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La discriminacin sufrida durante la adolescencia

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ap bio 2007 essay Teacher Sourcebook for Science Teaching. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. 3. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion? A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in of the Great the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to en que afecta the exterior of the cell? 1. A difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is seen in the organization of their genetic material. Analysis Of Cats Essay? a) DISCUSS the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. b) CONTRAST the following activities in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

- Replicaton of DNA. - Transcription or translation. 4. Scientists seeking to determine which molecule is responsible for the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next knew that the. (1) copy itself precisely. (2) be stable but able to be changed. (3) be complex enough to determine the en que la discriminacion organism's phenotype. EXPLAIN how DNA meets each of the three criteria stated above. Select ONE of the criteria stated above and DESCRIBE experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the Stem to Be hereditary material. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion? The arrows indicate reaction sites for restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y). segment above. Assume that the digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and went to completion. In Order To Survive; Give Morals Essay? II.

DNA digested with only enzyme Y. III. DNA digested with enzyme X and enzyme Y combined. IV. Undigested DNA. (1) The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes. Afecta La Discriminacion? (2) The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for enzyme Y. Biological recognition is important in and Geography of the Great Essay many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. La Discriminacion? e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. Describe the steps of One Must Give, protein synthesis, beginning with the attachments of a messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending with the release of the polypeptide from the ribosome. Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in this process. Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA. Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation.

Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of. messenger RNA production and the regulation of protein synthesis in. Describe the production and processing of a protein that will be exported from a. eukaryotic cell. Begin with the separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA. template and end with the release of the la discriminacion protein at the plasma membrane. Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning. DNA. Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence. for the chemical nature of the gene. a. Hershey and Essay, Chase - bacteriophage replication. b. Griffith and Avery - bacterial transformation. c. En Que Afecta? Meselson and Stahl - DNA replication in bacteria. A portion of Research Essay, a specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of nucleotide triplets: TAC GAA CTT CGG TCC. This DNA sequence codes for the following short polypeptide: methionine - leucine - glutamic acid - proline - arginine. a) Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide. b) What would be the effect of la discriminacion, a deletion or an of Japanese Americans Essay addition in afecta one of the DNA nucleotides? What would be the effect of a substitution in one of the nucleotides?

In relation to the chemical nature of the gene, describe: a. the chemical structure of the gene. b. the replication (self-copying) of the gene. c. gene mutations, including chromosomal aberrations. Proteins are composed of amino acid subunits which form stable. a. Describe how the genetic instructions coded in DNA are translated into the. primary structure (sequence of amino acid subunits) of a protein molecule. b. Explain how interactions among the individual amino acid subunits influence. the transformation of the walkyrie (film) molecule into its three-dimensional structure and. how they stabilize it. Describe protein synthesis in terms of molecular structures of the. nucleic acids and using a specific example, explain how a new phenotypic. characteristic may result from a change in DNA. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. Afecta La Discriminacion? b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. And Geography Great Lakes Essay? Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss the levels of structural organization within proteins which are responsible for specific molecular interaction.

The formation of la discriminacion, Watson-Crick complementary base pairs between single. strands of molecules of Cell Research Funded Essay, nucleic acids occurs in at least three separate reactions. La Discriminacion? Discuss each of these reactions from the following points of view: a. the type of History and Geography Great, nucleic acids involved. b. the role of each nucleic acid in the duplication of cellular. Biologists and biochemists have made outstanding progress within the past. quarter century in elucidating principles and structures which govern the. activities of living matter. These areas of en que afecta, progress include the structure. and code of the DNA molecule. Discuss this development and its impact on. Imprisonment Of Japanese Americans Essay? biological thought and en que afecta la discriminacion, progress. Your answer should include: b. the names of the most prominent investigators involved. c. the nature of its impact on biology. Cell? Discuss the role of each of the following in protein synthesis: a. Afecta La Discriminacion? soluble or transfer RNA.

b. messenger RNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Analysis Of Haruki Murakani´s Essay? Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. mode of en que la discriminacion, duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. Imprisonment Americans? Discuss the gene, with regard to structure, duplication, mutation, and. nature of action. 4. The diagram above shows the en que afecta succession of Stem Research Needs Essay, communities from annual plants to en que hardwood trees in a specific area over a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase.

Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of to Survive;, #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and afecta la discriminacion, discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and walkyrie (film), response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and protein hormones. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. La Discriminacion? c. Antigens trigger antibody responses.

d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of History and Geography Lakes, eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in en que mitosis or cytokinesis. Adolescent? ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 2006B RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. Sexual reproduction requires that half of the chromosomes in a zygote come from en que afecta la discriminacion one parent and the other half from the second parent. a) DESCRIBE the process by Essay, which a germ cell's complement of en que, chromosomes is halved in the formation of gametes. b) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce asexually. DESCRIBE the mode of asexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of asexual reproduction. c) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce sexually.

DESCRIBE the mode of sexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of sexual reproduction. 1. Meiosis reduces chromosome number and rearranges genetic information. a ) EXPLAIN how the reduction and of Japanese, rearrangement are accomplished in en que afecta meiosis. b) Several human disorders occur as a result of Cell Research Funded Essay, defects in the meiotic process. En Que? IDENTIFY ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder? DESCRIBE how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. c) Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the typical meiotic process. DESCRIBE parthenogenesis or cloning and COMPARE the genomes of the and Geography Great offspring with those of the parents. 2008 Q1 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function. (a) Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure. (b) Discuss how the structure of a protein affects the function of TWO of the following. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion? Regulation of enzyme activity. 2002 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. Structure related to function is one of the unifying themes in biology.

This relationship between structure and function is evident in the macromolecules in living systems. Walkyrie (film)? For THREE of the en que FIVE in the following list, describe the structure of the molecule and explain how that structure aids in its function. a. Starch and glycogen as energy storage molecules. b. Cellulose and chitin as structural molecules. d. phospholipids and to Be Funded Essay, their role in cell membranes. e. DNA and its role in determining characteristics in la discriminacion organisms. Proteins and fable, nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. En Que La Discriminacion? Write word equations for the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in proteins and Imprisonment Americans Essay, nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is afecta la discriminacion, possible to have such great variety of.

structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. Adolescent Personal? c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss. the levels of en que, structural organization within proteins which are. responsible for specific molecular interactions. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. mode of duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. 1.During an investigation of a freshwater lake, an AP Biology student discovers a previously unknown microscopic organism. Further study shows that the unicellular organism is eukaryotic. (a) Identify FOUR organelles that should be present in the eukaryotic organism and describe the function of each organelle. (b) Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles found in eukaryotes.

However, prokaryotes must perform many of the same functions as eukaryotes. For THREE of the organelles identified in part (a), explain how prokaryotic cells carry out the associated functions. (c) According to the endosymbiotic theory, some organelles are believed to have evolved through a symbiotic relationship between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Describe THREE observations that support the endosymbiotic theory. 2006 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Respones. 1. A major distinction between prokaryotes and Cell to Be Essay, eukaryotes is the presences of membrane bound organelles in eukaryotes. a) DESCRIBE the structure and function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus. b) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound organelles in common. En Que? DESCRIBE the function of TWO of the following and DISCUSS how each differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. c) EXPLAIN the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells and DISCUSS an example of Analysis Murakani´s Town, evidence supporting this theory. 2002 Q4 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 4. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion? The following experiment was designed to Needs to Be test whether different concentration gradients affect the rate of diffusion. In this experiment, four solutions (0%, NaCl, 1% NaCl, 5% NaCl, and 10% NaCl) were tested under indentical conditions. Fifteen milliliters (mL) of afecta, 0% NaCl were put. In Order To Survive; One Must Give Morals Essay? a bag formed of dialysis tubing that is en que, permeable to Na+, Cl-, and waer.

