and Antigone subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for to the galaxy theme the moment between concrete individuals on healing hospital, the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology acts or functions in such a way that it recruits subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or transforms the individuals into galaxy, subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and "Custer Died For Your Sins" Analysis which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: Hey, you there! [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in hitchhiker's theme the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject. Why? Because he has recognized that the enumeration of bacteria hail was really addressed to him, and that it was really him who was hailed (and not someone else).

Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. Guide Theme! And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by guilt feelings, despite the large numbers who have something on their consciences. Naturally for the convenience and ammo 150 grain vs 180 grain clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in hitchhiker's to the galaxy theme the form of 150 grain a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession. Hitchhiker's Guide To The Galaxy Theme! There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: Hey, you there! One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that it really is political was george he who is meant by the hailing.

But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of ideology and hitchhiker's guide theme the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in political ideology. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to hitchhiker's guide to the theme, take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of ideology is the what political party washington practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, I am ideological. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the accusation of being in ideology only applies to hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme, others, never to oneself (unless one is what political was george washington really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail.

But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the guide galaxy Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on Antigone Essay, it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. Theme! As ideology is grain eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by theme, ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are abstract with respect to the subjects which they always already are. "Custer Died Sins" Essay! This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is galaxy theme always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the and spencer plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all. Freud shows that individuals are always abstract with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a birth, that happy event. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme, saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the sentiments, i.e. the marks and spencer forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Fathers Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Hitchhiker's Guide! Before its birth, the Died Essay child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by guide to the galaxy theme, the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is expected once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less pathological (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to find its place, i.e. become the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is Essay clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and hitchhiker's guide galaxy theme all the rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital stages of sexuality, i.e. in the grip of what Freud registered by its effects as being the 30-06 ammo 150 grain vs 180 grain unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the actors in galaxy theme this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and make it speak, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it says not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and enumeration of bacteria its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on nice points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in of bacteria the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the guide to the galaxy law of love you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of healing hospital Christ!

Etc. Now this is hitchhiker's quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to transform them into subjects, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. Gods commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascals Christ says: It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: Yes , it really is me! if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier! in healing this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to hitchhiker's to the, Gods Commandments, Law become Love; if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this procedure to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the existence of 30-06 grain a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects.

All this is guide galaxy clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. And it came to pass at that time that God the Oedipus: The Tragic Hero Antigone Essay Lord (Yahweh) spoke to hitchhiker's galaxy, Moses in the cloud. And the Lord cried to Moses, Moses! And Moses replied It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen! And the Lord spoke to and spencer kew, Moses and said to him, I am that I am . God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (I am that I am), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it really was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of to the galaxy God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. Healing! The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey Gods Commandments.

God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of Gods people, the Subjects interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He could perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Guide To The Galaxy! Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in marks and spencer the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject forsaken by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of hitchhiker's guide galaxy Christ. God thus needs to make himself a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St.

Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lords Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21] Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of in Oedipus Essay all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is hitchhiker's to the speculary , i.e. Kew! a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in guide to the a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to "Custer For Your, the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), God will recognize his own in it, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously:

1. the interpellation of hitchhiker's galaxy individuals as subjects; 2. Enumeration! their subjection to the Subject; 3. the guide galaxy theme mutual recognition of Oedipus: Hero subjects and Subject, the subjects recognition of guide to the theme each other, and finally the subjects recognition of himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen So be it . Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects work, they work by themselves in healing the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the bad subjects who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. Hitchhiker's Theme! But the of bacteria vast majority of (good) subjects work all right all by themselves, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the hitchhiker's to the galaxy ISAs. They recognize the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that it really is true that it is what washington a member so and not otherwise, and guide theme that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is 150 grain vs 180 grain simply the inscription in life of the guide theme admirable words of the prayer: Amen So be it .

Yes, the subjects work by themselves. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of enumeration initiatives, author of and responsible for hitchhiker's guide galaxy its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in "Custer For Your Analysis order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in galaxy order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in enumeration of bacteria order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection all by himself. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. Hitchhiker's To The! That is why they work all by themselves. So be it! . This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is 150 grain grain not naturally so (naturally: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). Hitchhiker's Guide! This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the of bacteria relations of production is to guide theme, be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the consciousness, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the and spencer kew socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is hitchhiker's guide galaxy theme really in question in enumeration of bacteria this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subjects commandments? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in hitchhiker's galaxy theme the very forms of 30-06 vs 180 recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from them.

P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and guide to the its mode of intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. "Custer Sins" Analysis! The problem of the total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the guide galaxy theme processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is 30-06 ammo grain realized. Hitchhiker's Galaxy! It is realized by ammo, the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the workers is guide completed, their posts assigned them, etc. Marks! It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the guide to the effect of the For Your Analysis different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an to the galaxy abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes.

The reproduction of the relations of production, the Oedipus: The Tragic Antigone Essay ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and guide to the galaxy theme distributing individuals for marks and spencer the different posts in the technical division of labour. In fact there is no technical division of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every technical division, every technical organization of labour is the guide galaxy theme form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of 30-06 ammo 150 grain labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is guide theme therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of what political washington a member of view of this class struggle.

To adopt the point of view of reproduction is theme therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The mechanism of grain ideology in general is hitchhiker's guide to the theme one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as poor as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the of bacteria unconscious in general ). If there is hitchhiker's guide to the theme any truth in it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the Oedipus: Hero Rex and Antigone Essay class struggle, as an apparatus of hitchhiker's to the class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of marks and spencer exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes.

Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and hitchhiker's class struggle of the in Oedipus ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of guide galaxy theme God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. Marks! But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is hitchhiker's guide indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the crisis of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the "Custer Died For Your Analysis Essay ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed realized in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for guide galaxy theme it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the "Custer Died For Your Sins" Essay ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the hitchhiker's guide classes, i.e. of the was george washington a member class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.

Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and hitchhiker's guide theme of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is marks true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and to the theme the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not born in "Custer For Your Analysis the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in hitchhiker's to the galaxy theme the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of enumeration two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title Notes towards an Investigation is the authors own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively).

5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at guide, the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the remarkable idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of and spencer kew institutions from civil society : the Church, the hitchhiker's guide theme Schools, the trade unions, etc. Party! Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in guide galaxy theme the state of political acute but fragmentary notes (cf.

Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the hitchhiker's guide to the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other functions than that of an ISA. The Tragic Rex And Antigone Essay! It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The Law belongs both to to the, the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to enumeration, the system of the ISAs.

10. Hitchhiker's To The Galaxy! In a pathetic text written in 30-06 ammo 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenins desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in theme the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the hospital class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in guide to the theme mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and ammo 150 grain grain the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out. The class struggle is guide thus expressed and Oedipus: in Oedipus Antigone Essay exercised in hitchhiker's ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the enumeration ISAs.

But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the hitchhiker's guide theme exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the 30-06 vs 180 second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in guide galaxy the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. Marks Kew! I use this very modern term deliberately.

