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Auto Mechanic Job Description Example. Auto Mechanics find out image rule faults in cars and other vehicles and most, repair them. Auto Mechanic Job Description Example. If you want to employ the best auto mechanic available, you need to put together a good job description highlighting all the skills and competencies that you require from the applicants. This makes it easier for you to sieve out the qualified from the unqualified applicants. Mirror Rule! On the other hand, if you are a trained automobile mechanic with the essay depression, intention of applying for the job position, having a general knowledge of the skills required of auto mechanics and the duties, tasks, and image rule, responsibilities they perform on the job will assist you in preparing an great depression irresistible resume. So, this auto mechanic job description is written to assist hirers and applicants for the position. What Does an Automobile Mechanic Do?

Auto mechanics are specialists whose primary responsibilities are the diagnosis, maintenance and repair of cars. Depending on his/her area of expertise, an auto mechanic may be good at repairing particular parts of the vehicle or the entire vehicle. Also, there are auto mechanics that specialize in the repair of some particular kinds of vehicles while others repair all kinds of vehicles. An automobile mechanic may also utilize computer diagnostic applications to carryout troubleshooting while common hand tools like screwdrivers, pliers, and wrenches are used to carry out repair and maintenance activities. The role of an auto mechanic also includes assisting drivers and vehicle owners in rule, carrying out regular maintenance on their automobiles, including changing oil after certain mileage, lubricating vehicle parts, and Reform, performing other light repairs on the vehicles.

These technicians also test vehicles and inform their owners of the overall condition of the mirror image definition, vehicles. Their work description also entails assisting car owners in the purchase and replacement of damaged parts. Being a great mechanic involves a combination of certain qualities and how atom bomb, skills. A good mechanic must be able to image rule, carry out his/her duties diligently and ethically. To do this, he/she must be good at diagnosing auto problems, and must be a problem solver as well. An auto mechanic ought to be a good communicator and customer-oriented. Basic literacy is necessary, but the how atom, most important is having sound auto repair training. Being ASE certified may also be an advantage, but nothing is more important than being skilled at mirror image diagnosis and repair of automobiles. Auto Mechanic Job Description Example. The day to day duties, tasks, and responsibilities of auto mechanics are stated in the following job description example: Diagnose and detect mechanical faults in cars manually or by the use of computer diagnostic programs Examine vehicle parts to ensure that they are working perfectly Maintain and repair vehicles for customers Assist customers in carrying out recreational routine maintenance on vehicles, such as changing oil, lubricating frictional car parts and tightening bots and mirror, nuts Help customers in buying quality car parts for replacement Replaced damaged or worn-out car parts Keep customers informed on the condition of the car, problems detected, and cost of repair Answer customers inquiries and render advice on popular recreational drugs, vehicle maintenance Ensure safety of vehicles brought in for repair Test drive each vehicle after repair. If you need to prepare a resume for the job of an mirror image rule definition automobile mechanic, the sample job description provided above, which consists of the typical duties and responsibilities of the role, can help you in making the work experience part of it.

Requirements Skills, Knowledge, and most popular recreational drugs, Abilities for Auto Mechanic Job. The following are important skills and mirror image definition, qualities to have to improve your chances of being hired by most employers as an auto mechanic. Strong communication and customer service orientation: A good mechanic must be able to communicate and how atom works, relate very well with customers. This quality is very important in rule, conveying information on car condition to customers and convincing them that you are capable of handling the problem. How Atom Bomb Works! Customers will always feel at image rule ease when complex technical issues are explained to adaptive leadership definition, them in plain language that they can easily understand Good diagnostic and problem solving skills: A good auto mechanic should be able to quickly identify the image, source of minor problems manually. On Phones Driving Is Risky! For complex problem, using diagnostic tools is important. Also, it is very important that the mirror rule, mechanic is able to 1825 And 1850, fix or proffer solution to mirror definition, the problems in real time Dexterous and energetic: He/she should be skilled at using complex and hand tools. In addition, he/she must be energetic and have the stamina to sit, stand, bend, kneel, and squat while carrying out his/her job Educated and certified: These two requirements may not be mandatory, but they are necessary. For one to be employed as a mechanic, he/she must be trained. Going ahead to obtain a recognized certificate like the ASE certificate for auto technicians presents him/her as a true professional. Also, most employers prefer to black rook the sorrow, hire auto mechanics with minimum qualification of high school diploma Innovative and ability to learn fast: A good automobile mechanic must always be on the lookout for better techniques and tools for carrying out his/her duties.

He/she must be able to learn and mirror image, adapt fast to changes in diagnostic and recreational, repair technology. Your auto mechanic resume will be stronger if it has a well-written skills section, which proves to employers that you are capable of excelling on the job by highlighting the relevant qualities you have and are bringing to the job. You can easily make this section by using information from the above job skills requirements. To an employer, knowing the various duties and responsibilities of an mirror image rule automobile mechanic will help in designing a suitable job description for how atom bomb, employees, while to someone aspiring to work as an auto mechanic, knowing what the job entails, including the skills and qualities required to succeed in it is mirror rule, also important. Did you find the auto mechanic job description useful?

Let us know what you think about this post by making a comment in the box below . Recreational! You may need to pass a job test to be hired for a position, improve your chances of making high scores today! Job Assessment Tests: How to Top Your Competition. As part of the hiring process, most applicants that passed the initial Resume/CV screening phase are required to pass an assessment test for the job or apprenticeship position they are applying for. The goal of this phase is to determine if the candidate has the appropriate set of skills and qualities to rule, excel on the job. Find out the tests you will be needing to take for the position you are applying for; get lots of success proven Practice materials to prepare with now: Sure way to make high scores in job tests.

Mirror Image Rule in Common Law

Mirror image rule definition

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How does the U C C modify the common law mirror image rule

Essay: Population control in China. The growth of population during the twentieth century was very quick. In 2013 the total world population was estimated at about seven billion people. Mirror Definition. It increased dramatically during the past century. Black Rook The Sorrow. The most significant world trend is the death rates are currently falling in poor and rich countries.

Birthrates remain high in most poor countries and low birthrates in most rich countries. The worlds population is growing at a rate of 1.33% a year and image is predicted to reach 9.3 billion people by the year 2050. (Connar, 2011) The global population could reach 15 billion by the year 2100. The most populated countries are China, India, the United States, Indonesia and Brazil. The worlds most populated country is China. China holds about 1.3 billion of the worlds total population. Its predicted to grow to 1.6 billion people by the year 2030. (Henry) This rapid growth has occurred because the death rate has dropped sharply. The birthrate has also fallen but the total population is huge. There are so many young people. Reform 1825. In 2020 Chinas working population, age 15 to 64, will total around 1 billion. (Henry) That means China will have to mirror rule definition, create more jobs for the next generation. Using Mobile Is Risky. China holds twenty percent of the worlds population so the Chinese government has implemented many harsh policies on population control.

Its a debate if the government is taking the right actions to image rule, solve the issue. The 2013 population was estimated at nearly 1.3 billion. Chinas annual increase has been estimated at .5% annually. Indias population of more than 1.2 billion people is increasing at a rate of 1.3%. (Census Bureau) India will more than likely surpass Chinas population. If the present developments continue it will soon catch up or exceed China. The worlds oceans can only drugs supply a limited amount of fish. Farm production is restricted by the amount of available land that the image definition, farmers could use to produce food. If the demand for food, and materials surpasses maintainable levels; this will further increase the most popular, population and it will mean each person will get less.

By 2015, nearly 50 percent of the people in mirror image rule, the country will live in major cities such as Beijing and other urban areas, the Essay on Mobile Phones Driving is Risky, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MOHURD) said Monday. (Deng, 2010) The city streets are frequently congested with people, bicycles, cars, buses and other forms of transportation. Mirror Rule Definition. Most Chinese people live in the rural side. These people plant rice, crops, fish, and manual labor. Bomb Works. Although there are many people who live in the countryside but work in cities. The Chinese are very hard and good working people. Its fast growing population can stop China from image definition achieving a high standard of living. Essay On Using Driving. To control rapid population growth the government launched a massive campaign in the mid-seventies to encourage young people to mirror definition, marry late and to great depression, have few children. In the 1980s the government called for a family size of mirror definition three. China introduced many laws to limit the number of children to one and in special situations two. (Henneberger) These measures slowed the population growth. China continues to adaptive, have about sixteen million new births each year and image nine million deaths each year. The population continues to grow.

Over population does not mean its right to take away human life. I believe the Chinese population control policy violates human rights. This is a very controversial issue. There are many different views on this subject. People may see it as a successful tool for making certain that China will be able to continue to support its large population. On The Depression. Others believe the policy is inhumane and causes abuse for female abortions.

I believe China is not going about image rule definition this problem the on the, right way. One of the image definition, slogans of the population control program is If your first baby is a boy, stop there; if your first baby is a girl, try again four years later. On Using. Complying with family planning policy is a glorious obligation of mirror definition every citizen. The one child policy is way of life. China cant punish couples for on Using, having more than one child. So they have certain strategies that manipulate the Chinese people promoting the one child policy. When a pregnant woman agrees to give up her child; the government may pay for her abortion. Rule. A woman who had an abortion was rewarded with a paid vacation. Chinas policy implements postponing marriages and Reform child birth. China encourages couples to only have one child.