The same was done for each NaCl solution. Each bag was submerged in a. separate beaker containing 300 mL of distilled water. The concentration of NaCl in mg/mL in the water outside each bag was measured in 40-second intervals. The results from the 5% bag are shown in the table below. a) On the axes provided, GRAPH the data for the 5% NaCl solution. b) Using the same set of axes, DRAW and LABEL three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for the 0% NaCl, 1% NaCl, and. and 10% NaCl solutions. EXPLAIN your predictions. c) Farmlands located near coastal regions are being threatened by History and Geography Great Lakes Essay, encroaching seawater seeping into the soil. In terms of water movement into or out of. plant cells, EXPLAIN why seawater could decrease crop production. Include a discussion of en que afecta la discriminacion, water potential in your answer. Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the following four types of and Geography Lakes Essay, cellular transport. For each of the three transport types you choose, a) describe the transport process and explain how the organization of en que afecta, cell membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules. across the membrane. b) explain the significance of each type of transport to a specific cell (you may use different cell types as examples.)

True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explain how the Essay data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from en que afecta cross III?

Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below.

True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and Essay, stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion? (a) What conclusions can be drawn from Analysis of Haruki Murakani´s Town Essay cross I and cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. 1. The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth. Select three properties of water and. a) for each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of en que afecta la discriminacion, water. History Lakes Essay? b) for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms.

2. Ecological succession describes the pattern of changes in afecta la discriminacion communities over time. The graph below shows changes in plant diversity following the abandonment of an agricultural field in a temperate biome. (a) Discuss the differences in plant diversity shown in the graph and explain how the changes affect the animal species composition between years 0 and 120. (b) Identify TWO biotic and Americans Essay, TWO abiotic factors and discuss how each could influence the pattern of ecological succession. (c) Design a controlled experiment to determine how the diversity of plant species in a newly abandoned field would be affected by large herbivores. 1. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. En Que Afecta? 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in Research Essay vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of en que, each hormone on blood glucose levels. History Great Lakes? (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in la discriminacion (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. Adolescent Personal? hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. La Discriminacion? transduction, and response.

(c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of steroid hormones and Cell Research to Be, protein hormones. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the afecta la discriminacion human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Imprisonment Americans Essay? Ten mL of la discriminacion, a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in a test tube. The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the fable rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction.

Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an en que afecta enzyme. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and History and Geography Great Essay, the data for la discriminacion the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. Adolescent Personal Fable? True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females.

All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. En Que? All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in Stem Research Needs Essay the table below. Explain how the en que la discriminacion data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. Adolescent? (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. 4. The diagram above shows the succession of la discriminacion, communities from annual plants to Imprisonment Essay hardwood trees in a specific area over en que la discriminacion a period of time. (a) Discuss the fable expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in en que la discriminacion the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. Fable? (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut.

3. A molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the la discriminacion mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the protein from fable part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to en que the exterior of the cell?

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Remarks by President Trump in Joint Address to Congress. THE PRESIDENT: Thank you very much. Mr. Speaker, Mr. Vice President, members of en que afecta, Congress, the First Lady of the United States -- (applause) -- and citizens of America: Tonight, as we mark the Stem Needs to Be Funded Essay, conclusion of our celebration of afecta la discriminacion, Black History Month, we are reminded of our nation's path towards civil rights and the work that still remains to and Geography of the Lakes be done. (Applause.) Recent threats targeting Jewish community centers and vandalism of Jewish cemeteries, as well as last week's shooting in Kansas City, remind us that while we may be a nation divided on policies, we are a country that stands united in condemning hate and evil in all of its very ugly forms. (Applause.) Each American generation passes the torch of truth, liberty and justice in an unbroken chain all the way down to en que afecta la discriminacion the present.

That torch is now in Stem Needs Funded Essay our hands. And we will use it to light up the la discriminacion, world. I am here tonight to deliver a message of unity and strength, and it is a message deeply delivered from my heart. A new chapter -- (applause) -- of American Greatness is now beginning. A new national pride is sweeping across our nation. And a new surge of optimism is placing impossible dreams firmly within our grasp. What we are witnessing today is the renewal of the American spirit. Our allies will find that America is once again ready to lead. (Applause.) All the nations of the world -- friend or foe -- will find that America is History of the Lakes strong, America is proud, and America is free. In nine years, the en que afecta la discriminacion, United States will celebrate the History Great Essay, 250th anniversary of our founding -- 250 years since the en que afecta, day we declared our independence.

It will be one of the great milestones in Analysis Town the history of the la discriminacion, world. But what will America look like as we reach our 250th year? What kind of country will we leave for our children? I will not allow the mistakes of recent decades past to define the course of our future. For too long, we've watched our middle class shrink as we've exported our jobs and wealth to foreign countries. We've financed and built one global project after another, but ignored the fates of of the Lakes, our children in the inner cities of Chicago, Baltimore, Detroit, and afecta so many other places throughout our land. We've defended the borders of other nations while leaving our own borders wide open for anyone to cross and for drugs to pour in at a now unprecedented rate. And we've spent trillions and adolescent fable trillions of dollars overseas, while our infrastructure at home has so badly crumbled. Then, in 2016, the Earth shifted beneath our feet. The rebellion started as a quiet protest, spoken by families of all colors and en que afecta creeds -- families who just wanted a fair shot for their children and a fair hearing for of Japanese their concerns. But then the quiet voices became a loud chorus as thousands of citizens now spoke out together, from la discriminacion, cities small and In Order to Survive; One Must Give Morals large, all across our country.

Finally, the chorus became an earthquake, and the people turned out by the tens of millions, and they were all united by one very simple, but crucial demand: that America must put its own citizens first. Because only then can we truly make America great again. (Applause.) Dying industries will come roaring back to life. Heroic veterans will get the care they so desperately need. Our military will be given the la discriminacion, resources its brave warriors so richly deserve. Crumbling infrastructure will be replaced with new roads, bridges, tunnels, airports and railways gleaming across our very, very beautiful land. Our terrible drug epidemic will slow down and, ultimately, stop. And our neglected inner cities will see a rebirth of hope, safety and opportunity. Analysis Of Haruki Town Of Cats? Above all else, we will keep our promises to the American people. (Applause.)

Since my election, Ford, Fiat-Chrysler, General Motors, Sprint, Softbank, Lockheed, Intel, Walmart and many others have announced that they will invest billions and afecta la discriminacion billions of dollars in the United States, and will create tens of thousands of new American jobs. (Applause.) The stock market has gained almost $3 trillion in value since the election on November 8th, a record. We've saved taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars by bringing down the Murakani´s, price of a fantastic -- and it is a fantastic -- new F-35 jet fighter, and afecta we'll be saving billions more on contracts all across our government. We have placed a hiring freeze on adolescent, non-military and non-essential federal workers. We have begun to drain the swamp of government corruption by en que afecta la discriminacion imposing a five-year ban on walkyrie (film), lobbying by executive branch officials and a lifetime ban -- (applause) -- thank you -- and a lifetime ban on becoming lobbyists for a foreign government. We have undertaken a historic effort to massively reduce job-crushing regulations, creating a deregulation task force inside of every government agency. (Applause.) And were imposing a new rule which mandates that for every one new regulation, two old regulations must be eliminated. (Applause.) Were going to stop the regulations that threaten the future and livelihood of afecta la discriminacion, our great coal miners. (Applause.) We have cleared the way for the construction of the Keystone and walkyrie (film) Dakota Access Pipelines -- (applause) -- thereby creating tens of thousands of jobs.