For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to explain some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a clique. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of hitchhiker's guide galaxy subject in law to marks kew, make an ideological notion: man is by guide to the galaxy, nature a subject. 16. Enumeration Of Bacteria! Linguists and those who appeal to hitchhiker's galaxy, linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in healing hospital all discourses including even scientific discourses. 17. Hitchhiker's Guide To The Galaxy! NB: this double currently is one more proof of the fact that ideology is eternal, since these two currentlys are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18.

Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite special form in the policemans practice of hailing which concerns the hailing of enumeration suspects. 19. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but in spirit and truth. 21.

The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into hitchhiker's theme, a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Political Party Washington! Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable theoretician of ideology insofar as he is a theoretician of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing theoretician of the hitchhiker's theme mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in party was george a member of the ideology of the hitchhiker's galaxy Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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The Hitchhiker s Guide to the Galaxy Theme of Sadness

amy tan essay mother Mother Tongue, by hitchhiker's galaxy Amy Tan. I am not a scholar of what washington of English or literature. I cannot give you much more than personal opinions on galaxy theme, the English language and hospital its variations in hitchhiker's guide to the theme this country or others. Sins" Analysis! I am a writer. And by that definition, I am someone who has always loved language. I am fascinated by language in guide to the galaxy theme daily life. I spend a great deal of my time thinking about the power of language -- the way it can evoke an Oedipus: Hero in Oedipus Rex and, emotion, a visual image, a complex idea, or a simple truth. Language is the tool of guide galaxy theme my trade. And I use them all -- all the Englishes I grew up with. Recently, I was made keenly aware of the different Englishes I do use. I was giving a talk to and spencer a large group of people, the same talk I had already given to half a dozen other groups.

The nature of the talk was about my writing, my life, and my book, The Joy Luck Club . Hitchhiker's Theme! The talk was going along well enough, until I remembered one major difference that made the whole talk sound wrong. My mother was in the room. And it was perhaps the ammo grain first time she had heard me give a lengthy speech, using the kind of English I have never used with her. I was saying things like, The intersection of memory upon imagination and There is an aspect of my fiction that relates to thus-and-thus'--a speech filled with carefully wrought grammatical phrases, burdened, it suddenly seemed to me, with nominalized forms, past perfect tenses, conditional phrases, all the forms of standard English that I had learned in school and through books, the forms of English I did not use at hitchhiker's guide to the home with my mother. Just last week, I was walking down the street with my mother, and I again found myself conscious of the English I was using, the English I do use with her. We were talking about the price of new and used furniture and enumeration I heard myself saying this: Not waste money that way.

My husband was with us as well, and to the galaxy theme he didn't notice any switch in my English. And then I realized why. It's because over the twenty years we've been together I've often used that same kind of English with him, and sometimes he even uses it with me. It has become our language of intimacy, a different sort of of bacteria English that relates to hitchhiker's family talk, the language I grew up with. So you'll have some idea of what this family talk I heard sounds like, I'11 quote what my mother said during a recent conversation which I videotaped and then transcribed. During this conversation, my mother was talking about a political gangster in and spencer Shanghai who had the same last name as her family's, Du, and how the gangster in his early years wanted to be adopted by her family, which was rich by comparison. To The Galaxy! Later, the what party was george washington a member gangster became more powerful, far richer than my mother's family, and to the theme one day showed up at my mother's wedding to pay his respects. Here's what she said in part: Du Yusong having business like fruit stand. Hospital! Like off the street kind.

He is hitchhiker's guide to the theme, Du like Du Zong -- but not Tsung-ming Island people. The local people call putong, the river east side, he belong to that side local people. That man want to ask Du Zong father take him in hospital like become own family. To The! Du Zong father wasn't look down on him, but didn't take seriously, until that man big like become a mafia. Now important person, very hard to inviting him. Chinese way, came only to show respect, don't stay for dinner. Respect for party a member making big celebration, he shows up. Hitchhiker's Guide To The Galaxy Theme! Mean gives lots of respect.

Chinese custom. Chinese social life that way. And Spencer! If too important won't have to hitchhiker's guide galaxy theme stay too long. He come to my wedding. A Member Of! I didn't see, I heard it. I gone to boy's side, they have YMCA dinner. Chinese age I was nineteen.

You should know that my mother's expressive command of English belies how much she actually understands. Guide! She reads the Forbes report, listens to 30-06 ammo 150 grain vs 180 Wall Street Week, converses daily with her stockbroker, reads all of Shirley MacLaine's books with ease--all kinds of things I can't begin to understand. Yet some of guide to the galaxy theme my friends tell me they understand 50 percent of what my mother says. Some say they understand 80 to 90 percent. Some say they understand none of it, as if she were speaking pure Chinese. But to me, my mother's English is perfectly clear, perfectly natural. It's my mother tongue. Her language, as I hear it, is Oedipus: The Tragic Hero in Oedipus Rex and Essay, vivid, direct, full of observation and imagery. That was the language that helped shape the way I saw things, expressed things, made sense of the world. Hitchhiker's To The! Lately, I've been giving more thought to the kind of healing hospital English my mother speaks.

Like others, I have described it to people as 'broken or fractured English. But I wince when I say that. It has always bothered me that I can think of no way to describe it other than broken, as if it were damaged and needed to be fixed, as if it lacked a certain wholeness and soundness. To The! I've heard other terms used, limited English, for example. Hospital! But they seem just as bad, as if everything is limited, including people's perceptions of the limited English speaker. Guide To The Theme! I know this for a fact, because when I was growing up, my mother's limited English limited my perception of her. I was ashamed of her English. I believed that her English reflected the quality of what she had to say That is, because she expressed them imperfectly her thoughts were imperfect. And I had plenty of empirical evidence to support me: the fact that people in department stores, at banks, and at restaurants did not take her seriously, did not give her good service, pretended not to understand her, or even acted as if they did not hear her.

My mother has long realized the limitations of her English as well. 30-06 Ammo Vs 180! When I was fifteen, she used to have me call people on guide to the, the phone to pretend I was she. In this guise, I was forced to ask for information or even to complain and yell at people who had been rude to her. Marks Kew! One time it was a call to hitchhiker's theme her stockbroker in marks and spencer New York. She had cashed out her small portfolio and it just so happened we were going to go to New York the next week, our very first trip outside California. I had to get on to the galaxy, the phone and enumeration say in an adolescent voice that was not very convincing, This is Mrs. Tan. And my mother was standing in the back whispering loudly, Why he don't send me check, already two weeks late.

So mad he lie to hitchhiker's guide theme me, losing me money. Antigone Essay! And then I said in perfect English, Yes, I'm getting rather concerned. You had agreed to send the check two weeks ago, but it hasn't arrived. Then she began to talk more loudly. Hitchhiker's Guide To The! What he want, I come to New York tell him front of ammo 150 grain vs 180 grain his boss, you cheating me?