Statistics show that the one-child policy has reduced the countrys population. Given that the policy has been in place for 30 years, I respond, and given that each year the government aborts between 10 to image definition, 15 million women, the total number of most popular unborn children whose lives have been sacrificed is somewhere between 300 and 450 million. (Mosher, 2011) The mixture of image rule definition methods has been used to achieve this goal. It ranged from implementing an intensive publicity campaign to pressuring people with one or two offspring to have no more. If you only have one child you can provide more to on Mobile While Driving, that child. The child can have a better life. It will have more opportunities and their career is the most important thing.

Mothers used to stay home and take care of the definition, children but with one child its not much work. With fewer children it will free up the mothers time so instead of caring for essay on the, more than one child the mother has more time to go into the work force. The huge population growth over the past few decades has been a cause for concern globally. Before 1979 the mirror image rule, Chinese government issued a policy for family planning called birth-control program and promoted the use of contraceptives. Yet the lack of understanding for the serious problem of overpopulation pushed the black hold the sorrow, government to use a more direct and demanding solution.

In 1979 the Chinese government has implemented a method known as the one child policy or family planning to control the fluctuation of the population. However some people might argue that the one child policy is rule definition, a violation of human rights. Most Chinese families prefer male children to female children. Leadership Definition. The reason for image definition, this is the men are stronger and will be able to rook, take care of them in their old age. On the other hand if they have a female she will have to get married and the parents will have to provide a gift.

As a result to this increase boy demand and you can only have one child. If the female has a girl they might kill the infant. Hundreds are being drowned, smothered, and abandoned. The couple may try again for a male. Image Definition. One example of this is the story of on the Mei-Ming which means no-name. At the age of two she was tied to a chair, soaked in her urine with dried mucus all over her nose. She was dying slowly and painfully with no food or water. No one visits her in her room. The only time someone sees her each morning just to see if she has died yet. Mirror Image Rule Definition. Her parents abandoned her and the orphanage is doing the same thing abandoning her in the death-room.

The reason they are doing all this is because she is a girl. Many people disapprove of the fact that abortions are often forced on women who are visibly pregnant with their second child even if they are far into the pregnancy. Between And 1850. I believe that a female can decide the number of children she wants. Instead of the government funding for family planning they could spend the money improving hospitals and educating to have more teachers. If the hospitals are improved then families may not have as many children.

Theyll know if they only rule have two children those two infants will live to old age and be healthy. Most Drugs. If the couple doesnt get permission to have a second child and rule that child is born. That child cannot be registered and Mobile Phones Driving is Risky therefore does not legally exist. The child will not be able to image definition, attend school. Then will have trouble receiving permission to bomb, marry, to relocate and mirror rule definition all other life choices involving the permission of the government. This family planning is taken very serious by the government and Between 1825 And 1850 had many policies that had to be followed or drastic measures would be taken. First off, adults had to be married and could only have one child. Then all pregnancies had to be authorized by the government and rule if they were not the pregnancies would be terminated by abortion. One doctor used forceps to crush the babys skull or injecting pure formaldehyde into the soft cap of babys head during or upon birth are means for aborting fully developed babies. Drowning or Smothering occurs in rural areas.

Also couples who have had two or more children already had to be sterilized. By the year 1990 thousands of ultrasound machines were imported and domestic factories in China began manufacturing their own machines as well. This was because the government wanted more males born than females. In accordance with Chinese tradition, daughters join the bomb works, families of their husbands upon marriage and are seldom able to offer support or care for their parents in old age. Even though the use of ultrasounds was banned for mirror image definition, the use of sex selection later on the ban was not ever abided. Between 500,000 and essay on the 750,000 unborn girls are aborted in China every year as a result of couples having access to the ultrasound scanner that reveals the sex of a fetus. (Ultrasound, 1999) The use of mirror rule ultrasound has had a major impact on the population gender to come. Reports of sex ratios at birth for some areas have been three-hundred males to one-hundred females. A 1991 article in a Shanghai journal warned that if the sex ratios continued to rise by the end of the century China would have an army of popular drugs bachelors numbering some 70 million strong. This population pyramid from the 1990 census gives us a good overview of Chinas population over the years. This focuses on age and gender. In this pyramid you can see the baby boom which peaked in the late 1960s and early 70s.

Another clear representation of the pyramid is when the Chinese family planning program obviously took effect. The amount of births rapidly declined. Children that were between four and eleven in 1990 belonged to the smallest birth followers after the baby boom. They were born between 1978 and 1985. At the rule, bottom of the Chinese population pyramid one can again see large amount of births that were born between 1985 and 1990. They are almost as large as the baby boom years.

However this large number of births is just the Using Phones Driving, echo effect of the baby boom between the mid-1960s and mid-1970s. The most major problem China faces due to overpopulation is the lack of land. An example of this situation is the Yangtze River Valley; a devastating flood left 3656 people dead and 64 million acres of land drenched. The expanding population forced housing projects desperate for land to deforest the areas like the Sichuan province in mirror, the Yangtze River Valley because the people have nowhere else to go but the mountains and deserts for living space. This encourages the erosion which magnified the effects of the on the depression, flood. Another major problem the mirror definition, Chinese people face is the lack of water. China not only needs this water to drink but they also need it for their crops. This pretty much carries the countrys needs for water. In fact, it was estimated that the lack of water cost the nation $35 billion in lost crops and cut backs in industrial production whereas floods only caused $20 billion in property damages. Pollution is Reform 1825, also another problem China must deal with.

The amount of mirror definition pollutants in the air is reported to Between 1825 And 1850, be 4 to rule definition, 9 times higher than the levels recommended by the World Health Organization guidelines. This problem will only increase as more people are buying automobiles and therefore air pollution will only rise. This is why China has gone to most popular, such drastic measures of population control. With so many strict policies the government had some extreme consequences for rule definition, those who wish not to abide by the family planning act. Women who had an unauthorized pregnancy and refused to have an abortion were harassed, and visited by government officials repeatedly. In extreme cases family planning workers would hold them until they would have the abortion. If still no abortion the unauthorized birth (also known as illegal children) wouldnt be entered in the population register and therefore the child would receive no medical benefits, no education, and no grain supplies. One of the newer weapons the essay on the, Chinese government has brought into effect has be the introduction of the abortion vans. Mirror Image Definition. 600 white vans equipped with beds, body clamps and suction pumps will now scour the countryside to find offenders of the 1825 And 1850 Essay, one-child policy.

This just shows that the government will go at unlimited ends to keep their population under control. Although I do not agree with the Chinese government as there are many horror stories about the image definition, one-child policy The government is doing all it can for its country to definition, survive. Mirror Image Rule. The policy is essay on the, a desperate attempt to lower the immense population. Image. Food production cannot keep up with the growth in population. China must feed 1.3 billion people on just 7% of it arable land. Compare with America which feeds a population just one-fifth the essay on the great depression, size of Chinas but has almost double the area of arable land.

The circumstances of the two countries are different so therefore their population policies are different. The economic situation is also in jeopardy with the increasing population. If the Chinese people want any increase in standard of mirror image rule living they must have their population controlled. On the other hand, why I do not agree with the one child policy is due to theyre being no freedom involved and the brutal measures they take on essay depression, their own people when really their policy is not drastically changing anything. Mirror Image Rule. The only thing thats going to change the Chinese population anytime soon is going to have to deal with some sort of essay on the depression demographic change. Between 1970 and 1979 live births dropped from 34 per 1000 to mirror image, 18 per how atom bomb works 1000, 47 per mirror image cent fall. Essay On Using While. Yet the mirror image rule definition, one-child policy was not implemented until 1979! Moreover, the fertility rate has remained unchanged, suggesting that the policy has been largely ineffectual. All of this strongly suggests that China has entered the stage, or is rapidly approach it, of the demographic transition. Since the Reform Essay, one child policy wasnt adopted until 1979. You have to look at years previous to the policy and mirror years after the policy went through.

Chinas huge fertility drop occurred between 1970 and 1979 when live births fell from 34 per 1,000 people to 18 per Essay Mobile Driving 1,000 people. Since the introduction of the one-child policy in 1979, there has been no large drop in fertility and in fact China experienced a slight increase fluctuating around 21 births per 1,000 people in the 1980s. It shows how the demographic effect plays a major role in the future population. The number of young adults of reproductive age (20 50) will reach its maximum of more than 660 million around 2010. Mirror Rule Definition. This explains why the period between 1995 and 2025 is the most critical for the countrys future population growth. There is a reason for the failure. There are a few explanations for the failure starting with the limits a government can change a country demographically. Policies emphasizing later marriage and fewer children in the 1970s clearly played a part in lowering total fertility rates. Contraceptive usage in China by the early 1980s, for example, was extraordinarily high for Asia at 71 percent of women of reproductive age. Even with these changes the demographic status hasnt changed that much.

When there are many people in the country not following the policies even though the government has strict punishments. There will always be people to dont go with the flow of things no matter who is adaptive, leading the policies. Lastly, the one-child policy disregards all the females born so therefore they arent even being counted in mirror definition, the total population. The one-child policy and the successful resistance to it should give pause to claims made in Western nations that there are up to 500,000 missing girls in China. Therefore, now you see all the controversy brought upon this subject. It lowered the population increase that occurred after the Communist Party came to power but it is not being done the right way. Its not ethical to Mobile Phones While Driving, force females to abort their second child. Some may say yes for the good of the country.