And I've issued a new directive that new American pipelines be made with American steel. (Applause.) We have withdrawn the United States from the afecta, job-killing Trans-Pacific Partnership. (Applause.) And with the In Order Give Up their, help of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, we have formed a council with our neighbors in Canada to help ensure that women entrepreneurs have access to the networks, markets and capital they need to start a business and live out en que, their financial dreams. (Applause.) To protect our citizens, I have directed the Department of Justice to form a Task Force on Reducing Violent Crime. I have further ordered the Departments of Homeland Security and Justice, along with the Department of State and the Director of National Intelligence, to coordinate an aggressive strategy to Murakani´s Town Essay dismantle the criminal cartels that have spread all across our nation. (Applause.) We will stop the drugs from pouring into en que la discriminacion our country and of Japanese Americans poisoning our youth, and we will expand treatment for those who have become so badly addicted. (Applause.) At the la discriminacion, same time, my administration has answered the pleas of the American people for immigration enforcement and border security. (Applause.) By finally enforcing our immigration laws, we will raise wages, help the unemployed, save billions and of Japanese Americans Essay billions of en que afecta, dollars, and Murakani´s Town make our communities safer for everyone. (Applause.) We want all Americans to succeed, but that can't happen in an environment of lawless chaos. We must restore integrity and the rule of afecta, law at our borders. Walkyrie (film)? (Applause.) For that reason, we will soon begin the construction of a great, great wall along our southern border. En Que Afecta? (Applause.) As we speak tonight, we are removing gang members, drug dealers, and criminals that threaten our communities and prey on our very innocent citizens. Bad ones are going out Americans Essay, as I speak, and as I promised throughout the campaign. To any in Congress who do not believe we should enforce our laws, I would ask you this one question: What would you say to afecta la discriminacion the American family that loses their jobs, their income, or their loved one because America refused to uphold its laws and defend its borders? (Applause.)

Our obligation is to In Order One Must Essay serve, protect, and defend the citizens of the United States. We are also taking strong measures to afecta la discriminacion protect our nation from radical Islamic terrorism. Research Funded Essay? (Applause.) According to data provided by the Department of Justice, the vast majority of individuals convicted of terrorism and terrorism-related offenses since 9/11 came here from outside of en que afecta, our country. We have seen the attacks at adolescent fable, home -- from Boston to San Bernardino to the Pentagon, and, yes, even the World Trade Center. We have seen the attacks in France, in Belgium, in Germany, and en que all over the world. It is not compassionate, but reckless to allow uncontrolled entry from places where proper vetting cannot occur. (Applause.) Those given the high honor of admission to the United States should support this country and love its people and its values.

We cannot allow a beachhead of terrorism to form inside America. We cannot allow our nation to become a sanctuary for extremists. (Applause.) That is why my administration has been working on improved vetting procedures, and we will shortly take new steps to and Geography of the keep our nation safe and to keep out those out who will do us harm. (Applause.) As promised, I directed the Department of afecta, Defense to develop a plan to demolish and destroy ISIS -- a network of lawless savages that have slaughtered Muslims and Christians, and of the Lakes men, and women, and children of all faiths and all beliefs. We will work with our allies, including our friends and en que la discriminacion allies in the Muslim world, to extinguish this vile enemy from our planet. (Applause.)

I have also imposed new sanctions on Stem to Be Funded, entities and individuals who support Iran's ballistic missile program, and en que la discriminacion reaffirmed our unbreakable alliance with the walkyrie (film), State of Israel. (Applause.) Finally, I have kept my promise to appoint a justice to the United States Supreme Court, from afecta la discriminacion, my list of 20 judges, who will defend our Constitution. (Applause.) I am greatly honored to have Maureen Scalia with us in the gallery tonight. (Applause.) Thank you, Maureen. Her late, great husband, Antonin Scalia, will forever be a symbol of American justice. To fill his seat, we have chosen Judge Neil Gorsuch, a man of incredible skill and deep devotion to the law. History And Geography Of The Lakes Essay? He was confirmed unanimously by the Court of afecta la discriminacion, Appeals, and I am asking the Senate to swiftly approve his nomination. (Applause.) Tonight, as I outline the next steps we must take as a country, we must honestly acknowledge the circumstances we inherited. History And Geography Great Essay? Ninety-four million Americans are out of the labor force.

Over 43 million people are now living in poverty, and over 43 million Americans are on food stamps. More than one in five people in la discriminacion their prime working years are not working. We have the worst financial recovery in 65 years. In the last eight years, the fable, past administration has put on more new debt than nearly all of the other Presidents combined. We've lost more than one-fourth of our manufacturing jobs since NAFTA was approved, and we've lost 60,000 factories since China joined the World Trade Organization in en que afecta la discriminacion 2001.

Our trade deficit in Americans goods with the world last year was nearly $800 billion dollars. And overseas we have inherited a series of tragic foreign policy disasters. Solving these and so many other pressing problems will require us to en que work past the differences of party. Walkyrie (film)? It will require us to tap into the American spirit that has overcome every challenge throughout our long and storied history. But to accomplish our goals at home and abroad, we must restart the engine of the American economy -- making it easier for companies to do business in the United States, and much, much harder for companies to leave our country. (Applause.) Right now, American companies are taxed at one of the highest rates anywhere in en que la discriminacion the world. My economic team is developing historic tax reform that will reduce the tax rate on our companies so they can compete and thrive anywhere and with anyone. (Applause.) It will be a big, big cut.

At the same time, we will provide massive tax relief for the middle class. We must create a level playing field for American companies and our workers. Personal? We have to do it. (Applause.) Currently, when we ship products out of America, many other countries make us pay very high tariffs and taxes. But when foreign companies ship their products into en que America, we charge them nothing, or almost nothing. I just met with officials and workers from a great American company, Harley-Davidson. In fact, they proudly displayed five of their magnificent motorcycles, made in the USA, on the front lawn of the White House. ((Laughter and applause.) And they wanted me to Stem Research to Be Funded Essay ride one and I said, No, thank you. (Laughter.)

At our meeting, I asked them, how are you doing, how is business? They said that it's good. I asked them further, how are you doing with other countries, mainly international sales? They told me -- without even complaining, because they have been so mistreated for en que la discriminacion so long that they've become used to it -- that it's very hard to do business with other countries because they tax our goods at such a high rate. They said that in walkyrie (film) the case of another country, they taxed their motorcycles at 100 percent. They weren't even asking for a change. But I am. (Applause.) I believe strongly in free trade but it also has to be fair trade. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion? It's been a long time since we had fair trade. The first Republican President, Abraham Lincoln, warned that the abandonment of the protective policy by the American government will produce want and ruin among our people.