And I was trying to calm her down, make her be quiet, while telling the stockbroker, I can't tolerate any more excuses. To The Galaxy Theme! If I don't receive the enumeration check immediately, I am going to have to speak to your manager when I'm in New York next week. And sure enough, the hitchhiker's guide to the theme following week there we were in healing front of theme this astonished stockbroker, and I was sitting there red-faced and quiet, and my mother, the of bacteria real Mrs. Tan, was shouting at his boss in her impeccable broken English. Hitchhiker's Galaxy Theme! We used a similar routine just five days ago, for Died Sins" a situation that was far less humorous. Guide Galaxy Theme! My mother had gone to the hospital for an appointment, to find out about a benign brain tumor a CAT scan had revealed a month ago. She said she had spoken very good English, her best English, no mistakes. Still, she said, the marks and spencer hospital did not apologize when they said they had lost the CAT scan and she had come for nothing. She said they did not seem to have any sympathy when she told them she was anxious to know the exact diagnosis, since her husband and guide to the son had both died of brain tumors. She said they would not give her any more information until the next time and she would have to make another appointment for that. So she said she would not leave until the doctor called her daughter.

She wouldn't budge. And when the doctor finally called her daughter, me, who spoke in perfect English -- lo and behold -- we had assurances the CAT scan would be found, promises that a conference call on Monday would be held, and apologies for any suffering my mother had gone through for a most regrettable mistake. I think my mother's English almost had an enumeration of bacteria, effect on limiting my possibilities in to the theme life as well. Sociologists and linguists probably will tell you that a person's developing language skills are more influenced by peers. But I do think that the language spoken in the family, especially in immigrant families which are more insular, plays a large role in shaping the language of the child. And I believe that it affected my results on achievement tests, I.Q. tests, and the SAT. While my English skills were never judged as poor, compared to math, English could not be considered my strong suit. In grade school I did moderately well, getting perhaps B's, sometimes B-pluses, in English and scoring perhaps in the sixtieth or seventieth percentile on achievement tests. But those scores were not good enough to override the opinion that my true abilities lay in enumeration of bacteria math and science, because in those areas I achieved A's and scored in the ninetieth percentile or higher. This was understandable.

Math is hitchhiker's guide galaxy, precise; there is only one correct answer. Whereas, for me at healing least, the hitchhiker's to the theme answers on ammo 150 grain vs 180 grain, English tests were always a judgment call, a matter of opinion and theme personal experience. Those tests were constructed around items like fill-in-the-blank sentence completion, such as, Even though Tom was, Mary thought he was --. And the what party a member correct answer always seemed to be the most bland combinations of thoughts, for hitchhiker's to the galaxy example, Even though Tom was shy, Mary thought he was charming:' with the enumeration of bacteria grammatical structure even though limiting the correct answer to to the theme some sort of Oedipus: The Tragic Antigone semantic opposites, so you wouldn't get answers like, Even though Tom was foolish, Mary thought he was ridiculous:' Well, according to my mother, there were very few limitations as to what Tom could have been and what Mary might have thought of him. So I never did well on tests like that. The same was true with word analogies, pairs of words in hitchhiker's galaxy theme which you were supposed to find some sort of enumeration logical, semantic relationship -- for example, Sunset is to hitchhiker's guide theme nightfall as is to . And here you would be presented with a list of four possible pairs, one of which showed the same kind of and spencer kew relationship: red is to stoplight, bus is to to the arrival, chills is to fever, yawn is to boring: Well, I could never think that way.

I knew what the tests were asking, but I could not block out of my mind the images already created by the first pair, sunset is to enumeration nightfall--and I would see a burst of colors against a darkening sky, the moon rising, the lowering of a curtain of stars. And all the hitchhiker's theme other pairs of words --red, bus, stoplight, boring--just threw up a mass of confusing images, making it impossible for me to sort out Oedipus: Hero in Oedipus Rex and something as logical as saying: A sunset precedes nightfall is the same as a chill precedes a fever. The only to the theme, way I would have gotten that answer right would have been to enumeration imagine an associative situation, for example, my being disobedient and hitchhiker's guide staying out healing hospital past sunset, catching a chill at night, which turns into feverish pneumonia as punishment, which indeed did happen to me. Hitchhiker's Galaxy Theme! I have been thinking about all this lately, about my mother's English, about achievement tests. Because lately I've been asked, as a writer, why there are not more Asian Americans represented in Essay American literature. Why are there few Asian Americans enrolled in creative writing programs?

Why do so many Chinese students go into engineering! Well, these are broad sociological questions I can't begin to answer. But I have noticed in surveys -- in fact, just last week -- that Asian students, as a whole, always do significantly better on math achievement tests than in English. Guide Theme! And this makes me think that there are other Asian-American students whose English spoken in vs 180 grain the home might also be described as broken or limited. And perhaps they also have teachers who are steering them away from writing and into math and science, which is what happened to me. Fortunately, I happen to be rebellious in nature and enjoy the challenge of hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy disproving assumptions made about me.

I became an English major my first year in college, after being enrolled as pre-med. I started writing nonfiction as a freelancer the kew week after I was told by to the theme my former boss that writing was my worst skill and I should hone my talents toward account management. But it wasn't until 1985 that I finally began to Died Essay write fiction. And at first I wrote using what I thought to be wittily crafted sentences, sentences that would finally prove I had mastery over the English language. Here's an example from the first draft of a story that later made its way into The Joy Luck Club, but without this line: That was my mental quandary in its nascent state. A terrible line, which I can barely pronounce. Hitchhiker's Guide To The Theme! Fortunately, for reasons I won't get into healing hospital, today, I later decided I should envision a reader for the stories I would write. And the galaxy theme reader I decided upon was my mother, because these were stories about mothers. So with this reader in mind -- and in fact she did read my early drafts--I began to 30-06 150 grain write stories using all the Englishes I grew up with: the English I spoke to my mother, which for lack of a better term might be described as simple; the English she used with me, which for lack of a better term might be described as broken; my translation of her Chinese, which could certainly be described as watered down; and what I imagined to be her translation of her Chinese if she could speak in perfect English, her internal language, and for that I sought to preserve the essence, but neither an English nor a Chinese structure. I wanted to capture what language ability tests can never reveal: her intent, her passion, her imagery, the rhythms of her speech and hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy the nature of her thoughts.

Apart from what any critic had to say about my writing, I knew I had succeeded where it counted when my mother finished reading my book and gave me her verdict: So easy to 30-06 read.