Some believe one child is enough but not everyone thinks like that. They shouldnt have to suffer. China is violating the peoples rights. In some ways yes but the definition, government thought this policy was necessary in an attempt to control population. It is Reform 1825 And 1850, obvious that the human population needs to be controlled. Image. I believe that we must not implement a one child policy or any other kind of government-sponsored population control. The reason for this is simple. Its not the business of any government to tell you how many children you must have or even if you have children at all.

The right to reproductive control is something that should be controlled by the individual and not by black hold the sorrow, the government. Definition. Instead, individuals must start taking responsibility for their own reproductive functions. Essay Great. Our planet is dying and unless we all do something fast we will end up killing the planet and rule ourselves. The only alteration is the planet will regenerate itself and continue living. Therefore, it is the responsibility of every human being to limit their family size so that they have an opportunity to enjoy life on our beautiful planet. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Sociology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Black The Sorrow. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Image Rule Definition. Just complete our simple order form and Essay on Mobile While Driving you could have your customised Sociology work in your email box, in rule, as little as 3 hours.

This Sociology essay was submitted to us by essay on the great depression, a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Population control in China . Available from: [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on mirror image rule definition, our website then please click on works, the link below to request removal:

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Mirror Image Rule in Common Law

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How does the U C C modify the common law mirror image rule

resume source code Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to provide your potential employer with important information about your background and your qualifications. The most common method to provide information to potential employers is to create a resume. A resume can create a vivid word picture of yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the newest form of popular media by many people. In fact, making your resume available on the World Wide Web is comparable to mirror image definition, broadcasting it on national television during prime time hours. The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an black rook unlimited number of people and have opened new doors to rule definition, audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before.

Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for most drugs, potential employees. Image. If you have your resume on paper but not on the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it. Another benefit of creating an electronic resume is cost. Many colleges provide space on how atom bomb their web server for their students' resumes free of charge. Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and printing costs. Rather than performing mass mailings of your resume, you can reduce the number of printed copies you will need and reserve these for companies you are particularly interested in. Other benefits you will receive by creating an mirror rule HTML resume include: the ability to leadership definition, provide electronic links to your reference and previous employers as well as providing links to mirror rule definition, previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the ability to make updates immediately available ease of maintainability the black hold ability to show that you can adapt to, and use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and making it available on the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests. Writing Your Resume in HTML Format. CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT.

When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by many universities. Be sure to have someone proofread and review your resume. Many instructors in the English department of a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to give it to him/her enough in advance to mirror image, provide enough time to review it and so that it will not be an definition inconvenience to mirror rule, him/her. Remember to be courteous and thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor. It is much better to have a professor see your mistakes while you have the chance to correct them than for a potential employer to see them. It is hold the sorrow, important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in the correct format. Your resume is often the first impression an employer will receive.

It will be easier to htmlify your resume if you have already created it. By creating your resume first you can focus on formatting it rather than trying to create it and format it at the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by image rule using the bomb save as option found under the file utilities of mirror image your favorite word processor. If you are unable to locate a save as feature for popular recreational, your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support. After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the available list of formats. By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to add HTML formatting tags more easily. Although you could save your file in other formats, saving in text format will make it easier to edit because text file format does not save any formatting information. Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the file. When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is unreadable by HTML browsers, thus you will need to delete it before you will be able to proceed.

Editors allow you to change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and underscoring into the file. Many editors are available to mirror image rule definition, use. Adaptive Definition. Some of the most common are: edit on DOS machines and PCs; emacs and vi on UNIX workstations; and edit on VAX/VMS machines. Mirror Rule Definition. You can also use your favorite word processor to open a text file. For more information on the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual. Which editor you should use depends upon adaptive definition the type of system you are using and mirror rule definition, your preference between the editors on your system.

Make sure you use an editor that you are familiar with. By using an unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of your time trying to learn to use the editor rather than actually creating your resume. Throughout the remainder of this document I will base the steps on the DOS editor and a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the editor by typing edit at Between 1825 And 1850 Essay a DOS prompt, or the appropriate command for the editor you intend to use. Rule. Next, choose the Open File option from the FILE menu. Fill in the filename you choose earlier or use the Essay on Using Mobile While Driving browse feature to locate the file. Elements of an HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. Rule Definition. An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Tags are also usually paired (e.g. ltP and lt/P), the first is used to identify the beginning of the element and the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the adaptive element. Some tags may also contain additional information.

This information should be placed inside the image angle brackets. For example, to rook hold, display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of tags. These tags are required by HTML browsers in order to recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is a summary of the image rule required HTML tags: The required HTML tags must be placed in the appropriate order inside and HTML file. The following HTML is a simple example of the minimum HTML document.

Using indentation can greatly improve the looks of your HTML, make it easier to read, and make it much easier to maintain. Although indentation is not required, you should always use it to improve your HTML. Popular Recreational. The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the image indentation will not be visible when the how atom bomb works document is viewed using a HTML browser. Here is the image rule definition previous example written using indentation to make it easier to bomb, read. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY. The use of additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of rule definition your resume. HTML contains numerous tags to use, in bomb works addition many new tags will be added in the future.

I could not possibly cover every tag here. However, I will briefly describe some of the commonly used and image, most useful tags. Definition. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the mirror rule definition latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on the world wide web at on Using Mobile Driving is Risky The following table contains many of the most common and most useful HTML tags. You can use any of these tags by simply placing the begin tag, the text to format, and the end tag directly in your HTML document. You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes. See step 9 for instructions on how to view your current HTML document. Image Rule. By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the .html or .htm extension.

To do this choose save as from the file menu. Next you should choose the black hold the sorrow text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming.

There are many tools available to help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and mirror definition, MsPaint. Leadership. For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to creating custom images is to image rule definition, find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and copy it. One method of bomb works locating useful and free images is to view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Rule Definition. Another method of locating useful images is to use the Yahoo search engine and search for the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and click on the search button. This type of searching is very time consuming and most popular recreational, often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to image rule definition, create the most image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly.

Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from your page. Mirror Definition. In addition, you should keep the content of your images on a professional level unless the image directly relates to your job qualification. For example it is acceptable to Between 1825 And 1850, have cartoons you've created on rule your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. Bomb Works. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an mirror rule image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the location and black hold, filename of your image. For example, to display an image rule image called computer.gif that is Essay Using Mobile Driving is Risky, 32x45 in size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the image rule browser was unable to load your image.

Possible causes of this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the image does not exist, you did not specify the correct filename or had a typographical error in rook hold the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770. Image Rule Definition. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on on Using Phones its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt.

There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on the File menu. Image. Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the on Using Mobile While browse feature to locate the file, then click on the ok button. Your resume should be displayed in the browser window. Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an rule excellent way to ensure the content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and definition, make any necessary changes.

Once you are familiar with the process of image rule definition creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in any order. You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the links you've created using your HTML browser. Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume. Broken links are usually the result of drugs a typographical error or a link to rule, a web site that no longer exists.

Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the black the sorrow resources for rule, students to install their resumes. Essay On Using. Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the mirror rule definition Webmaster through an email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and all of the great images you have used to the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it. Visit the URL your web provider supplies to mirror definition, insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible.

In addition you should always mail a paper copy of depression your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an image rule employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment. Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and the sorrow, delivering interactive content across the Web. Rule. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to bring the reader a broader range of information. In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an rook the sorrow excellent job of explaining to the reader how to create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course. The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to mirror image, understand example code. I strongly agree with Mr.

Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to develop a Java application. An entire section of Java Report is devoted to Product Review. In this section the authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. Most Popular Drugs. This information was the equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. This section is a great source of information about mirror rule definition individual products. In general, Java Report is a great source of information relating to the use and development of Java applications for Essay Phones While Driving, any software developer. Image Rule. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the on Phones While scope of the average reader. Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . Image Rule. 3 February 1997, sec. C6.

In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an HTML resume. The article, which appeared in The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Some of the topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and drugs, the dehumanization of the process. Mr. Rampe also discusses the importance of writing your HTML resume in mirror definition the proper fashion, to the computer. Most Popular Recreational. He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to 'Dear Computer. Mirror Definition. ' and just ignore the dehumanization of it all. In addition, the essay on the great depression article provides the URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the reader get started. Rule. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and adaptive leadership, should be reviewed by image rule definition anyone who decides to create and HTML resume.

Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Drugs. Rampe provides an ample amount of information and resources necessary to create an HTML resume. Image Rule Definition. Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an Between And 1850 HTML resume in mirror definition an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the necessity of an HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories. Essay On The Great. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is currently over a year old, the rule definition information it contains is accurate, precise and leadership, very helpful.

The HTML Reference Manual begins with and rule definition, introduction to HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. Next the authors validate the document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to adaptive definition, as HTML Version 2. Mirror. The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for 1825, specific HTML elements. Next the authors discuss the general breakdown of rule definition HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the authors break down over the sorrow, one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and definition, variations. In addition the document contains an easy to most popular recreational drugs, use index which allows the reader to jump directly to mirror definition, any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. In addition it is well written, well organized and very easy to use.

This document is an excellent source of information for essay on the depression, both the novice and expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by mirror their respective owners.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. Mirror Definition? When you havent updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to adaptive leadership definition, know where to start. Mirror Image Rule Definition? What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two?

Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the recreational drugs resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. Mirror Image? Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on it. Think of rook hold your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, youll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you dont include all of rule your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . Bomb? 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Image Definition? Since youll want to Essay on Using While Driving is Risky, be swapping different information in and out depending on the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on image rule definition, a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for how atom bomb different applications, special projects that only mirror definition, sometimes make sense to include. Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together.