Lincoln was right -- and it's time we heeded his advice and his words. (Applause.) I am not going to let America and its great companies and workers be taken advantage of us any longer. They have taken advantage of our country. No longer. (Applause.) I am going to bring back millions of of Haruki Murakani´s Town of Cats, jobs. Protecting our workers also means reforming our system of legal immigration. (Applause.) The current, outdated system depresses wages for our poorest workers, and puts great pressure on taxpayers. Nations around the world, like Canada, Australia and many others, have a merit-based immigration system. (Applause.) It's a basic principle that those seeking to en que enter a country ought to be able to of Japanese Americans support themselves financially. Yet, in America, we do not enforce this rule, straining the la discriminacion, very public resources that our poorest citizens rely upon. According to the National Academy of Sciences, our current immigration system costs American taxpayers many billions of dollars a year. Switching away from this current system of lower-skilled immigration, and instead adopting a merit-based system, we will have so many more benefits. It will save countless dollars, raise workers' wages, and In Order to Survive; One Must Give Up their Morals help struggling families -- including immigrant families -- enter the middle class. And they will do it quickly, and they will be very, very happy, indeed. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion? (Applause.)

I believe that real and positive immigration reform is possible, as long as we focus on the following goals: To improve jobs and wages for Americans; to strengthen our nation's security; and to restore respect for our laws. If we are guided by the wellbeing of American citizens, then I believe Republicans and Democrats can work together to achieve an outcome that has eluded our country for adolescent personal fable decades. En Que? (Applause.) Another Republican President, Dwight D. Eisenhower, initiated the last truly great national infrastructure program -- the building of the Interstate Highway System. The time has come for a new program of national rebuilding. History And Geography? (Applause.)America has spent approximately $6 trillion in the Middle East -- all the while our infrastructure at en que la discriminacion, home is crumbling. With this $6 trillion, we could have rebuilt our country twice, and maybe even three times if we had people who had the ability to negotiate. Essay? (Applause.)

To launch our national rebuilding, I will be asking Congress to approve legislation that produces a $1 trillion investment in infrastructure of the United States -- financed through both public and private capital -- creating millions of new jobs. (Applause.) This effort will be guided by two core principles: buy American and hire American. (Applause.) Tonight, I am also calling on this Congress to en que afecta repeal and Research to Be Funded replace Obamacare -- (applause) -- with reforms that expand choice, increase access, lower costs, and, at the same time, provide better healthcare. (Applause.) Mandating every American to buy government-approved health insurance was never the right solution for our country. (Applause.) The way to la discriminacion make health insurance available to everyone is to lower the History Great Essay, cost of health insurance, and that is what we are going do. (Applause.) Obamacare premiums nationwide have increased by double and triple digits. As an example, Arizona went up 116 percent last year alone. Governor Matt Bevin of Kentucky just said Obamacare is failing in his state -- the state of Kentucky -- and it's unsustainable and collapsing.

One-third of counties have only one insurer, and they are losing them fast. They are losing them so fast. They are leaving, and many Americans have no choice at all. En Que? Theres no choice left. Remember when you were told that you could keep your doctor and keep your plan? We now know that all of those promises have been totally broken. Obamacare is collapsing, and we must act decisively to protect all Americans. (Applause.) Action is not a choice, it is a necessity.

So I am calling on all Democrats and In Order to Survive; Morals Essay Republicans in Congress to work with us to afecta la discriminacion save Americans from this imploding Obamacare disaster. (Applause.) Here are the principles that should guide the Congress as we move to create a better healthcare system for all Americans: First, we should ensure that Americans with preexisting conditions have access to coverage, and that we have a stable transition for Americans currently enrolled in the healthcare exchanges. (Applause.) Secondly, we should help Americans purchase their own coverage through the use of In Order One Must Morals Essay, tax credits and expanded Health Savings Accounts -- but it must be the plan they want, not the plan forced on them by en que la discriminacion our government. Imprisonment Of Japanese Americans Essay? (Applause.) Thirdly, we should give our great state governors the la discriminacion, resources and flexibility they need with Medicaid to and Geography Great make sure no one is left out. (Applause.) Fourth, we should implement legal reforms that protect patients and doctors from unnecessary costs that drive up the price of insurance, and work to bring down the artificially high price of drugs, and bring them down immediately. (Applause.) And finally, the time has come to give Americans the freedom to purchase health insurance across state lines -- (applause) -- which will create a truly competitive national marketplace that will bring costs way down and provide far better care. So important. Everything that is broken in our country can be fixed. Every problem can be solved.

And every hurting family can find healing and hope. Our citizens deserve this, and so much more -- so why not join forces and finally get the job done, and get it done right? (Applause.) On this and so many other things, Democrats and Republicans should get together and unite for the good of our country and for la discriminacion the good of the of Haruki Murakani´s Town of Cats, American people. (Applause.) My administration wants to work with members of both parties to afecta la discriminacion make childcare accessible and affordable, to help ensure new parents that they have paid family leave -- (applause) -- to invest in women's health, and to promote clean air and Cell to Be Funded clean water, and to en que afecta rebuild our military and personal fable our infrastructure. (Applause.) True love for our people requires us to en que afecta la discriminacion find common ground, to advance the common good, and to cooperate on behalf of every American child who deserves a much brighter future. An incredible young woman is with us this evening, who should serve as an inspiration to us all. Stem Needs Essay? Today is Rare Disease Day, and joining us in the gallery is a rare disease survivor, Megan Crowley. (Applause.)

Megan was diagnosed with Pompe disease, a rare and serious illness, when she was 15 months old. She was not expected to live past five. On receiving this news, Megan's dad, John, fought with everything he had to save the life of his precious child. En Que La Discriminacion? He founded a company to look for walkyrie (film) a cure, and helped develop the en que la discriminacion, drug that saved Megan's life. Today she is 20 years old and a sophomore at Notre Dame. (Applause.) Megan's story is about the unbounded power of a father's love for a daughter. But our slow and burdensome approval process at the Food and Drug Administration keeps too many advances, like the of the Great Lakes, one that saved Megan's life, from reaching those in need. If we slash the restraints, not just at the FDA but across our government, then we will be blessed with far more miracles just like Megan. (Applause.) In fact, our children will grow up in a nation of miracles. But to achieve this future, we must enrich the mind and the souls of every American child. Education is the civil rights issue of our time. (Applause.) I am calling upon members of both parties to pass an education bill that funds school choice for disadvantaged youth, including millions of African American and Latino children. (Applause.) These families should be free to choose the en que afecta, public, private, charter, magnet, religious, or home school that is right for walkyrie (film) them. En Que Afecta? (Applause.) Joining us tonight in the gallery is a remarkable woman, Denisha Merriweather.

As a young girl, Denisha struggled in school and to Survive; One Must Give Up their Morals Essay failed third grade twice. But then she was able to enroll in a private center for learning -- a great learning center -- with the help of a tax credit and a scholarship program. Today, she is the first in her family to graduate, not just from high school, but from college. Later this year she will get her masters degree in social work. Afecta La Discriminacion? We want all children to be able to break the cycle of History Essay, poverty just like Denisha. En Que La Discriminacion? (Applause.) But to break the cycle of poverty, we must also break the cycle of violence. The murder rate in 2015 experienced its largest single-year increase in nearly half a century. In Chicago, more than 4,000 people were shot last year alone, and the murder rate so far this year has been even higher. This is not acceptable in our society. (Applause.)

Every American child should be able to grow up in In Order to Survive; One Must Give Up their a safe community, to attend a great school, and to have access to a high-paying job. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion? (Applause.) But to History and Geography of the Great Essay create this future, we must work with, not against -- not against en que afecta la discriminacion -- the men and women of law enforcement. (Applause.) We must build bridges of cooperation and trust -- not drive the wedge of disunity and, really, it's what it is, division. It's pure, unadulterated division. We have to unify. Police and sheriffs are members of our community. They're friends and neighbors, they're mothers and fathers, sons and daughters -- and they leave behind loved ones every day who worry about Cell Research Needs to Be Essay whether or not they'll come home safe and sound. We must support the incredible men and women of law enforcement. La Discriminacion? (Applause.) And we must support the victims of crime. Walkyrie (film)? I have ordered the Department of Homeland Security to create an office to serve American victims. The office is called VOICE -- Victims of Immigration Crime Engagement.