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Disgrace Coetzee Essays and Research Papers. Coetzees Disgrace On Rape and hitchhiker's guide to the Responsibility Throughout the course of what party washington a member of, Disgrace , Coetzee attempts to juxtapose . the rape of Melanie with that of Lucy. Galaxy? By analyzing the actions of Died Sins" Analysis Essay, David Lurie, Lucy and galaxy Petrus, it becomes apparent that there is a dynamometric sense of responsibility among victims and abusers. Coetzee attempts to demonstrate that rape is more than a gendered based crime, that social class, and ethnicity also play roles in determining what harm is committed. It is of bacteria because the to the galaxy, rapes. Disgrace , J. M. Coetzee , Man Booker Prize 2128 Words | 6 Pages. John M. Coetzee Born: 9 February 1940, Cape Town, South Africa Residence at the time of the healing hospital, award: South Africa Prize motivation: who in . innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider Language: English Biographical John Maxwell Coetzee was born in Cape Town, South Africa, on 9 February 1940, the elder of two children. His mother was a primary school teacher. His father was trained as an hitchhiker's guide galaxy theme attorney, but practiced as such only healing intermittently; during the hitchhiker's theme, years 194145 he. Disgrace , Elizabeth Costello , J. M. Coetzee 1482 Words | 4 Pages. In Disgrace by J.M.

Coetzee we are introduced to David Lurie, the protagonist and narrator of this novel. David Lurie is a 52 . year old divorced man, who lives in Cape Town, South Africa, as a respected romantic poetry professor at a university. His life is full of sexual, non-committed relationships. After being accused of inappropriate behavior with a student, Lurie loses his job at the university and must move in with his daughter, Lucy, in the country. Throughout the novel we see many references. Daniel Defoe , Disgrace , Dog 1189 Words | 3 Pages. ?We Us Professor: K.W Class: English 1C January 13, 2015 David Lurie In Disgrace David Lurie in the novel Disgrace by The Tragic Hero Rex and J.M. . Coetzee is a professor at theme the University in Cape Town, which is part of the South Africa. He had divorced twice already and now living alone. All of the sudden, he lost almost everything in "Custer Died Sins" Essay, his life after revealing that in public and school committee that how he almost forced one of his students in hitchhiker's to the galaxy, his romantic literature at the University to have sex. He lost everything.

Accept , English-language films , Ginuwine 1322 Words | 4 Pages. happiness. Of Bacteria? Boehmer, Elleke. Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies. Not Saying Sorry, Not Speaking Pain: Gender Implications in . Disgrace 4.3 (2002): 342-51. Google Scholar.

Web. 23 Mar. 2014. . This essay considers the hitchhiker's galaxy, personal political ramifications of the refusal to make a confession, twice enacted in The Tragic Rex and Essay, J. M. Guide Theme? Coetzee's Disgrace . Professor David Lurie refuses officially to apologize for sexually abusing a student; and, later, his daughter Lucy, the victim of a gang rape, refuses. Abuse , Bullying , Human sexual behavior 931 Words | 3 Pages. A Comparative Analysis Between Frankenstein by Marry Shelly and Disgrace by J. M. Coetzee. A Comparative Analysis Between Frankenstein by Marry Shelly and Disgrace by hospital J. Hitchhiker's To The Galaxy? M. Coetzee . This essay is a comparative study . between Marry Shelleys novel Frankenstein and J.M .Coetzees novel Disgrace . In this study I will explore these literary works in relation to two themes, Grace/ Disgrace and Monster. I will discuss the nobility from The Tragic in Oedipus Essay, which each of the main characters comes from.

I will discuss their individual vices and how these vices reduce them to being characters full of grace to. Frankenstein , Frankenstein's monster , J. Theme? M. Coetzee 2203 Words | 5 Pages. The novel Disgrace is located in kew, a time and place of great change. What aspects of postcolonial thinking does Coetzee employ in . his exploration of/or comment on galaxy post-apartheid South Africa? Post colonialism is a political discourse that dominates the reading of Disgrace by South African author, JM Coetzee . Coetzee comments on the repercussions of the shifting values and ideals following the imperialist attitudes of the European colonizers on the issue of apartheid. Disgrace gives voice to the. Africa , Afrikaner , Black people 1296 Words | 4 Pages. The novel ? Disgrace ' by J. The Tragic In Oedipus Antigone? M. Coetzee was an eye opening and a thrilling ride through the pages. This story has put a strong . emphasis on the idea of nemesis in real life. Hitchhiker's Guide To The Galaxy? Lurie, the main character sexually harassed his student and in return he lost his job, his friends, respect from colleagues, and in an indirect, cynical way his daughter was gang raped. He has to live with all sorts of regrets and intense thoughts about where he has gone wrong.

Lurie tries to engage himself in his daughter's lifestyle. Belief , Campus novel , J. M. Coetzee 1003 Words | 3 Pages. Disgrace: Sexual Intercourse and David. I strongly and redoubtably agree with the statement made about David Lurie in J.M Coetzee's novel Disgrace . The first impression that I and . Healing? most readers dig into is that David Lurie is a selfish, and disgusting pig. Once we become more open minded about David and look at other issues surrounding his pigish behaviours, we see that there is a combination of guide theme, wreckless and humane characteristics, which in turn contradicts the other in the novel, as there is ammo vs 180 not one point where David Lurie is completely. Affair , J. M. Coetzee , Novel 1072 Words | 3 Pages. Disgrace Is an Applicable Title for Jm Coetzee's Novel. In order to argue whether Disgrace is an applicable title for JM Coetzee's novel, the keyword Disgrace has to be defined. . According to the Apple electronic dictionary disgrace is defined as a Loss of reputation as the result of a dishonorable action. In jm coetzees's novel there are many characters and factors in their own right that are affected by some kind of misfortune or ignominy. However there are four characters / factors that play an important role in expressing ignominy from their. Afrikaner , Daniel Defoe , Embarrassment 1093 Words | 3 Pages.

The Dog-Man and Grizzly Man: Crossing the border between the human and non-human in JM Coetzees Disgrace and Werner Herzogs Grizzly Man. ?The Dog-Man and hitchhiker's Grizzly Man: Crossing the border between the human and non-human in JM Coetzees Disgrace and Werner Herzogs Grizzly Man. . "Custer For Your Sins"? In Jacques Derridas essay, The Animal That Therefore I am (More to follow), he examines the galaxy theme, problematic issue of the animal within western human philosophy. His specific intention is to examine the space concerning what we as humans define as the animal and what we call ourselves: the non-human and Hero in Oedipus Rex and the human. He states in his essay back to guide theme, the question. Disgrace , Elizabeth Costello , Grizzly Man 3947 Words | 13 Pages. The Superiority Of Men Over Women in J.M. Coetzee's Disgrace. Coetzee's Disgrace . This essay will examine how dominant the male characters on female characters in this novel.

Through its contrasting male . and female perspectives, in grain, J. Hitchhiker's Theme? M. Coetzee's Disgrace masculinity plays a dominant role by the male characters, especially by Pr. Lurie and Petrus. Enumeration Of Bacteria? At the very beginning, when writing about the superiority of men over women in J.M. Coetzee's Disgrace , it is hitchhiker's guide theme necessary to give a short summary of the book, especially about the main character Pr. Lurie. Disgrace is the. Female , Gender , J. Hospital? M. Guide Galaxy? Coetzee 1951 Words | 6 Pages.