Think of this as your brag file . 3. Black Hold? Put the image Best Stuff Above the Fold In marketing speak, above the fold refers to what you see on the front half of essay on the depression a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically its your first impression of image a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and works, accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is rule definition, what the hiring manager is how atom works, going to mirror image definition, see firstand what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . Adaptive Leadership? According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is rule definition, when youre making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the position youre applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you or just nix it altogether to save space and on the great, focus on mirror image, making the rest of rook hold the sorrow your resume stellar. Mirror Image Definition? There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless its absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the the sorrow skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is image, a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is thisyou want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space?

Do. If youre struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to Between And 1850 Essay, fit more in less space. Cant figure out how to image rule definition, tell your whole story on one page, or want to Mobile Phones is Risky, be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on image, that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. Well talk about getting creative in how atom bomb works order to mirror image definition, stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and how atom bomb, leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which youve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on mirror image, readability for the hiring manager.

That being said, you should feel free to Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumeslike infographics, videos, or presentationsor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. Reform Essay? If youre applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Mirror? If youre applying to a more traditional company, dont get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to the sorrow, make it pop. Mirror Definition? No matter what, dont do it unless youre willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to rook hold, make it awesome.

10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. Image Rule? You dont need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to rook hold the sorrow, include a phone number and mirror rule definition, professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) Youve heard before that hiring managers dont spend a lot of time on how atom, each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills arent your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? Theres no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of image rule your job search, so its worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant.

As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. Reform And 1850 Essay? If theres a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one youre applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Dont panic if you dont have any experience that fits the bill. Mirror Image Rule Definition? Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of most recreational drugs why youre ideal for the job. No matter how long youve been in a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isnt going to get through them. Check out image rule definition, these tips for on the depression writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person.

Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to mirror image rule, be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Black? Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. Rule? How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Bomb? Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and mirror image rule, add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youre capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If youre not sure how to explain your impact, check out great depression, these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Image? Describing soft skills on Using Phones While is Risky, a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a strong leader or an effective communicator are important characteristics you want to rule definition, get across.

Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet pointtry it yourself until you get the result youre going for! 20. Black Hold? Dont Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Theres no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own jobs within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with Responsible for, readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure youve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to the job, itll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems.

Stuck on mirror image rule definition, which words to rook hold, include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet theres a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience.

Chances are, your last couple of mirror rule definition jobs are more important and black rook, relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Rule Definition? Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the leadership definition most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to mirror, the job, list that first to grab the reviewers attention.

Dont list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. Reform 1825? While you dont need to list your GPA, dont be afraid to image definition, showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at rook the sorrow your university. 28.

Include Continuing or Online Education. Dont be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career. Be sure to add a section that lists out all the mirror relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Using Mobile Is Risky? Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Mirror Definition? If you have lots of hold skills related to a positionsay, foreign language, software, and mirror image rule, leadership skillstry breaking out one of leadership definition those sections and listing it on its own.

Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and detail your experience there. Mirror? Againwere going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an Interests section on your resume, but only essay depression, add those that are relevant to the job. Mirror Rule Definition? Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Dont even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for Essay Mobile Phones While Driving is Risky your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of rule work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by Essay on someone who disagrees with the cause.

Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to image, include them or not. Reform Between 1825 Essay? Do include awards and accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for definition having the companys top sales record four quarters in black a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the definition proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for Essay on only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from image rule your resume.

According to The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of most a few months in your work history, dont list the usual start and image definition, end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the leadership gaps, youll proactively illustrate the reason for image definition your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the Reform Between 1825 And 1850 Essay perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into mirror image rule, your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Adaptive Leadership? See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Dont try to creatively fill in mirror image rule gaps on your resume.

For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the Mobile Phones While growing pile of laundry (weve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out image definition, there, most corporate decision makers arent going to how atom, take this section of image rule your resume seriously. 39. Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for referencesand will assume that you have them. Theres no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!).

It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is bomb, free and clear of typos. Mirror Image Rule? And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at popular it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to image definition, perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of on Using Mobile While Driving your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview. Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of rule definition Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to adaptive, take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and image rule definition, make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills?

Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youre ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of most recreational Hero Images / Getty Images . Image? Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and led the companys branded content team. If youre an individual or company looking for help making your content betteror you just want to go out to teaget in touch at How Atom Bomb Works? Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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What is mirror image rule? definition and meaning

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What is mirror image rule? definition and meaning

conclusion chapter Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the same. The Blair decade. Brown and Balls: mixed messages. What future for education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is image, a draft of a chapter which will form part of the revised version currently in preparation.

Organisation of this chapter. The local authorities. 1979 Education Act. 1980 Education Act. 1981 Education Act. 1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.

1986 Education (Amendment) Act. 1986 Education Act. 1986 Education (No. 2) Act. 1988 Local Government Act. 1988 Education Reform Act. Summary of the Act. Commentary on the Act. 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act.

1977-82 Matters for Discussion. 1978-85 HMI surveys. 1981 Rampton - West Indians. 1982 Cockcroft - maths. 1985 Swann - ethnic minorities. 1988 Kingman - English. 1988 Higginson - A Levels. 1989 Cox - English.

1989 Elton - descipline. 1990 Rumbold - early years. Education in England: a brief history. copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in England: a brief history is my copyright. You are welcome to download it and print it for Essay on Using Driving is Risky your own personal use, or for use in mirror definition a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to the sorrow cite this piece.

If you do so, please acknowledge it thus: Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history In accordance with the conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to image definition reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of adaptive definition, extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract has more than 300 words; and an extract or series of extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the image, source is acknowledged as shown above. In references in the text, the number after the essay on the depression, colon is always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is image rule, shown as a link, the full text is available online. Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland. Note The 1980 document A framework for black the school curriculum was previously ascribed to HMI. In fact, it was a DES/Welsh Office document. Image Definition. This has been corrected in the chapter below and in the Timeline; and the full text of the document is now available online.

My apologies for the error. Chapter 8 : 1979-1990. Thatcherism: the marketisation of education. Neo-liberalism became the dominant force in British politics with the election in 1979 of the most, Conservative administration led by Margaret Thatcher ( pictured ). Rule. Her government's policies 'accelerated the closing down of unprofitable industries and promoted a profound social and economic restructuring' (Jones 2003:107). By 1982 the Thatcher government was highly unpopular. Soaring inflation and a massive increase in unemployment made it seem unlikely that she would win a second term. She needed a miracle. Fortunately for her, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands and she was able to play the part of heroic war leader in the Falklands War between March and hold June 1982. The result was a landslide in the 1983 general election.

With a vastly increased Commons majority (up from 44 to 144), she felt emboldened to take her reforms further. She won a third term in office at the general election in 1987. Her majority of 101, though reduced, was nevertheless substantial, and the 'iron lady' felt powerful enough to push ahead with some unpopular polices, most notably the mirror image rule definition, introduction of a form of poll tax. It proved to be her undoing and she was ousted from office in November 1990. Thatcher's neo-liberal policies affected not only industry and commerce but also public services.

Conservative legislation sought to drive neo-liberal principles into leadership definition the heart of public policy. An emphasis on cost reduction, privatisation and deregulation was accompanied by vigorous measures against image definition the institutional bases of Conservatism's opponents, and the promotion of new forms of public management. The outcome of adaptive leadership, these processes was a form of definition, governance in which market principles were advanced at the same time as central authority was strengthened. (Jones 2003:107) Thus the twin aims of Margaret Thatcher's education policies in the 1980s were to convert the nation's schools system from a public service into a market, and to transfer power from local authorities to central government. The origins of Reform And 1850 Essay, this policy can be traced back to the establishment in mirror definition 1955 of the Institute of Economic Affairs (lEA), a right-wing think-tank which, during the 1970s, had 'worked tirelessly to adaptive leadership definition persuade the Conservative Party to abandon the post-war welfare consensus and embrace social and educational policies based on nineteenth-century free-market anti-statism' (Chitty 2004:47). It had been given added impetus in Evolution by choice , Stuart Sexton's contribution to the Black Paper of 1977. (For more on the Black Papers see the previous chapter). He set out to rule 'sketch a new system for secondary education' based on 'absolute freedom of choice by application'. Local authorities would no longer allocate children to bomb schools. Where a school was oversubscribed it would select its students on the basis of 'ability and aptitude'. Mirror Image Rule. If it was undersubscribed it would face the possibility of closure.

The educational market would not be entirely unregulated. There would be an 'effective and on Using While is Risky independent inspectorate', a government-defined 'minimum curriculum' and specified 'minimum standards' (Sexton 1977, quoted in Jones 2003:106). Sexton's theme was taken up by an 'ever-growing number of right-wing think-tanks with small but interlocking memberships' which 'bombarded' ministers with policy ideas 'ideologically driven by commitment to mirror the market and to most privatisation' (Benn and Chitty 1996:12). Despite their claims to be radical and modernising, Thatcher's Tories - and the 'New Right' which supported them - couldn't bring themselves to ditch the elitist policies of the mirror image rule, past. The most obvious of these was selection for secondary education. Thus the 1979 Education Act - Thatcher's first - gave back to LEAs the right to select pupils for secondary education at 11. The move backfired, however. The Tories had underestimated the popularity of black, comprehensive schools, and attempts to reintroduce or extend selection in Berkshire, Wiltshire, Redbridge and Solihull all failed as a result of strong local opposition.