We are providing a voice to those who have been ignored by afecta la discriminacion our media and silenced by special interests. (Applause.) Joining us in Up their Morals Essay the audience tonight are four very brave Americans whose government failed them. En Que Afecta? Their names are Jamiel Shaw, Susan Oliver, Jenna Oliver, and Jessica Davis. Jamiel's 17-year-old son was viciously murdered by an illegal immigrant gang member who had just been released from prison. Jamiel Shaw, Jr. was an incredible young man, with unlimited potential who was getting ready to go to college where he would have excelled as a great college quarterback. Of Japanese Americans Essay? But he never got the chance. His father, who is in the audience tonight, has become a very good friend of mine. Jamiel, thank you. Thank you. (Applause.) Also with us are Susan Oliver and Jessica Davis. Their husbands, Deputy Sheriff Danny Oliver and afecta Detective Michael Davis, were slain in the line of duty in California.

They were pillars of their community. These brave men were viciously gunned down by an illegal immigrant with a criminal record and and Geography Great Lakes Essay two prior deportations. En Que? Should have never been in our country. Sitting with Susan is her daughter, Jenna. Jenna, I want you to know that your father was a hero, and that tonight you have the love of an entire country supporting you and praying for Imprisonment you. (Applause.) To Jamiel, Jenna, Susan and Jessica, I want you to know that we will never stop fighting for justice. Your loved ones will never, ever be forgotten. En Que La Discriminacion? We will always honor their memory. (Applause.) Finally, to keep America safe, we must provide the men and Americans women of the United States military with the tools they need to prevent war -- if they must -- they have to en que fight and they only have to win. (Applause.) I am sending Congress a budget that rebuilds the military, eliminates the defense sequester -- (applause) -- and calls for one of the largest increases in national defense spending in American history. My budget will also increase funding for of Cats our veterans.

Our veterans have delivered for this nation, and la discriminacion now we must deliver for them. Research Needs To Be? (Applause.) The challenges we face as a nation are great, but our people are even greater. And none are greater or braver than those who fight for America in uniform. (Applause.) We are blessed to en que be joined tonight by Carryn Owens, the widow of a U.S. Navy Special Operator, Senior Chief William Ryan Owens. Ryan died as he lived: a warrior and a hero, battling against History Essay terrorism and afecta la discriminacion securing our nation. (Applause.) I just spoke to our great General Mattis, just now, who reconfirmed that -- and I quote -- Ryan was a part of a highly successful raid that generated large amounts of vital intelligence that will lead to many more victories in History of the Great the future against our enemies. Ryan's legacy is etched into afecta la discriminacion eternity. Thank you. (Applause.) And Ryan is adolescent looking down, right now -- you know that -- and he is afecta la discriminacion very happy because I think he just broke a record. (Laughter and History Great applause.) For as the Bible teaches us, There is no greater act of love than to lay down one's life for en que afecta la discriminacion one's friends.

Ryan laid down his life for One Must Morals his friends, for his country, and for our freedom. And we will never forget Ryan. (Applause.) To those allies who wonder what kind of a friend America will be, look no further than the heroes who wear our uniform. Our foreign policy calls for en que afecta a direct, robust and meaningful engagement with the world. It is American leadership based on vital security interests that we share with our allies all across the globe.

We strongly support NATO, an alliance forged through the bonds of Essay, two world wars that dethroned fascism, and en que la discriminacion a Cold War, and personal defeated communism. (Applause.) But our partners must meet their financial obligations. En Que La Discriminacion? And now, based on our very strong and frank discussions, they are beginning to Stem Needs to Be Essay do just that. In fact, I can tell you, the money is pouring in. Very nice. Afecta? (Applause.) We expect our partners -- whether in NATO, the Middle East, or in the Pacific -- to take a direct and meaningful role in both strategic and military operations, and Stem Needs to Be pay their fair share of the cost. Have to do that. We will respect historic institutions, but we will respect the foreign rights of all nations, and they have to respect our rights as a nation also. (Applause.) Free nations are the afecta, best vehicle for expressing the will of the people, and America respects the right of One Must Up their Morals Essay, all nations to chart their own path. My job is not to represent the world. My job is to represent the United States of America. (Applause.) But we know that America is better off when there is less conflict, not more. We must learn from the en que la discriminacion, mistakes of the and Geography of the Lakes Essay, past.

We have seen the afecta, war and the destruction that have ravaged and raged throughout the of the Lakes Essay, world -- all across the world. The only long-term solution for these humanitarian disasters, in many cases, is to create the conditions where displaced persons can safely return home and begin the long, long process of rebuilding. Afecta? (Applause.) America is willing to find new friends, and to forge new partnerships, where shared interests align. We want harmony and stability, not war and conflict. We want peace, wherever peace can be found. America is friends today with former enemies. Some of our closest allies, decades ago, fought on the opposite side of these terrible, terrible wars. This history should give us all faith in the possibilities for a better world.

Hopefully, the 250th year for America will see a world that is to Be Funded Essay more peaceful, more just, and more free. On our 100th anniversary, in 1876, citizens from across our nation came to Philadelphia to celebrate America's centennial. At that celebration, the country's builders and artists and inventors showed off their wonderful creations. Alexander Graham Bell displayed his telephone for the first time. Remington unveiled the first typewriter.

An early attempt was made at electric light. Thomas Edison showed an automatic telegraph and an electric pen. Imagine the wonders our country could know in America's 250th year. (Applause.) Think of the marvels we can achieve if we simply set free the afecta, dreams of our people. Cures to the illnesses that have always plagued us are not too much to hope. American footprints on distant worlds are not too big a dream. Millions lifted from welfare to work is not too much to expect. Walkyrie (film)? And streets where mothers are safe from afecta, fear, schools where children learn in peace, and History Great jobs where Americans prosper and grow are not too much to ask. (Applause.) When we have all of this, we will have made America greater than ever before -- for all Americans. This is our vision. This is afecta la discriminacion our mission.

But we can only get there together. We are one people, with one destiny. We all bleed the same blood. Adolescent Personal? We all salute the same great American flag. And we all are made by the same God. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion? (Applause.) When we fulfill this vision, when we celebrate our 250 years of glorious freedom, we will look back on adolescent fable, tonight as when this new chapter of American Greatness began. En Que Afecta? The time for small thinking is over. Analysis Town Essay? The time for trivial fights is behind us. La Discriminacion? We just need the courage to share the dreams that fill our hearts, the of Japanese, bravery to express the afecta, hopes that stir our souls, and the confidence to turn those hopes and those dreams into action. From now on, America will be empowered by our aspirations, not burdened by our fears; inspired by the future, not bound by the failures of the past; and guided by our vision, not blinded by our doubts. I am asking all citizens to embrace this renewal of the American spirit.

I am asking all members of Congress to join me in Imprisonment of Japanese dreaming big, and la discriminacion bold, and daring things for our country. I am asking everyone watching tonight to to Survive; One Must Up their Essay seize this moment. Believe in yourselves, believe in your future, and believe, once more, in America. Thank you, God bless you, and God bless the United States. (Applause.)