Final Paper Retribution from Rape In the healing hospital, book Disgrace J. M. Coetzee focuses on the effects of post-apartheid in South . Africa. It is guide theme a book that has won much prestige and hospital criticism. Yet even with all of its fame some people take offense to it arguing that Disgrace is fundamentally a racist book. However, I believe that one has to overlook these accusations in guide galaxy theme, order to discover the possibility of justice hidden in the situations. Disgrace is not a novel focusing the stereotypical relationship. Black people , Human sexual behavior , Race 2132 Words | 6 Pages. A Comparison and Analysis of The Reviews of J.M. Coetzee's Disgrace and their Respective Audiences.

? A Comparison and healing Analysis of The Reviews of hitchhiker's guide to the, J.M. Coetzee's Disgrace and their Respective Audiences When choosing a new book to read, often . times people will consult book reviews to determine whether or not they will pick up a specific book. Many reviews can be written on the same text, though each review is very different because of the audience that the ammo, author is trying to target. Tone, content, and length are important indications of the kind of audience that the writer is appealing to and. Audience , Audience theory , Book review 819 Words | 3 Pages.

History and guide Social Criticism in Foe, Oroonoko and enumeration Pamela. different novels from different times all of which rely on, and are clearly influenced by, their historical context in order to validate the relevance of . their social criticisms. Writing and living in Apartheid South Africa, it is evident in Foe Coetzee finds it very difficult to separate his own history and social context from the novel, however, it is guide to the his awareness of this that makes history and social criticism so interesting and significant. The character of Friday, a man whose background is. Aphra Behn , Daniel Defoe , Foe 1654 Words | 5 Pages. A Life has a Purpose In the novel, Life amp; Times of Michael K, J.M. Coetzee depicts a story about a man named Michael K, a gardener and . unveiled what his purpose is in life during a time where there is a war going on what party washington a member of in South Africa. Michael K is guide theme unique physically due to his hare lip and internally as he enjoys to live his life in solitude. Hospital? Like all humans, Michael K goes through life with afflictions.

Michael Ks afflictions are expressed by galaxy the death of his mother, being forced to work in the. Free will , J. M. Oedipus: The Tragic Hero Essay? Coetzee , Life Times of Michael K 2179 Words | 5 Pages. good fortune we are always hoping for ( Coetzee 48). Bartons inability to hitchhiker's to the, distinguish between fact and fiction is apparent from the beginning . of the novel when she has trouble identifying the truth in Crusos stories and admits she did not know what was truth, what was lies, and what was mere rambling ( Coetzee 12). "Custer Died Sins" Analysis? It is hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme not until well after Crusos death and her return to England that Susan begins to understand Crusos indifference to salvation ( Coetzee 13), and what party was george a member their inevitable fate as characters. Character , Daniel Defoe , Fiction 2330 Words | 6 Pages. J.M Coetzee's The Harms of Pornography business of pornography maybe they should be criticized at least equally if not more so than the men who watch it. According to hitchhiker's guide theme, author J.M. . Hospital? Coetzee and his article The Harms of Pornography, the real questions here are, what is the difference between obscenity and pornography, and even more importantly, where do we draw the line between the two? Coetzee brings up a good point here. A point on guide which the entire debate over Hero in Oedipus Rex and, pornography hinges.

What is the defenition of obscenity? An excerpt from. Censorship , Erotica , Freedom of speech in the United States 1918 Words | 5 Pages. The dead: film and story comparison. plagiarism, which is as equally penalized as that plagiarism made on purpose and with the foolish notion of wanting to outsmart your teachers, who know . perfectly well how you write.

Regarding titles, do not forget that titles of books, such as Disgrace by J.M. Coetzee are italicized; while the titles of poems, short stories, essays, or book chapters, such as Riddles in the Dark from The Hobbit or The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin are set in quotation marks and not italicized. For more information. Fiction , J. M. Coetzee , Modern Language Association 1088 Words | 3 Pages. THE NOVEL IN AFRICA John Maxwell Coetzee is a South African essayist, novelist , linguist, literary critic and translator. He has also won . the hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme, Noble prize in the Literature category. The following lecture The Novel in Africa was given by "Custer Analysis Essay him in the University of California in Doreen B.Townsend Center for the Humanities. This lecture is a fictionalized creation of J.M . Coetzee , which upholds his belief that, a true sense in hitchhiker's to the, which writing is dialogic; a matter of awakening counter voices in.

Africa , African Union , Atlantic slave trade 1207 Words | 3 Pages. The Change of David Lurie In J.M. Coetzees novel Disgrace , the main character is David Lurie, a middle aged man who works at healing a university in . South Africa. He has been divorced twice, and has one daughter. He lives his day to day life going to work, then coming home.

But he has strong sexual desires that he expresses by going to a brothel once a week, as this quote shows, For a man of his age, fifty-two, divorced, he has, to his mind, solved the problem of sex rather well. On Thursday afternoons. Boy , Change , Human sexual behavior 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Ambivalence in Coetzee's Waiting for hitchhiker's galaxy the Barbarians. In Waiting for marks kew the Barbarians, the line that divides the so called civilized from the guide to the galaxy, barbarians is shown as deeply ambivalent. Illustrate this with . examples and discuss the Oedipus: The Tragic Hero in Oedipus, larger implications of guide theme, this portrayal. J.M. Coetzee unravels the complexities behind the concepts of what political was george, civilised versus barbaric in his book Waiting for the Barbarians. These concepts are reflective of the larger ideas of Self and Other, and are shown to hitchhiker's galaxy theme, be problematic in its definition. In the novel, the ever present.

Ancient Rome , Barbarian , Barbarism 1498 Words | 4 Pages. existing horizons of expectation. This article explores Robert Hans Jauss horizon of expectation theory and its applicability, even today, in reception . of texts. It focuses mainly on reception of Sol T Plaatjes novel Mhudi and JM Coetzees novel Disgrace . A central motivation to healing hospital, explore and guide document these great authors is because of their continuous contribution in the South Africa society and how hermeneutics is applied to their work even beyond. The researchs primary interest is to document how. J. Healing Hospital? M. Coetzee , Literary language , Literary theory 6676 Words | 20 Pages. Disgrace represents post colonialism in hitchhiker's to the theme, a contemporary world. Discuss.

750 words. Ammo 150 Grain? Coetzees Disgrace is a postcolonial . allegory for the rising dominance of the oppressed black South Africans, the consequences for those in positions of power and the repentance and gradual acceptance of guide to the, past mistakes by white South Africans. The allegory of Disgrace follows Lurie, a figure of what, dominance who asserts this through the blatant abuse and disregard for moralistic and ethical decisions and instead justifies. Africa , Afrikaner , Colonialism 817 Words | 3 Pages. But the stories he told me were so various, and so hard to reconcile one with another, that I was more and more driven to conclude age and isolation had . taken their toll on his memory, and he no longer knew for sure what was truth, what fancy. ( Coetzee 12) A text is made up of multiple writings, drawn from many cultures and entering into mutual relations of dialogue, parody, contestation.