But the Tories weren't going to give up. Mirror Image Rule. 'Such defeats served to encourage Conservative Ministers to opt for rather more subtle policy initiatives aimed at establishing a wider variety of secondary schools and providing for greater parental choice' (Chitty and Dunford 1999:25). They began work on a series of adaptive leadership definition, radical changes characterised by the absence of image definition, any popular demand for them from any section of the education community nationally or locally, nor even from the populist media. One by one all had to be imposed by means of a parliamentary majority against continuing opposition from all other political parties and from much of the educational establishment. Between. (Benn and Chitty 1996:13) Preparing the mirror definition, ground. When she took office in May 1979 Thatcher appointed Mark Carlisle as her first education secretary. He was 'moderate and essentially pragmatic' (Chitty 2004:48) and freely admitted that 'I had no direct knowledge of the state sector either as a pupil or as a parent' (Ribbins and Sherratt 1997:55 quoted in Chitty and Dunford 1999:1).

This suited Thatcher because at first reform of education was not her priority: she was more concerned with bringing down the rate of inflation (causing very high levels of unemployment in the process) and with curbing the power and influence of the bomb works, trade unions. But Carlisle was replaced in September 1981 by the very different Keith Joseph ( pictured ), a long-time advocate of free market ideas (especially parental choice and education vouchers). In 1974 he had been a co-founder of the rule definition, right-wing Centre for Policy Studies, a think-tank which wanted schools to be autonomous with a minimum of state interference. His appointment was a signal that school reform was moving up the adaptive leadership, government's agenda. Ironically, as secretary of state for education Joseph found himself commanding an apparatus that was now increasingly involved in specifying the everyday practice of schools. . Joseph, like the mirror, ministers who succeeded him, organised in the name of black hold, 'effective education' a vast new complex of regulations and regulators that would measure and direct the processes and outcomes of schooling. (Jones 2003:115) With Joseph leading the education department, Thatcher set about preparing to take control. This meant confronting the 'education establishment' - the teachers and their unions, the training institutions and national and local inspectors and advisors. There would be action on three fronts: the curriculum - traditionally seen as the 'secret garden' which government ministers were not supposed to enter; the teachers - controlling their training and development and restricting their role in curriculum development; and mirror image rule the local education authorities (LEAs) - many of which (especially the Labour-controlled ones) Thatcher saw as her enemy. In 1976 Labour prime minister Jim Callaghan had begun the 'Great Debate' on the nature and purposes of education. Under the Thatcher administration, the debate became increasingly one-sided. The opening shot was the most recreational, publication in 1979 of mirror rule definition, LEA Arrangements for the School Curriculum which required local authorities to publish their curriculum policies. This was followed, two years later, by popular recreational drugs, The School Curriculum (25 March 1981), in which the mirror image rule definition, secretaries of state (for Education and Wales) said they had decided to 'set out in some detail the approach to the school curriculum which they consider should now be followed in the years ahead'.

Every local education authority was expected to frame policies for the school curriculum consistent with the government's 'recommended approach' (DES 1981a:5). On 1 October 1981 the DES issued Circular 6/81 which requested that, in the light of the advice contained in The School Curriculum , each local education authority should (a) review its policy for the school curriculum in its area, and its arrangements for making that policy known to all concerned; (b) review the extent to which current provision in the schools is consistent with that policy; and. (c) plan future developments accordingly, within the resources available. In taking these actions, local education authorities should consult governors of schools, teachers and others concerned (DES 1981b para.5). Two years later, on 8 December 1983, Circular 8/83 requested each LEA to provide: (a) a report on Using is Risky the progress which has been made in drawing up a policy for mirror rule the curriculum in its primary and secondary schools . (b) a description of the most popular drugs, roles played in the processes of drawing up the policy by heads and other teachers, governors, parents and other interested parties in the local community; (c) a brief statement of the ways in which the policy is being given or will be given practical effect in the schools . (d) a summary, giving examples where appropriate, of the steps being taken and planned by the authority to seek to mirror definition ensure that the curriculum is planned as a whole . (e) a summary of the how atom bomb, steps being taken and planned by the authority to ensure that the curriculum is appropriately related to what happens outside school, and includes sufficient applied and practical work, particularly in mathematics . and science; (f) a statement of how far the resources available to the authority . are enabling it to image give effect to its policy for the curriculum. (DES 1983 para.5) To support schools and LEAs in formulating curriculum policies, the adaptive leadership, DES issued A framework for the school curriculum in 1980; and HMI produced a number of mirror definition, publications, including: A View of the Curriculum (HMI Series: Matters for Discussion No. 11 1980); The Curriculum from 5 to 16 (HMI Curriculum Matters 2 1985). The HMI documents were progressive in outlook. The Curriculum from 5 to 16 , for 1825 Essay example, argued that the mirror rule definition, school curriculum should be thought of in terms of 'areas of learning and definition experience' and rule that it included not only the formal programme of lessons, but also the essay, 'informal' programme of so-called extracurricular activities as well as all those features which produce the school's 'ethos', such as the mirror rule, quality of Reform 1825, relationships, the concern for equality of opportunity, the mirror image rule definition, values exemplified in the way the school sets about its task and the way in which it is organised and managed. (HMI 1985:7) It was not an approach that would commend itself to Essay Mobile Driving government ministers.

In July 1987 the government published The National Curriculum 5-16 . This consultation document set out plans for the introduction of a national curriculum and associated assessment procedures. Its 40 A4-size pages appear to have been produced in mirror image rule haste: the cover was printed but the contents were typed - presumably on an electric typewriter or perhaps on how atom works an early Amstrad word processor (which had been launched the previous year). Central government also sought greater control over teachers. In 1984 the Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (CATE) was established to set standards for initial teacher training courses. In a move designed to reduce the influence of teachers in curriculum development, the Schools Council, in image rule which teachers had played a significant role, was abolished in 1984. Its work was shared between the School Examinations Council (SEC), whose members were nominated by the secretary of state, and the School Curriculum Development Council (SCDC), which was specifically instructed not to 'concern itself with policy'. And in 1985 Keith Joseph proposed linking teacher appraisal and performance-related pay. The result was a year of industrial action by teachers. The local authorities. For Thatcher, the local authorities - many of them run by Labour - were an irritant, blocking central government's ability to affect what was going on in the schools.

Her government therefore set about weakening the role of the LEAs by Mobile Phones Driving, dismantling the triangular framework of responsibility - central government, local authorities and the schools - which had been established by the 1944 Education Act, and by offering parents a greater role in the running of mirror, schools. The LEAs were already in a difficult position. Local government had been reorganised in 1974, when the number of adaptive, LEAs was reduced from 146 to 104. Many of the reorganised authorities had embraced corporate management policies which led to mirror image rule definition some widely publicised resignations of essay great depression, Chief Education Officers (CEOs) who felt they no longer had control over the service. Furthermore, after the 1974 reorganisation there was 'a tendency for local politics to consolidate along national party lines' (Shipman 1984:49). Now, in image the 1980s, public spending was being cut and the differences between the spending of different LEAs widened. As contraction replaced expansion, power tended to ebb back to central government. Thatcher enlisted the right-wing tabloid press in her campaign against the LEAs. Papers like The Sun and the Daily Mail ran endless stories about the absurdities perpetrated - often in the name of equal opportunities - by 'the loony left'. Essay On Using Mobile. Ealing, for example, was supposed to have banned any mention of the nursery rhyme 'Baa baa black sheep' in its schools. It wasn't true, of course (I know - I was there!), but the endless repetition of mirror image definition, such stories damaged the image of local authorities in the eyes of the on Mobile, public - which is precisely what it was intended to do.

The government took another swipe at mirror image definition the local authorities in And 1850 Essay 1982, when it launched the Technical and Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI), aimed at 14-18 year olds. LEAs were not allowed to participate. Instead, it was administered by the Department of Employment's Manpower Services Commission (MSC). Rule. It was not exactly a success. Adaptive Leadership Definition. 'From 1977 to 1989 change was breathtaking in this area and so was expenditure: 89 billion spent on introducing 25 training schemes, of which 22 were subsequently cancelled, some after only a year or two in existence' (Benn and mirror image rule definition Chitty 1996:16). The National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) was set up in on Using Driving 1986 to promote National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). In 1989 the government announced that schools would in future be allowed to offer vocational courses like those from the Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC). It also made an rule, effort to rationalise 'Britain's renowned jungle of vocational qualifications' (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) in an attempt to create a single new system of vocational qualifications: GNVQ for educational qualifications and NVQ for qualifications gained through work. For a brief moment it looked as if at last a British government was going to catapult the country into Essay on Using While Driving a position where it could compete with other industrialised countries which had already made all these changes through comprehensive education reform and an integration of vocational and academic education. (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) But it was not to be.

The Major administration (see the next chapter) chose not to pursue the integration of academic and vocational education. 1979 Education Act. The 1979 Education Act (26 July 1979) - Thatcher's first - was very short (just two pages). Definition. It repealed Labour's 1976 Act and most gave back to LEAs the image rule, right to select pupils for secondary education at 11. 1980 Education Act. This Act (3 April 1980) began the depression, process of giving more power to mirror image parents. Essay On The Great. Its main provisions were: school governing bodies were to include at mirror image least two parents (Section 2(5)); parents were to have the right to choose schools (6) and adaptive the right to appeal if they didn't get the schools they had chosen (7); there were new rules regarding school attendance orders (10 and 11), the mirror rule, creation of new schools and the closing of existing ones (12), and adaptive definition the number of rule definition, school places (15); the Assisted Places Scheme would provide public money to how atom works pay for image definition 30,000 children to how atom bomb works go to private schools (17); the obligation on local authorities to mirror image rule definition provide free milk and meals was removed, except in the case of children from adaptive leadership definition families receiving Supplementary Benefit or Family Income Supplement (22); and local authorities could establish nursery schools (24).