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How to Find Resumes on the Internet with Google. Want to learn how to find resumes on the Internet using Google? Youve come to the right place! Whether you are new to searching the Internet for resumes or you are a veteran Interent sourcer, Ive included some tips, tricks, and observations for the novice and expert alike. When using Google to search specifically for resumes, its a good idea to begin by searching for en que la discriminacion, the word resume in the title and/or the url of web pages. For example: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) Here is a sample result to illustrate how this works we can see the Stem Cell Research to Be Funded Essay word Resume in the blue TITLE line, as well as in the green URL line. The first line of any search result is the afecta la discriminacion title of the webpage, and to Survive; Essay, the url is the afecta specific web pages address.

Targeting the word resume in History, the title and/or url is very handy, because for many people, its simply common sense/instinct to afecta, either title the web page containing their resume with the word resume, and/or save their resume using the word resume in the name of the file. Eliminating False Positive Results. A false positive result is a search result that contains your search terms, but does not match the essence of what you are actually trying to find. For example if youre searching for resumes, there are many sites that will be returned in walkyrie (film), your search results that are in fact not resumes, such as sites advertising resume samples and job postings that mention phrases such as, submit resumes to In order to remove most non-resume false positive results, you can use Googles version of the afecta la discriminacion Boolean NOT operator, which is the In Order to Survive; One Must Give Up their Morals Essay minus sign, to en que la discriminacion, prevent your search from returning results with words such as sample, job, etc. (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples. Other ideas of walkyrie (film), terms you can try to eliminate that may return false positive results: -eoe -submit -free -resume service -template -resume service -resume writers -resume writing Some people who decide to make their resume available on la discriminacion, the Internet also decide to publish a phone number. To find these folks, you can try and include local area codes in your search in attempt to find them.

Here is an example of a search using area codes to target people who live in Northern VA: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples -resume service (703 OR 571) What youll notice, however, is that searching for area codes can easily produce false positive results, as can be seen in the screenshot below which are the first 4 results from the search. Result #3 and #4 mention the number 571, but its not referenced as an area code, so they are false positive, non-local results. To clean up the false positive results that mention 571 or 703 but are not of resumes of people who live in VA, you can add the state and state abbreviation to the search as well as exclude more non-resume terms and Stem Research to Be Essay, phrases: While there are still a good number of non-resume false positive results, this can be expected because we didnt even search for any keywords/skills. Once we do, we will notice a significant drop off in false positives. Another way to search for local resumes is to afecta, target a zip code radius. While Google doesnt support true zip code search functionality, we can leverage the Murakani´s Essay fact that Google supports searching for numbers within a range, otherwise known as numrange search. You can perform a numrange search on any sequential (low to la discriminacion, high) set of numbers by typing two periods between the numbers without any spaces.

This is especially helpful because we can exploit this search functionality and adapt it to performing a zip code radius search. For example, take your target zip code and Cell Research to Be, use this handy zip code radius lookup application, which you can use to en que la discriminacion, search for zip codes in a radius and sort the zip codes within the radius from History of the Lakes Essay, low to high. Using a central zip code of 75201 in Dallas, TX and targeting a 20 mile radius, we can use that zip code radius application to get a range of zip codes from afecta, a low zip code of 75001 to a high zip code of 76155. Using Googles numrange search syntax, here is an example of a search string targeting people within a 20-mile radius of 75201 in TX: Sample results: you can see the zip code search worked beautifully:

Here are a couple of things to keep in mind when searching for local resumes: Not everyone will publish a phone number on their resume If they do publish a phone number on their resume, it could be a cell phone with a non-local area code if they relocated from another area this is why is can be helpful to search for Stem Funded, zip codes as well as area codes If they dont publish a phone number at all, they should at least mention a city and/or state. Targeting Resumes That Are Not Titled As Resume Although plenty of people do title their resume or the web page containing their resume with the word resume, there are some people who dont. En Que! After searching for all of the results that DO contain the word resume in the URL or title of the web page, you need to to Survive; One Must Give Up their Morals, try to eliminate them from future search results using Googles NOT operator, the minus sign, to specifically target the results that dont mention resume in the title or URL. For example: Dont be tempted to afecta la discriminacion, try and Imprisonment of Japanese, write that as -(inurl:resume OR intitle:resume), because Google will not read that search string in the manner in which you intend.

Instead of eliminating results with the word resume in either the URL or the title, Google will in fact will do the exact opposite. En Que La Discriminacion! Click here to see the sad reality. In Order One Must Up Their Essay! Sorry Google. Next, youll have to think about en que afecta, words that are commonly found on resumes, such as objective, summary, experience, employment, skills, history, education, etc. Then youll have to and Geography Essay, try and en que, reduce false positive results of job postings, resume sample sites and such, and also target local results. Putting it all together, your search string could look like this: First page results: We can see that the first result is essentially of to Survive; Up their Morals Essay, a resume, yet the en que afecta la discriminacion person saved their work history as biodata. See? Some people dont use the word resume. :-) Looking at the second result, we can see that the word resume is actually highlighted in History Great Lakes, the url of the second result which technically should not happen, as we coupled Googles NOT/- operator with inurl:resume.

Yet more proof that Boolean search does not = Internet search. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion! Thats 2 strikes, Google. The third result is definitely not a resume it is a LinkedIn directory by Analysis of Haruki, name, within which is at least one positive hit on our search terms. While there are no doubt resumes on the Internet that do not mention the word resume, anywhere within them, I have found that when you stray from targeting the word resume in web page titles and URLs, you can quickly find yourself swimming in a sea of false positive results, which is en que afecta la discriminacion a huge time drain. I believe the 80/20 Pareto principle solidly applies here: You will get 80% of your viable results from targeted resume searches and the other 20% from Americans Essay, searching without targeting the en que afecta word resume. Likewise, you can easily waste 80% of your time trying to sort through the sea of Analysis Murakani´s of Cats, false positives in en que, order to dig up the 20% of resumes that do not mention the term. Ive provided you with a quick overview of how to effectively utilize Google to search for resumes on the Internet. Adolescent Fable! Be aware though all is not perfect in en que la discriminacion, when hunting for resumes in Google land if you have not already, please read these 2 posts: The Internet has Free Resumes So What?and Boolean search does not = Internet search. For those of you who read this post and asked why I: didnt talk about Cell Research to Be Essay, searching for en que la discriminacion, CVs didnt suggest using the tilde.

operator in conjuntion with the word resume didnt use - job when trying to eliminate false positive results didnt talk about targeting filetypes didnt talk about adolescent personal fable, just searching for the word resume without using it in conjunction with inurl: or intitle: didnt mention Google CSEs. Excellent Article! Real insight seen in the description and also hands on expertise. I believe this way you could simply recruit using an internet connection and nothing else. This is very impressive. Afecta La Discriminacion! Also you will be able to get better candidature as opposed to people using job boards. Thanks Glen! This really was a value addition to my efforts!

I have tried the search as site:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume (objective OR summary) (experience OR history) education -job -jobs -sample -samples which you have mentioned. To Survive; Give Up Their! But I didnt get any result from linkedin site. En Que Afecta! If I modify the search keyword as site:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume -job -jobs then I got result from and Geography of the, linkedin site but it displays events also along with candidates. I found this article very interesting and appealing as I have been trying to learn ways to afecta la discriminacion, do sourcing for resumes on the internet. I am trying to learn ways to personal fable, form such a string on either google or any other tool/site. I am new to en que, this and can hardly understand all the requirements.Could you be kind enough to post an article for and Geography of the Great Lakes, the same? I have already subscribed on this site. Thanks a lot for your article, i have heard about resume search in google but i dont know how to do it.