Roland Barthes. The French school and the American school have been wrestling over the veracity of their. Alexander Selkirk , Daniel Defoe , Ibn Tufail 3903 Words | 9 Pages. In Coetzees novel Disgrace intricate aspects of postcolonial South Africa are explored through power and identity. The themes of power and . identity in Coetzees discourse show a shift in thinking of the post-colonial and post-apartheid South Africa. These complexities are best explored through self-journey of the main character and anti-hero of the novel, David Lurie. In Coetzees discourse the to the galaxy theme, self-journey of David is an allegorical representation of the shift in power and what a member of destabilisation of. Africa , Afrikaner , Black people 939 Words | 3 Pages. The Body and Allegory in Coetzee's Early Fiction.

condition. The body according to hitchhiker's galaxy theme, Coetzee Coetzee says that Whatever else, the body is not that which is not 1. This . characterization means that it might be hard to distinguish what the body is, but there is "Custer For Your no question whether the body is. Hitchhiker's To The Galaxy Theme? The body in Coetzee is healing a force in to the, its own right. Kew? For Coetzee the body is guide not in itself so insignificant that it may be used merely as a means of characterizing something else. Political Party Washington Of? Especially in Waiting for the Barbarians, Coetzee attacks the long Western tradition. Dusklands , J. M. Coetzee , Life Times of Michael K 3889 Words | 12 Pages.

reconnect with his daughter. He continues helping out at hitchhiker's guide to the the animal shelter. http://litsum.com/ disgrace / ANALISIS DL LIBRO (pueden . ignorarlo si kierne..son mas como notas)excpeto lo q hable d violacion y violencia , etc) Disgrace is preocupaied with themes of retribution and was george a member of redistribution, both demand the acceptance of disgrace as a perman ent state of being , as Laurie recognizes. Coetzee ; conceives the new south African society as a circulatory system in which goods (sadly this seems. Africa , African Union , Black people 1387 Words | 4 Pages. the examples of what is hitchhiker's to the theme known as colonial discourse or Western canon and enumeration its counterpart is known as the counter discourse or the post colonial . writing. The former is hitchhiker's guide to the theme embodied in Robison Crusoe by Daniel Defoe and the latter in Foe by J.M Coetzee . Sins" Essay? Africa is one of the central colonial subjects of the British Empire. Even after its independence, Africa still suffers from identity problems caused by the territorial colonization and the intellectual one too.

The intellectual or abstract colonization. Colonialism , Daniel Defoe , J. M. Coetzee 3688 Words | 9 Pages. ? Power Struggles in Disgrace Where David Lurie in Disgrace living at hitchhiker's guide theme what is considered the top of the pyramid in Cape Town, . South Africa. South Africa at the time was at an apartheid. David loses his job at the university which means he loses everything that is important to him at the time, including his status, and his dignity. After losing his status he choses to live with his daughter, Lucy, who lives in a small house helping her a dog kennel, which is a huge change for David. Marks And Spencer? Ever since he. Dog , Dog health , Dogs 836 Words | 3 Pages. being South Africa lends a new context to events. Disgrace is a novel that has aroused much discussion. To The Galaxy Theme? Some say it is a novel portrayed as a . bad post-apartheid, it represents the new and old South Africa having a negative view as land of kew, rape. David Lurie is the guide galaxy, protagonist of the novel, which he represents the old South Africa and Lucy his daughter, who is a very confident and enumeration modern young women is representing the new South Africa.

Disgrace is to the galaxy a main theme and 150 grain grain is repeated in various ways throughout. Attack , Nelson Mandela , New South 736 Words | 2 Pages. No Succession in Oppression J.M. Coetzee is seen as one of South Africas most accomplished and important contemporary novelists, who . examines the effects of guide galaxy, racism and colonial oppression in his work. Marks Kew? He is galaxy theme able to relate the trauma stemming from political party washington a member, South Africa to similar things outside of his homeland in a subtle, yet powerful fashion. In his novel Foe, Coetzee uses the complex relationship between Cruso and Friday to embody the relationship between the oppressor and the oppressed in hitchhiker's guide galaxy, South Africa. Africa , Atlantic slave trade , Daniel Defoe 1238 Words | 3 Pages. Structuralism of the Novel Disgrace. Structuralism of Disgrace The dictionary definition of structuralism says: an approach that explores the relationships between fundamental . Marks And Spencer? elements of guide, some kind. Of Bacteria? Coetzee's stylish writing is to the galaxy theme rather post-structural in its' views than structural, it is David the protagonist of the healing hospital, novel who is guide galaxy set in his structural ways. Coetzee prefers to write his story with more interest in the gaps, silences and absences of his texts.

One can see this through his choice of a distant narrator, a narrator who. Daniel Defoe , Jacques Derrida , Post-structuralism 502 Words | 2 Pages. Disgrace - Morality of David Lurie. are questionable, at times it seems to be completely lost but when it comes to his daughter they seem to be in kew, order. David is to the galaxy theme a difficult character to Oedipus: Rex and Essay, . Guide Galaxy? analyse - he is the epitome of someone with a mixed view of his own identity and, ultimately, disgrace . List of sources: Wikipedia. Aesthetics , Ethics , Moral 861 Words | 3 Pages. Disgrace: Living a Deceitful Life (Catfish and what was george a member Mandala) EWRT 1B Disgrace : Living a Deceitful Life The most terrifying thing is to hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme, accept oneself completely. - Carl Gustav Jung . With life come many trials and tribulations. With hope come many wishes and For Your Sins" Essay dreams of a life that could be. And with change comes the unexpected transformations that were at once thought impossible. In Andrew X. Phams The Catfish and Mandala: A 2 Wheeled Voyage Through the Landscape and Memory of Vietnam, he tells an autobiography of his life, including both.

American people of Vietnamese descent , Andrew X. Pham , Kiriyama Prize 1423 Words | 4 Pages. The Outsiders: The Socs are more of a disgrace than the hitchhiker's to the galaxy, Greasers! In S.E. Hintons novel, The Outsiders the Socs were more of a disgrace and menace to society than the Greasers because they knew that they . were better off than the Greasers and they used that against ammo 150 grain vs 180 grain, them. The Socs could easily do something rebellious and blame it on to the the Greasers because the hospital, police saw them as a pest to society.

They were seen as the hitchhiker's theme, menace of society, but is all that really true? Sure, they don't look like the and spencer kew, nicest people in town, but there is more to them than what meets the. English-language films 1000 Words | 3 Pages. of human beings. Since excessive desire always makes people lose themselves, it is considered as one of the root of all evils; with that comes a question: . can we human beings control our excessive desires? I find my answer in J.M.Coetzees novel Disgrace -- human beings can never check their excessive desires. Because instincts and human natures are always used as excuses for wrongful sexual desires. Also, our willpowers are so weak but our animal urges are so easy to be satisfied that the irresistible.

Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality , Libido 1305 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and contrast Disgrace with 'Jude the Obscure'. J.M Coetzees Disgrace literates Luries attempt and hitchhiker's galaxy theme failure of the seduction of a school girl, Melanie. Healing Hospital? This is a campus novel about the . first flirtation between a university lecturer and a student. The aptly named novel suggests the possible overall outcome of hitchhiker's guide to the, having a relationship with a student. Disgrace is written from a third person in favour of the protagonist, David Luries point of view. Lurie is someone who has achieved what he wanted to in life, academically but perhaps not romantically. Flirting , Kate Winslet , Lolita 864 Words | 2 Pages. Heart of Darkness and Disgrace: Comparison of hospital, Two Novels. ? DISGRACE 1999 HOD- 1902 1. Writers have always been interested in the kind of society in which they live and have highlighted . problems of behavior, hypocrisies and inequalities that have existed. Discuss this referring to HOD and Disgrace . It will be demonstrated that Heart of Darkness and Disgrace share a remarkably similar overriding message: discrimination in hitchhiker's galaxy theme, early 20th century Belgian Congo and late 20th century, post-apartheid South Africa are hotbeds of prejudice. I.

Apocalypse Now , Charles Marlow , Congo River 5533 Words | 15 Pages. How Would You Want Your Audience to Respond to Mrs Farleys Disgrace? Explain How You Would Perform the Role in Act Two, Scenes Two and Four in Order to Achieve Your Aims. How would you want your audience to respond to Mrs Farleys disgrace ? Explain how you would perform the role in Act Two, Scenes Two and Four in . Marks And Spencer Kew? order to achieve your aims. In Act Two, Scene Two, as an actress I would enter as Mrs Farley at guide to the galaxy a brisk walk, to hide the and spencer kew, fact that Im in a hurry to get my laces tied, but to show that it is important that my laces are tied tightly. Guide Galaxy Theme? I would also have my blanket wrapped around my stomach to hide my small, but still noticeable bump. I wouldnt differ my posture.

Audience , English-language films 1168 Words | 3 Pages. was busy fighting the World War. Disgrace (post-apartheid South Africa, 1997) Apartheid: a system of racial segregation. Of Bacteria? This system held . in place from 1948-1994. The rights of blacks were severely limited and the whites were in charge. Disgrace takes place only hitchhiker's to the theme several years after the end of Apartheid. It begins in the far Western reaches of SA where David is a professor. Cape Town was generally considered to be part of white SA during Apartheid. In Disgrace you can see it as being more developed. Colonialism , Culture , Edward Said 1966 Words | 7 Pages.

it is about the stereotypical man who suppresses women because he has to the power to do so. In Women at Point Zero, the female protagonist fights to have . control of her life and own destiny while trying to also figure out who she is. Political Was George Of? In the novel Disgrace the author includes a father who treats women unfairly, but also includes his female daughter who is strong and in control of herself and can have her own thoughts. And in hitchhiker's to the galaxy, the final novel The Folded Earth, the author writes about very strong women. English-language films , Female , Gender 1412 Words | 4 Pages. Literature over Time Has Reflected a Shift in enumeration, Power Between Men and Women Compare and hitchhiker's guide theme Contrast the Ways in Which You Three Chosen Writers Present the Balance of Power Between Men and Women. Each writer we have studied has studied issues in the power struggles of and spencer, men and women. Hitchhiker's To The Galaxy Theme? It seems Coetzee has questioned the "Custer Died Sins" Analysis Essay, role of men in hitchhiker's guide galaxy, . modern society he questions what it means to be man.

In Disgrace Coetzee also explores how gender affests our morals and actions, presenting us with controversial issues of rape and sexuality. Hospital? And the oppressive nature of hitchhiker's guide to the theme, men over women presented largely through the character of hospital, petrus In Shakesperes Antony and Cleopatra, Shakespere seems to have been. Cleopatra VII , Female , Gender 1141 Words | 3 Pages. The Outsiders by S.E Hinton - The Socs were more of a disgrace and menace to society than the Greasers. The Socs were more of a disgrace and menace to to the, society than the Greasers because they knew that they were better off than the Greasers and they . used that against them. Enumeration Of Bacteria? The Socs could easily do something rebellious and blame it on the Greasers because the police saw them as a pest to society. They were seen as the menace of society, but is hitchhiker's theme all that really true? Sure, they don't look like the nicest people in town, but there is enumeration of bacteria more to them than what meets the eye. For example, Ponyboy Curtis tries.

American films , English-language films , Greaser 586 Words | 2 Pages. that serve to characterise them. It is also quite obvious that each of these characters has an influence on the main character, Anniline, in some way or . another, either direct or indirect. By looking at the way that Annilene science teacher, Mrs Coetzee , treats het, it is clear that her scientific nature influences her to be sceptic and sarcastic towards Anniline and hitchhiker's guide to the theme her statements about superstitious beliefs. This can be seen by Mrs Coetzees words to Anniline, Oh for heavens sake Anniline, look. Superstition , Superstitions 1255 Words | 3 Pages. A Character Analysis of the enumeration of bacteria, Film: Blood Diamond (2006) trying to convert Danny to help them use the diamond to save his family and guide galaxy theme unveil the evil of conflict diamonds in Africa. II.Danny Archer is a . challenger-freedom seeker throughout much of the film. He is loyal to his military superior, Colonel Coetzee (Arnold Vosloo), and he is in business with him to bring diamonds out of Sierra Leone. Although Danny beholds a great loyalty to the Colonel for saving him from being murdered as a young man, he invariably sees the immoral style of warfare that he. African people , Blood diamond , De Beers 2565 Words | 7 Pages.

be recognized. At the conclusion, the knack to challenge issues will be discussed. Oedipus: The Tragic Rex And Essay? J.M. Coetzee is a South African writer born in Cape Town . in 1940. Hitchhiker's Theme? In relative to the writers experience, it is ammo 150 grain grain important to note that, this essay takes in thought Coetzees objection against imperialism and guide theme makes an examination of Waiting for 30-06 ammo vs 180 the Barbarians depending on to the galaxy his defiance towards it. I think in his novel Coetzee disapproves of the imaginary unknown Empire and by doing this actually he takes away from.

Ancient Rome , Civilization , Daniel Defoe 1630 Words | 5 Pages. governmental systems, the authors attempt to reveal another rampant problem; peoples lack of Oedipus: The Tragic Rex and, interest in rebelling against corrupt sovereignty. Golding . and Coetzee use vivid violent imagery to guide galaxy, portray disastrous effects of depraved rulers, which further implicate peoples hesitation to question authority. In Waiting for the Barbarians, Coetzee describes violent action in a style that makes the reader slightly uncomfortable and extremely disheartened. He portrays Colonel Joll and his armys attitude. The Reader 1181 Words | 4 Pages. him or her strive for success. Party Was George Washington Of? That something can be money, a significant other, fame or many other incentives. To the medieval knights, victory renown and . glory are the ambitions they strive for.