Download the Education Act 1980 (pdf text 1mb). 1981 Education Act. The 1981 Education Act (30 October 1981) followed the rule definition, publication of the 1978 Warnock Report Special Educational Needs . It gave parents new rights: LEAs were required to identify the needs of children with learning difficulties (Section 4); have assessment procedures for ascertaining those needs (5-6); and produce 'statements' specifying how the needs would be met (7). Adaptive. Download the Education Act 1981 (pdf text 496kb). Parent power was pursued further in the 1984 Green Paper Parental Influence at School . 1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act. This Act (13 May 1983) allowed the secretary of state to require higher education institutions to charge higher fees to image rule students 'not having the requisite connection with the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man' and to rook exclude such students from being eligible for certain discretionary awards. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.

This Act (12 April 1984) introduced Education Support Grants (ESGs), which were to mirror image rule be given to LEAs for government-specified purposes. It was thus another step in taking control of education policy away from the LEAs and giving it to central government - a move which was taken still further in And 1850 1987 when Specific Grants for mirror image definition INSET (In-Service Training) were introduced. 1986 Education (Amendment) Act. This short Act (17 February 1986) increased the how atom bomb works, limit set in mirror section 2(1) of the Education (Grants and Awards) Act 1984 on how atom expenditure approved for education support grant purposes, and excluded remuneration for lunchtime supervision from the image definition, Remuneration of Teachers Act 1965. 1986 Education Act. In May 1986 Kenneth Baker replaced Keith Joseph as education secretary. He was kept busy: there were two education acts in his first year in leadership the job. The first (and much the shorter - 5 pages) was the 1986 Education Act (18 July 1986), which concerned certain further education grants and the pooling of rule definition, expenditure by local authorities. 1986 Education (No.

2) Act. The second Education Act of 1986 (7 November 1986) was not only much longer than the first, it was also profoundly more important. It implemented the proposals set out in the 1985 White Paper Better Schools which were summarised in the DES booklet Better Schools: A Summary . It further diminished the importance of the LEAs and put the focus on the Department and the schools. Governors were to be given much greater responsibility for the curriculum, discipline and Reform Between 1825 And 1850 Essay staffing. The head was to have a pivotal role - s/he was singled out for specific responsibilities including the 'determination and organisation of the secular curriculum' (though the Act said nothing about what what would happen if governors disagreed). The head (and only the head) had the power to exclude pupils. Equally significantly, the Act introduced the concept of mirror rule definition, educational law, so that lawyers became involved in education for the first time. It was very detailed but often ambiguous - it gave parents pegs on works which to hang their disenchantments. The Act's main provisions were: every maintained school was required to have a governing body (Sections 1-2); the composition of image definition, governing bodies was changed - the number of parent governors was to be equal to the number of LEA governors and there were to rook the sorrow be staff governors and others co-opted from business and industry (3-8). Image Rule. ( Better Schools had proposed a majority of parents but this was defeated); grouping of schools under one governing body was allowed in certain circumstances (9-10); every LEA must have a written statement of its curriculum policy (17-19); governors must have a sex education policy.

If taught (it didn't have to be), sex education had to encourage pupils 'to have due regard to adaptive definition moral considerations and the value of family life' (46); governors must give parents information about the school's curriculum (20); discipline was the responsibility of the head, though the principles underlying it were to be supplied by governors (22); there were new rules on mirror image definition pupil exclusions (23), reinstatement (24) and appeals (26); LEAs were to give governors financial information relating to the school (29); governors were to produce an adaptive definition, annual report (30) and hold an annual parents' meeting (31); LEAs retained responsibility for mirror definition the appointment and black hold dismissal of rule definition, staff but were to consult with governors (34-41); there was to be freedom of speech in universities and colleges (43); there was to adaptive be no political indoctrination in schools - this was an attack on subjects like 'peace studies' which had been introduced in a number of schools (44); corporal punishment was abolished in rule maintained schools (from August 1987). Independent schools were still permitted to beat their pupils, but not those whose fees were paid by Reform Between And 1850, the state (47); provision was made for rule the appraisal of teachers (49); governors were required to supply information to the secretary of state (56); LEAs were required to Reform And 1850 Essay provide training for governors (57); and the secretary of state was no longer required to produce annual report (60). Image Rule Definition. Download the Education (No. 2) Act 1986 (pdf text 1.6mb). 1988 Local Government Act. LEAs' equal opportunities policies were attacked in the 1988 Local Government Act (24 March 1988).

The infamous Section 28 of this act forbade local authorities from most popular 'promoting teaching in any maintained school of the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship'. (Section 28 was eventually repealed by New Labour in November 2003). Download the Local Government Act 1988 (pdf text 856kb). 1988 Education Reform Act. The Education Reform Act (29 July 1988) was the most important education act since 1944. It is rule, sometimes referred to as 'The Baker Act' after secretary of state Kenneth Baker ( pictured ).

The Act was presented as giving power to the schools. Using Driving. In fact, it took power away from the definition, LEAs and the schools and gave them all to the secretary of state - it gave him hundreds of new powers. Even more importantly, it took a public service and Reform Between 1825 And 1850 Essay turned it into a market - something the Tories had been working towards for a decade. Chitty and Dunford (1999:25) argue that the 'meretricious agenda' of the 1988 Act was in many ways 'a tribute to the remarkable resilience of the comprehensive ideal'. Having failed to rule definition get selection reinstated in how atom works 1979, the Tories now used 'devices like opting out, open admission, city technology colleges and the introduction of local markets . as attempts to introduce selection by the back door.' The Act's major provisions concerned: the curriculum: - the National Curriculum. - new rules on religious education and collective worship. - the establishment of curriculum and rule assessment councils; admission of adaptive leadership definition, pupils to rule county and voluntary schools; local management of how atom, schools (LMS); grant maintained (GM) schools; city technology colleges (CTCs); changes in rule definition further and higher education; and the abolition of ILEA.

Download the Education Reform Act 1988 (pdf text 4.1mb). Part I Chapter I: The Curriculum. The 1988 Act provided for a 'basic curriculum' to be taught in all maintained schools, consisting of rook, religious education and the National Curriculum (Section 2(1)). The National Curriculum would set out 'attainment targets' - the knowledge, skills and understanding which children would be expected to image have by the end of each key stage; the 'programmes of study' to be taught at each key stage; and the arrangements for assessing pupils at the end of each key stage (2(2)). The National Curriculum would consist of three 'core subjects' (mathematics, English and science); six foundation subjects (history, geography, technology, music, art and adaptive leadership definition physical education); plus a modern foreign language at key stages 3 and 4 (3(1-2)). Mirror Image Rule. Schools in Welsh-speaking areas of Wales would also teach Welsh. The Act defined Key Stage 1 as ages 5-7, Key Stage 2: ages 8-11, Key Stage 3: 12-14, and depression Key Stage 4: 15-16 (3(3)). It set out new rules on religious education: every day was to begin with an image, 'act of Essay on Mobile While Driving, collective worship' (6(1)), a majority of which were to be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' (7(1)). Every LEA was required to set up a standing advisory council on religious education (SACRE) (11(1)) consisting of representatives of mirror image rule definition, religious groups, the popular drugs, Church of England, teachers and the local authority (11(4)).

Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education should 'reflect the fact that the religious traditions in Great Britain are in the main Christian whilst taking account of the teaching and practices of the other principal religions represented in mirror definition Great Britain' (8(3)). Two new councils were to be established: the National Curriculum Council (NCC) and the School Examinations and Assessment Council (SEAC). (Wales was to have its own Curriculum Council for how atom bomb works Wales). The members of the mirror rule, councils would be appointed by the secretary of state (14(1)). The NCC would be required to review all aspects of the curriculum and advise the secretary of state, carry out programmes of Reform 1825 Essay, research and development, publish and disseminate information relating to the curriculum and perform 'such ancillary activities as the mirror image rule definition, Secretary of State may direct' (14(3)). SEAC's functions were similar in respect of examinations and assessment; it was also to make arrangements with appropriate bodies for the moderation of assessments made in leadership definition pursuance of assessment arrangements (14(4)). Part I Chapter II: Admission of Pupils to County and rule definition Voluntary Schools. The Act introduced new rules governing the And 1850 Essay, admission of pupils to maintained schools, in image definition particular the on the depression, conditions which were to be met if the authority responsible for admissions to a school wished to reduce the rule, 'standard number' of places in rook hold the sorrow a year group (28). Part I Chapter III: Finance and mirror Staff.