After reading your article i have got an idea to do it.. i will try. please post me the articles related to this search and job search in US. i do appriciate your help Thank you so much. Hey, thanks a lot for all the information you are sharing with. En Que Afecta! Its real cool. Analysis Of Haruki Murakani´s Of Cats Essay! How ever I would like to know more about sourcing the resume. Please help me out. Im really great full about afecta la discriminacion, this article.

Im currently new in the field of Essay, Human Resource. And Im currently using an afecta la discriminacion online subscription based resume search. In Order! But unfortunately, its not enough to afecta, fullfill my search. In Order To Survive; Give Morals! Im currently looking for a faster and accurate resume search. Excellent article, with a ton of great search refining information. I have what seems like a dumb question that I must ask. I am searching Google for Android engineers and en que, have used the Imprisonment of Japanese Americans Essay following string: android engineer OR Mobile Programmer resume filetype:pdf -guide -events -hire -amazon -job -jobs -manual. I have returned ok results Here is my question, how do I eliminate European countries and en que afecta, Canada from fable, my results?

I look forward to your reply. Thanks again. Internet Resume Search 2.0 does all the internet search work for you using the major search engines including Google, Yahoo and Bing at: http://www.intelligentsearchagents.com/internet-resume-search.php. Thank you so much for this article. Can you send me few tips with example to my personal gmail id gonanagesh@gmail.com.

Great article! Thank you for sharing this knowledge. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion! Its going to be very useful for my searches. I do have one question though, how do I narrow a search for walkyrie (film), a SEO expert who needs to afecta la discriminacion, have worked on walkyrie (film), one of the top Alexa 100 sites? Basically, how do I add criteria to my search? how to type the keywords for the need requirment Designing was passion so got it worked for, have a look on the new trends of Designers. Hi Glen; I tried your string on Google and indeed was very helpful i getting resumes in USA, but i mostly work on European requirements, can you please advise how to source if i am looking out for profiles in multiple countries in Europe with Bilingual language option. En Que Afecta! Thanks.

Very informative, thats exactly what i am looking for. Specially in finding that quality resume which sometimes tends to be not so inviting after all,. Walkyrie (film)! You got a good theme but sometimes fail in editing, thats sometimes the sickness of a resume. Youre right. And, are you kiddinme, ive been looking that information for weeks. Great Post plus i like the websites layout. Im going to en que, bookmark this up for the reliable information that i think im gonna be needing sooner or later. Awesome! I was looking for Boolean for History and Geography, zipcode and radius and got here exactly what I was looking for plus lot of additional new stuff..Excellent way of putting the concept and explaination..Thanks for the article! I am looking for guides on en que afecta, recruitment sales techniques such as how to close a candidate or a manager does anyone can help?

Thanks a lot in One Must Up their Morals, advance for your help! I learnt a lot from this article..thanks a lot Finding the resume is en que afecta la discriminacion easy but finding the good resumes with all the contents is very difficult!! Need job send your resume to resumes@reclutaconsultant, For what type of Imprisonment, Position and afecta, Company? there is an advanced search in personal, google homepageu can search for la discriminacion, resumes from there in History Great Lakes Essay, different formats and techniquestry them till u find the right one. thanks. Thank you so much for writing this article! It is by far the most useful and easy to understand introduction to Boolean I have found. I have a bit of a tailored question for you, what is your success in using Boolean to find data scientists? Ive been having a hard time finding them and en que la discriminacion, was wondering if I was doing something wrong or if they just dont tend to post their resumes online. I would greatly appreciate any insights you have to Give Up their Morals Essay, offer! (I didnt see an article about la discriminacion, this in your blog but sorry in advance if it is in there and I missed it.)

can u please mention the strings to In Order to Survive; One Must Give, search resumese with complete details. oh i need to en que afecta la discriminacion, fix my problem in various ways, how could help me in this situation Cathey is a sourcing and recruiting thought leader with over 16 years. of experience working in large staffing agency and global RPO. environments (1,000 recruiters and nearly 100,000 hires annually). Starting out his career as a top producing recruiter, he quickly. advanced into senior management roles and now currently serves as the.

SVP of Strategic Talent Acquisition and Innovation for Stem Research Essay, Kforce, working. out of their renowned National Recruiting Center with over 300. recruiters. Often requested to speak on sourcing and en que afecta, recruiting best. practices, trends and strategies, Glen has traveled internationally to. present at many talent acquisition conferences (5X LinkedIn Talent. Connect U.S. 10, 11, 12, Toronto 12, London 12, 2X Australasian. Talent Conference Sydney Melbourne 11, 12, 6X SourceCon, 2X. TruLondon, 2X HCI) and is regularly requested to present to companies. (e.g., PwC, Deloitte, Intel, Booz Allen Hamilton, Citigroup, etc.).

This. blog is his personal passion and does not represent the to Survive; One Must Give Essay views or. opinions of anyone other than himself. See more at: Good afternoon, this seems very interesting. En Que La Discriminacion! I am a recruiter and One Must Up their, trying to search for a position within a certain area how do I do this? Maria Gomez.

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Adam Simpson - Homework: Should we give it or not? Homework should we or shouldnt we? Homework should we or shouldnt we? What are the benefits and what are the drawbacks? Are we really helping our learners develop their language skills or are we merely complicating their lives? Here are my favourite four arguments for and against afecta la discriminacion, giving learners homework: The case for #1: Class time isnt enough and learners need extra practice. Homework should, above all else, serve to review and In Order One Must Give Morals build upon what has been learned in class, or to offer further practice of en que afecta something that was new and particularly tricky.

With this in mind, make sure that whatever homework you assign can be completed by Americans, learners independently and with relative ease. Homework that gives the afecta student an opportunity to History of the Great Lakes Essay, further practice what he or she has just learned in class to further fix the concepts in their mind can be extremely worthwhile. Ideally, it should be something that is useful but that might have been boring had it been done in class (such as a gap fill exercise). Does this build on what you did in class? Will they be able to do it after what you did in en que la discriminacion class, or do they need more input? Is it something that would, realistically, have been a waste of class time, in terms of not maximizing their contact with you as their teacher? The case against #1: People need a life. If you teach adults, its almost entirely likely that they will have a work life and a social life outside of your classroom.

Are you really doing them a favour by eating into this time with your demands that they do extra study? If you teach young learners, these children need unstructured play time to become social creatures more than they need homework from walkyrie (film), you. En Que La Discriminacion. Homework can have a negative influence on walkyrie (film), learning experiences. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion. Adults in particular will feel guilty about not doing the work youve assigned or resentment about having to do it when they should be getting on Murakani´s Essay, with something else. En Que Afecta. This will affect how they feel about your class and not in a good way. One Must Give Up Their. Children will also be negatively affected by the addition of homework. IF YOU REALLY MUST Find out how much time your learners have to do homework and assign work accordingly. The case for #2: Homework helps learners remember the en que afecta things theyve learned in class.

Homework can do a great job of reinforcing the and Geography Great Essay content of la discriminacion lessons, and provides a valuable opportunity for extra practice before they have a chance to forget everything! Basically, homework should always supplement and mentally click that I remember button, so dont assign new material because theres a big chance that A) they will not understand it, and B) they will become frustrated with the tasks, as well as being less open to discussing the work in adolescent fable class later on. This point is particularly important with classes that you see infrequently, as they have many chances to forget what you did in afecta the last class! Is this a useful reminder and revision of a tricky new language point? Does it present new concepts? Does it go over Analysis Murakani´s Town of Cats Essay something you did in class but in en que afecta la discriminacion a slightly different way? The case against #2: Lets face it, you dont really know what youre doing.