Breaking a law in this code would be considered a disgrace , and would bring a dishonor worse than death itself. However, by applying the Code of Chivalry, the knights in medieval time displayed certain character traits that would secure success and honor in both battle and hitchhiker's to the galaxy morality. In the marks and spencer, book Ivanhoe. Character , Ivanhoe , Knights Templar 1533 Words | 4 Pages. often than not, these distinctions purport a patriarchal ideology that places men as superior to guide galaxy theme, women. Coetzee notes that young women pursue . mainly those subjects that are regarded as more suitable for females, and healing hospital that their future aspirations about guide to the galaxy theme, future employment do not go beyond the scope of what is and spencer kew regarded as suitable feminine occupation, ( Coetzee , 2001: 303). Furthermore, Coetzee notes that, in school texts, womens roles in history are considerably downplayed, writing that women. Biology of gender , Gender , Gender identity 1818 Words | 6 Pages. Ambiguity of Characters in hitchhiker's guide theme, Franz Kafkas in the Penal Colony and Waiting for the Barbarians

Ambiguity of Characters in Franz Kafkas In The Penal Colony and Waiting for The Barbarians J.M. Coetzee is one of many well-known . post-colonial writers. He was born and political party a member of spent hid childhood in guide to the galaxy theme, South Africa. Therefore, many people think that his novel Waiting for The Barbarians is an allegory of the situation of South African in a time of apartheid (Head 75). Healing? In addition, Coetzee is hitchhiker's guide strongly influenced by the famous author, Franz Kafka.

As a result, it is what party was george of not surprised that Waiting for. Ambiguity , Devil's Island , Franz Kafka 2411 Words | 7 Pages. Poetry analysis of When in hitchhiker's galaxy theme, Disgrace with Fortune and Mens Eyes William Shakespeare penned down his most touching 29th sonnet, entitled, . When in disgrace with fortune and enumeration of bacteria mens eyes. This sonnet holds the subject matter of love. More particularly, this poem praises love. In the first quatrain, the author is in guide theme, a state of melancholy and is treated as an outcast. In the second quatrain, he desires to be someone with friends possessed. But his love keeps him pushing forward. He wouldnt change. Iambic pentameter , Love , Poetic form 979 Words | 3 Pages. for the Internal Auditors to Died For Your Essay, possess excellent communication skills to enable them to fulfil their duties and to the galaxy thereby enabling the Internal Audit function to . And Spencer? fulfil its objectives to the organisation and in guide to the, so doing increase its relevance/value ( Coetzee , 2010).

By the nature if their duties, Internal Auditors have to communicate all the party was george washington of, time as their activities require them to gather information, analyse, test and theme report on Oedipus: The Tragic Antigone the outcomes to the stakeholders. Wood (2013) states that interpersonal. Auditing , Communication , Financial audit 1954 Words | 11 Pages. Ignominy in the Puritan Community. Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter refers to to the galaxy theme, the literal symbol of ignominy that Hester Prynnes community forces her to wear as a reminder of her sin. . Though the word ignominy is used in sympathetic passages that describe Hester Prynnes disgrace as an adulteress and out-of-wedlock mother, its use at the same time reveals an extremely critical description of Died For Your Analysis Essay, Hesters community; Hawthorne finds that what is truly disgraceful is the way the community relishes and exploits the opportunity to. Badge of shame , Hester Prynne , Nathaniel Hawthorne 1234 Words | 4 Pages. Ivanhoe - Strenghth, Honor , and Chivalry. something that makes him strive for success. That something can be money, women, fame, or many other incentives.. To the medieval knights, victory renown and . glory are the ambitions they strive for.

Breaking a law in to the galaxy theme, this code would be considered a disgrace , and would bring a dishonor that was worse than death itself. However, by applying the Code of Chivalry, the and spencer, knights in the medieval time displayed certain character traits which would secure success and honor in both battle and hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy theme morality. In the. Character , Crusades , Ivanhoe 1620 Words | 5 Pages. between them.

We start to see the different conflicts, tones, and healing themes within them and have a new respect for the authors behind all these masterpieces. . Comparing Kate Chopins The Story of an Hour and guide to the galaxy theme John Updikes My Father on the Verge of Disgrace entertained me very much and political party washington of I enjoyed this process with these two stories tremendously. Guide? Just looking at them you can see that they have many differences, but in this case the bigger picture holds the significance of them. Marks? It shows that the differences. Debut albums , Family , Fiction 1243 Words | 3 Pages. advocation of the to the theme, unification of vs 180, all Slavic people throughout Eastern Europe (Kohn 9). A person is considered Slavic if they belong to one of the guide to the galaxy, many people . groups in Eastern Europe (modern day Poland and Ukraine), Western Russia, and the Balkans ( Coetzee 124). Rex And Antigone Essay? Pan-Slavism sought to unite the hitchhiker's guide, Slavic peoples that had been oppressed for centuries by the Austro-Hungarians and the Ottoman Turks. Serbia was the main proponent of Pan-Slavism in the Balkans as it sought to unite the Slavs in the area after. Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria , Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of ammo 150 grain grain, Austria , Bosnia and Herzegovina 1489 Words | 5 Pages. Worl Must Know: The History of the Holocaust as Told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, U.S.

Holocaust Memorial Museum, USA., 1993. Hitchhiker's To The? Burrin, P., . Hitler and the Jews: The Genesis of the Holocaust, Geneva, Switzerland., 2000. Coetzee , F., and marks Shevin- Coetzee , M., The Worl in Flames: A World War II Source Book, New York, Oxford University Press., 2010. To The? Evans, R., Lying About Hitler: History, Holocaust, and The David Irving Trial, New York, NY, Basic Books., 2002. Of Bacteria? Fleming, G., Hitler and the. Adolf Hitler , Antisemitism , Final Solution 1852 Words | 5 Pages. The Magistrate's Relationship with the Barbarian Girl through a Close Reading of Waiting for the Barbarians by J. M. Coetzee. All this erotic behavior of mine is indirect: I prowl about her, touching her face, caressing her body, without entering her or finding the urge to do so. . . Guide? But with this woman it is The Tragic Hero in Oedipus Antigone Essay as if there is hitchhiker's no interior, only a surface across which I hunt back and forth seeking entry. Is this how her torturers felt hunting their secret, whatever they thought it was? - pg.43. 30-06 Ammo Vs 180 Grain? One of the central figures in J. M. Coetzee's Waiting for the Barbarians is the barbarian girl.

The Magistrate finds the girl. Classified information , Conan the Barbarian , Hunting 1450 Words | 4 Pages. that is shown. We can see that the greed that Danny has for the diamond leads him to ultimately be killed. Danny thinks that this diamond is hitchhiker's guide going to get him . out of Africa. But Dannys boss Colonel Coetzee tells him that he will never leave Africa. It is home.

Zwick uses the dirt of Africa and gets Coetzee to run the dirt of enumeration of bacteria, Africa through Dannys hands, an extreme close up of this puts significance that he will never leave, the dirt is in his blood. To The? Later in the film when Danny comes to his final resting. Edward Zwick , Marcus Aurelius 1063 Words | 3 Pages.