Before 1988, schools had only had control over 'capitation' - that part of their budget relating to books and materials. The staff were employed and the buildings maintained by the local authority. Under what became known as 'local management of schools' (LMS), the schools were to be given far greater control, managing almost the whole budget. 'It shall be the duty of the Reform Between 1825 And 1850, authority to put at the disposal of the governing body of the mirror image definition, school in respect of that year a sum equal to the school's budget share for that year to be spent for the purposes of the school' (36(2)). School budgets would be determined on works the basis of an 'allocation formula' based on the number and ages of the pupils in the school and the number of pupils with special needs (38(3)). Each local authority was required to submit a scheme for this financial delegation (39). Responsibility for the appointment and dismissal of staff would be transferred from the mirror rule, local authority to adaptive schools' governing bodies (44-46). Part I Chapter IV Grant-Maintained Schools. The Act made provision for the establishment of rule, grant-maintained schools which would be independent of local authorities and funded directly by central government. It set out rules governing the membership of the schools' governing bodies (4-5); the articles of government (58); the conduct of parents' ballots to decide whether schools should seek grant-maintained status (61); the transfer of property and staff to the governing bodies (74-5) and the grants (maintenance, special purpose and capital) payable to the schools (79). It made clear that funds directed to grant-maintained schools would be deducted from the relevant local authority budget (81). Part I Chapter V Miscellaneous.

The Act provided for the establishment of most recreational drugs, City Technology Colleges (CTCs) and City Colleges for mirror definition the Technology of the Arts (CCTAs) (105) and laid down new rules governing what could, and what could not, be charged for in maintained schools (106-111). Part II Higher and Further Education. Part II of the on the depression, Act made changes to the provision and image rule funding of higher and further education and provided for the establishment of two new funding bodies: the adaptive leadership, Universities Funding Council (UFC) and image rule the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council (PCFC), whose members would be appointed by the secretary of adaptive leadership definition, state. Mirror Image. Local authorities which funded institutions would be required to produce a scheme for financial delegation similar to that required for the funding of schools. Part III Education in leadership definition Inner London. Part III of the Act provided for the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and mirror image the transfer of its responsibilities, properties, rights and liabilities to the inner London boroughs.

Part IV Miscellaneous and General. Part IV of the Act covered a number of other matters: the establishment and recreational functions of Education Assets Board; academic tenure; grants; unrecognised degrees etc. The National Curriculum which resulted from the Act was written by a government quango: teachers had virtually no say in its design or construction. It was almost entirely content-based. Dennis Lawton, of the University of London Institute of Education, described it as the reincarnation of the 1904 Secondary Regulations. It was huge and therefore unmanageable, especially at the primary level, and rule its introduction resulted in a significant drop in reading standards. It divided the curriculum up into discrete subjects, making integrated 'topic' and 'project' work difficult if not impossible. But perhaps the most damaging outcome of it was that it prevented teachers and schools from being curriculum innovators and demoted them to While Driving curriculum 'deliverers'.

It was also constantly revised. Right-wing think-tanks and pressure groups were unhappy with aspects of the first version and campaigned for 'the simplification and Anglicisation of the national testing system, so as to emphasise basic skills and the English cultural heritage' (Jones 2003:141). The New Right gained control of the curriculum and assessment councils, where they provoked strong opposition from teachers, especially from teachers of English, leading to a widespread boycott of Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) in 1993-4. As a result, the government was forced to redesign the national curriculum, reducing the amount of detail and removing 'the stronger signs of the image definition, traditionalist and ethnocentric enthusiasms of the New Right'. On The Depression. The 1995 revision of the national curriculum thus 'marked the end of the New Right's curricular influence, at the same time as it helped embed the curriculum, and its associated testing system, at the consensual centre of English schooling' (Jones 2003:141). The assessment arrangements for the National Curriculum were equally cumbersome. Mirror Image. They were based on the 1988 report of the National Curriculum Task Group on Assessment and adaptive leadership definition Testing (TGAT) led by Professor PJ Black (and therefore sometimes known as the Black Report).

The report was sound on the purposes of mirror image rule definition, assessment. Reform 1825. It began by listing four criteria for rule definition a national assessment scheme: the assessment results should give direct information about pupils' achievement in relation to objectives: they should be criterion-referenced ; the results should provide a basis for decisions about pupils' further learning needs: they should be formative ; the scales or grades should be capable of comparison across classes and schools, if teachers, pupils and parents are to share a common language and common standards: so the assessments should be calibrated or moderated ; the ways in which criteria and scales are set up and used should relate to expected routes of educational development, giving some continuity to a pupil's assessment at black rook the sorrow different ages: the assessments should relate to progression . (para.5) It also made clear that there were concerns to be addressed: the undesirable effects of testing on children (stress etc); the possible damage to relationships between parents and schools; the fear that external tests would 'impose arbitrary restrictions on teachers' own work, and so limit and devalue their professional role' (para.16); anxiety that results would be published in league tables, 'leading to ill-informed and unfair comparisons between schools' (para.18); and the danger that teachers would 'teach to the test' (para.58). Unfortunately, the image definition, Report went on most popular recreational drugs to propose a system of testing at ages 7, 11, 14 and mirror image definition 16 (at the end of the works, Key Stages) in which each pupil was to be assessed on ten 'Levels' across hundreds of 'Attainment Targets' in the ten National Curriculum subjects. Image Rule. This was hugely complicated and never had a chance of working. Thatcher herself didn't like the proposals and favoured simpler external tests of children at 7, 11 and 14 ( The Guardian 10 March 1988). But that was no doubt because she wasn't interested in most recreational the educational validity of the mirror rule, assessment system, only in whether, coupled with LMS, it would promote the education market place she was so determined to create. So league tables of school results were published (despite Black's warning) and parents were given (theoretically at least) free choice as to where to send their children. Three inevitable - and undesirable - effects quickly became apparent: schools became unwilling to take on pupils with learning difficulties, since they tended to depress overall test results; teachers were encouraged to concentrate their efforts on children who were on the borderline between one level and the next rather than on those who needed attention most; and how atom bomb works the curriculum became skewed by the need to practise for the tests.

On religious education and collective worship, it is interesting to compare the Act's stipulations that the majority of a school's 'acts of collective worship' must be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' and that Christianity should be the mirror image, predominant religion in religious education lessons with Sections 25-29 of the 1944 Education Act, where Christianity is most recreational drugs, never mentioned - because it was taken for granted. Mirror. For more on religious education, see my article Agreed Syllabuses 1944-1988 (1991); and my dissertation Rewriting Oxfordshire's Agreed Syllabus post 1988 (1992). Local Management of Schools. Local Management of Schools dramatically changed the role of the head teacher and governors. The head was no longer an on the great depression, educationalist but an image rule definition, institutional manager. S/he now had to learn about recruitment and selection procedures, employment law, health and safety legislation, buildings maintenance etc. The governors now had legal responsibilities in relation to the control of a school's budget and to black rook hold the sorrow the appointment and image dismissal of definition, staff. No one explained how you could hold unpaid volunteers legally accountable.

Inevitably, fewer people were prepared to take on the role. Because school budgets were to be based largely on pupil numbers, schools had to definition attract as many pupils as possible in how atom bomb works order to survive. This led to some bizarre cases of schools offering gifts to parents who enrolled their children. The freedom which LMS was supposed to offer schools was, in practice, largely illusory. Schools soon found that, as their staff costs amounted to around 85 per cent of the total budget, any scope for changing budget priorities was severely limited. For the government, LMS served three purposes: it was an important element in the creation of an 'education market'; it took financial control away from the local authorities; and mirror definition it enabled the government to most popular recreational 'pass the buck' to the schools when budgets were cut - as they were from the second year of LMS onwards. Indeed, school budgets were cut in mirror image six of the eight years following 1988.

The grant-maintained schools policy was another clear attack on the LEAs. It was also iniquitous because, to bribe schools into drugs opting out, they were offered substantial additional funding - at mirror image definition the expense of the remaining local authority schools . Grant-maintained schools were allowed to select a proportion of their pupils on essay great depression the basis of mirror definition, ability or aptitude. Some secondary schools applied to Between And 1850 become grant-maintained in the first year or two, but when the extra cash dried up, so did the mirror image, applications. Ironically - but unsurprisingly - most of the schools that did opt out were in Conservative-controlled LEAs where spending on education tended to how atom bomb works be lower. A survey published in February 1992 showed that schools wishing to go grant-maintained were concentrated in just 12 of the 117 education authorities in England and Wales. Grant-maintained status was eventually abolished by New Labour. City Technology Colleges. Baker presented his City Technology Colleges as a 'half-way house' between the state and independent sectors. He told the TES : What we have at present is seven per cent or so in the independent sector, probably going to rise to definition ten per cent; and on the other side, a huge continent: 93 per cent in the state-maintained sector. . Popular Recreational Drugs. What I think is striking in the British education system is that there is nothing in between . Mirror Image Rule. Now the City Technology Colleges I've already announced are a sort of half-way house. I would like to see many more half-way houses, a greater choice, a greater variety.

I think many parents would as well. ( TES 3 April 1987) In fact, the City Technology Colleges (CTCs) were just another attempt to black destroy the power of the LEAs (and to reintroduce selection) by involving private enterprise in education. A hundred of the colleges were to be set up across the country, each one funded - 'sponsored' - by a business, with spending per mirror definition pupil far higher than in works the neighbouring local authority schools. In the event, only mirror image definition, a handful of CTCs were ever established because few businesses were prepared to take part and, as usual, the taxpayer was left to pick up the bill. The last CTC to be authorised, in April 1991, was Kingswood in Bristol. The chair of Cable and Wireless and essay on the depression former Tory Party chair Lord Young stumped up the required 2m; the government handed over the remaining 8m. Avon county council's deputy director of education, Edward Watson, bitterly contrasted that 8m for capital spending on the 900 children at Kingswood CTC with the 4.5m he had for capital spending on the county's other 150,000 children. With the extra money, he said, all secondary schools could have been fully repaired, all the improvements they wanted could have been done, every school could have had a new science laboratory, and there would still have been enough left over to image definition give all primary schools an extra nursery class for a year ( The Guardian 3 October 2006). Thatcher had disliked the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) since the 1970s when, as education secretary, she had regarded it as bureaucratic and profligate. She also resented the fact that it was dominated by Labour politicians who were not afraid to comment on central government policies. Tory MPs called for its abolition in 1980 but were overruled by education secretary Mark Carlisle. In 1986 Thatcher abolished the on the depression, Greater London Council (GLC) - she had never forgiven Londoners for electing her bete noire Ken Livingstone as leader - and she would have liked to mirror image get rid of ILEA at the same time, but she was advised that the London boroughs were not yet ready to take on responsibility for education.

But ILEA's days were numbered. An amendment calling for its abolition, tabled by Tory MPs Michael Heseltine and Norman Tebbit, was incorporated into rook the 1988 Act. It was finally abolished on 1 April 1990 and its responsibilities delegated to rule definition the London boroughs. The destruction of ILEA was a particularly noxious example of political spite and most recreational state vandalism: it had had a proud record of supporting schools in deprived areas and rule definition promoting curriculum development. It was 'founded on sound principles and committed to the wellbeing of London's citizens' (Mortimore 2008). Its Multi-ethnic education policy statement , published in 1977, had sought to black the sorrow combat racism, sexism and class prejudice in image rule definition schools and society.

And in bomb works 1980 HMI had described ILEA as 'a caring and generous authority with considerable analytical powers to identify problems, the scale of which is, in some cases, unique in this country.' (A form of overall local government for mirror image London was reintroduced by New Labour in hold the sorrow May 2000, when the first elections to the Greater London Assembly (GLA) were held. Ken Livingstone became the first elected Mayor of London). 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act. Thatcher's last education act was the Education (Student Loans) Act (26 April 1990) which introduced 'top-up' loans for HE students and mirror image rule so began the diminution of student grants. 1977-82 HMI: Matters for Discussion.

As part of the 'Great Debate' called for in 1976 by Prime Minister Jim Callaghan, HMI produced a series of 15 discussion documents under the series title Matters for Discussion : 1978-85 HMI surveys. The 1967 Plowden Report Children and their Primary Schools had recommended (in chapter 30, page 426, para. 1164) that surveys of the quality of Reform And 1850 Essay, primary schools should be conducted at least once every ten years. In response, HMI produced, between 1978 and 1985, five major surveys covering the whole school age range. Definition. They were: 1978 Primary education in England. 1981 Rampton Report. In March 1979 Jim Callaghan's Labour government had set up the most popular, Committee of Enquiry into mirror definition the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups, with priority being given to children of West Indian origin. The Committee continued its work under the Essay Using Mobile While is Risky, Thatcher government and published its interim report, West Indian Children in our Schools , in mirror image definition 1981. The Rampton Report warned that 'West Indian children as a group are failing in our education system. Urgent action is recreational, needed to remedy this' (Rampton 1981:70).

It noted that in both primary and secondary schools the curriculum, books and teaching materials were often inappropriate to meet the needs and backgrounds of definition, West Indian pupils and that this was 'a cause of their lack of adaptive definition, motivation and commitment to the work and their consequent underachievement' (Rampton 1981:71). However, the Committee said that there was 'no single cause for the underachievement of mirror, West Indian children but rather a network of widely differing attitudes and expectations on most drugs the part of teachers and mirror rule the education system as a whole, and on most popular the part of West Indian parents' (Rampton 1981:72). They therefore recommended a range of rule definition, specific, practical measures for the short-term together with some broader more general recommendations designed to bring about fundamental changes in attitude and practice in the longer term. Taken together, these constitute a programme for action which will go a long way towards enabling West Indian pupils to fulfil their true potential in our schools, as well as providing a more balanced education for all our children. (Rampton 1981:72) The Committee published its final report in 1985 (see The Swann Report below). 1982 Cockcroft Report. Callaghan's Labour administration had also commissioned a report on the teaching of maths, in the light of adaptive leadership definition, concerns expressed by the Education, Arts and Home Office Sub-Committee of the Parliamentary Expenditure Committee in July 1977. Rule. These concerns related to the apparent lack of basic computation skills in on the great depression many children, the increasing mathematical demands made on mirror image adults, the lack of qualified maths teachers, and the confusing multiplicity of maths syllabuses. The Cockcroft Committee began work in September 1978. Using Mobile Phones While Driving Is Risky. Its terms of reference were: To consider the teaching of mathematics in definition primary and secondary schools in England and Wales, with particular regard to the mathematics required in further and higher education, employment and adult life generally, and to make recommendations. The Committee submitted its report Mathematics counts in November 1981 and Between it was published in mirror definition January 1982. 1985 Swann Report.

The Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Children from Phones Ethnic Minority Groups produced its final report Education for All in 1985. Its principle conclusions and mirror image definition recommendations were: there is no single cause of underachievement and therefore no single solution; education has a major role in rook changing the attitudes of the white majority population; there is a need for greater sensitivity in the education of 'ethnic minorities' with more in-service training to raise teachers' awareness; in initial training courses attention should be paid to the needs of an ethnically diverse society; statistics should be collected on the ethnicity of both teachers and pupils; the first priority should be the learning of English; school subjects should not be taught using mother tongue languages as a medium of instruction; and schools should not take on responsibility for the teaching and maintenance of 'ethnic minority' languages. The report said: We believe that unless major efforts are made to reconcile the concerns and image rule definition aspirations of both the essay, majority and minority communities along more genuinely pluralistic lines, there is a real risk of the fragmentation of our society along ethnic lines which would seriously threaten the stability and cohesion of society as a whole. (Swann 1985:7) The fundamental change that is necessary is the recognition that the problem facing the education system is not how to educate children of ethnic minorities, but how to educate all children. (Swann 1985:363) 1988 Kingman Report. The Teaching of English Language was produced by a Committee of Inquiry chaired by mirror image definition, Sir John Kingman, Vice-Chancellor of University of Bristol. 1988 Higginson Report. A committee under Dr Gordon Higginson reviewed education for 16-18 year olds. It argued that the current A Level system was too narrow and that a 5 subject structure should be adopted. The government rejected the recommendations.

1989 Cox Report. Chaired by Professor Brian Cox, Pro-Vice Chancellor and John Edward Taylor Professor of English Literature at essay on the great depression Manchester University, the National Curriculum English Working Group was commissioned by Secretary of State Kenneth Baker to image rule definition make recommendations on attainment targets and programmes of study for Phones While Driving is Risky the English component of the new National Curriculum. The result was the Cox Report English for ages 5 to mirror image 16 . 1989 Elton Report. In March 1988 Kenneth Baker asked Lord Elton to popular recreational lead an image definition, enquiry into discipline in schools in England and Wales. The Elton Committee's report Discipline in Schools was published in the spring of 1989. Its 138 recommendations made it clear that good discipline was the shared responsibility of pupils, teachers, heads, other staff, governors, parents, local authorities, teacher trainers, curriculum councils, central government, and the School Examinations and black rook Assessment Council. 1990 Rumbold Report. Baker also commissioned a report on rule early years education. Mobile Phones Driving. Produced by a committee chaired by Tory MP Angela Rumbold, Starting with Quality made recommendations about the education of 3 and 4 year olds.

It was published in November 1990 when John MacGregor had just taken over as education secretary. Tory attitudes to education - and to education professionals - during this period were well summed up by secretary of state Kenneth Baker. Speaking about the bill which was shortly to become the image rule definition, 1986 (No. 2) Education Act, he told the Tory Party Conference in October 1986: It is crucial for parents to understand where power in Between And 1850 the education system lies. Our Education Bill radically changes the composition of school governing bodies. It gives these bodies new powers and responsibilities. Mirror Image Rule Definition. We will end the dominance of the local authority and its political appointees. There will be more parent governors elected by all the parents. Control over sex education will be removed from the teachers and local authorities and given to the new-style governing bodies which will have more parents on them and be answerable to an annual parents' meeting.

But Thatcher had become increasingly unpopular and the last straw for many was her determination to introduce a form of poll tax. This led, in March 1990, to the worst riots London had seen for a century. She lost the confidence of her colleagues and in on the November 1990 she was replaced as Tory leader and prime minister by John Major. Benn C and Chitty C (1996) Thirty years on: is comprehensive education alive and well or struggling to survive? London: David Fulton Publishers. Chitty C (2004) Education policy in Britain Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chitty C and image Dunford J (eds) (1999) State schools: New Labour and the Conservative legacy London: Woburn Press.

DES (1981b) Circular 6/81 The School Curriculum. DES (1983) Circular 8/83 The School Curriculum. Jones K (2003) Education in Britain: 1944 to the present Cambridge: Polity Press. Mortimore P (2008) 'In memoriam' The Guardian 3 June. Rampton (1981) West Indian Children in our Schools Interim report of the Committee of Inquiry Cmnd 8273 London: HMSO. Ribbins P and Sherratt B (1997) Conservative Secretaries of State and Radical Educational Reform Since 1973 London: Cassell.

Sexton S (1977) 'Evolution by on the, choice' in CB Cox and R Boyson Black Paper 1977 London: Temple Smith. Shipman M (1984) Education as a public service London: Harper and Row. Swann (1985) Education for All Report of the Committee of Enquiry Cmnd 9453 London: HMSO.