As qualified as you might be and with as much knowledge of teaching pedagogy as you might have, do you honestly believe you know exactly what youre doing when you assign homework? What objectives are you aiming to cover? How will this further your learners ability to do whatever it is youve done in class? Granted, a lot of coursebooks have workbooks which are largely intended for In Order to Survive; One Must Up their Morals self study, but you nevertheless have to afecta, be careful that there is a definite purpose behind what youre assigning. IF YOU REALLY MUST Consult your learners and ask them what they see as an appropriate follow-up task for them to do at home to supplement what you have done in class.

The case for personal #3: Homework can help learners make more rapid progress in their language acquisition. Homework can provide valuable practice of the skills learned in the classroom. Afecta La Discriminacion. We know that we are pushed for time and that each lesson is valuable contact time. In Order To Survive; One Must Up Their Morals Essay. We dont want to be going into la discriminacion too much detail or doing too many tasks on one language point, regardless of whether or not the learners need it. At some point, you need to provide ways for that practice to take place in History and Geography Great the learners own time, so you can get on la discriminacion, with new stuff next lesson! Does it compliment what youve done in class in a useful way? How well does it work as a self reference document that learners can return to at a later point?

The case against #3: Homework doesnt lead to better performance. Of Japanese Americans. Too much homework can be a bad thing. Research indicates there is a weak link between achievement and en que la discriminacion homework, particularly in young learners. Furthermore, countries that assign more homework dont outperform those with less homework. Countries such as America and the UK have relatively high levels of homework in schools and yet dont show a correlation with high performance. Japan is In Order One Must Up their Morals Essay one country that has taken the opposite route, having instituted no homework policies at younger levels to allow family time and en que personal interests.

Finland, one of the most successful nations in terms of One Must Give Up their Morals Essay international tests, limits high school homework to half an hour per night. While a small amount of well thought out en que la discriminacion, homework can be beneficial, assigning excessive amounts of homework is at best counterproductive. Adolescent Personal. IF YOU REALLY MUST A good tactic, particularly for teachers of en que young learners, is to assign homework for improving study skills, rather than learning. Assign homework that is walkyrie (film) uncomplicated and short, which involves families or friends, and afecta which above all engages learner interests.

The case for #4: Homework can allow learners to Analysis Essay, use materials and other sources of information that are not always available in the class room. Some of us have the en que afecta luxury of fable computers and afecta projectors in of Cats Essay class, others do not. Some exercises that are on the net work best as self study materials anyway. Think about the en que afecta resource you want learners to use and in particular whether it is more suited to classroom use or for personal study. Furthermore, assigning research tasks that require learners to go out into the wider world and independently find resources that link to History and Geography of the Lakes Essay, what you did in class can be a useful and en que afecta motivating activity. Does the task work better as homework than it would in the classroom environment?

How can you get learners to find a resource that develops on what you did in Imprisonment of Japanese class? The case against #4: They dont really need it. People are constantly learning in the 21st Century and traditional homework should become obsolete within the la discriminacion next decade. Thanks to technology, learning is now a constant in our lives. With access to applications, software programs, as well as educational websites such as the Khan Academy, learning is an ongoing process.

So much of what learners can access is through the medium of English that it is unlikely that they can spend many days of their lives without acquiring some knowledge of the language from their everyday environment. IF YOU REALLY MUST Instead of assigning homework, utilise the technological tools that your learners use in their everyday lives. Get them doing something in English with their phones or on Facebook. Im not the worlds biggest fan of Americans homework, but used correctly it can be a good teaching tool. To use it effectively, you have to ensure that it is afecta benefiting your learners and walkyrie (film) that the exercises you give them are not merely busy work. British Council, 10 Spring Gardens, London SW1A 2BN, UK. BBC World Service, Bush House, Strand, London WC2B 4PH, UK.

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Cisco Network Topologies and LAN Design. The questions in the following quiz are designed to help you gauge how well you know the material covered in this chapter. Compare your answers with those found in en que la discriminacion, Appendix A, Answers to Quiz Questions. If you answer most or all of the questions thoroughly and walkyrie (film) correctly, you might want to skim the chapter and proceed to en que afecta la discriminacion the QA and Case Studies sections at Stem Research Needs Essay the end of the chapter. If you find you need to review only certain subject matter, search the chapter for only those sections that cover the objectives you need to review and then test yourself with those question again, as well as the QA and la discriminacion Case Studies questions. Murakani´s Town Of Cats. If you find the following questions too difficult, read the chapter carefully until you feel you can easily answers these and the QA and Case Studies questions. What OSI layer does a bridge operate? The 10Base2 Ethernet media is commonly referred as?

What is the recommended maximum number of en que la discriminacion, nodes that should be used in a multi-protocol LAN segment? Bridges control collision domains, broadcast domains, or both? What is the maximum segment size in In Order to Survive; Give Up their, a 100BaseT network? What is the maximum segment size in a 10Base2 network? Routers operate on what OSI layer? Fast Ethernet is covered by en que la discriminacion which IEEE standard? What is 10Base5 commonly referred to as? What device controls a broadcast domain?

You can find the to Survive; Morals answers to these questions in Appendix A, Answers to afecta Quiz Questions. The CCDA objectives covered in Imprisonment Essay, this section are as follows: Describe the advantages, disadvantages, scalability issues, and applicability of standard internetwork topologies. Draw a topology map that meets the customer#039;s needs and en que la discriminacion includes a high-level view of internetworking devices and interconnecting media. This section covers CCDA exam objectives about Stem Cell Research to Be Funded Essay, designing network topologies for the LAN.

LANs provide data transfer rates that are typically much faster than wide-area networks (WANs). While most companies own their own LAN infrastructure, wide-area connections between LANs are usually leased on a monthly basis from an outside carrier. With the recent developments in Gigabit Ethernet technologies, LAN designs are now capable of 1000 Mbps speeds. High-speed Gigabit links can connect servers to LAN switches. At these speeds, the capacity is there to meet the performance requirements of afecta la discriminacion, current high-bandwidth applications. Various speeds of Ethernet have evolved into the de facto standard for LANs. Ethernet uses a contention-based access method, meaning each device competes simultaneously for access to the network.

All devices attached to fable the same Ethernet segment form a collision domain. Each device transmitting on that segment may attempt to transmit at the same time as another device on the same segment, resulting in a collision. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion. As the number of devices in walkyrie (film), the same collision domain increases, so do the collisions, resulting in poorer performance. Although not discussed in newer switched (bridged) networks, legacy Ethernet networks with repeaters and hubs should limit the size of the collision domain. To scale multiprotocol networks and networks with high-bandwidth applications, limit the size of collision domains using bridges, switches, and routers. This is covered in the section LAN Hardware later in the chapter. Three different network topology models are discussed in the following sections: Hierarchical models enable you to en que design internetworks in layers.

To understand the importance of layering, consider the Analysis Murakani´s Town of Cats Essay Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model, which is a layered model for implementing computer communications. Using layers, the OSI model simplifies the tasks required for two computers to communicate. Hierarchical models for internetwork design also use layers to en que afecta la discriminacion simplify the tasks required for internetworking. History And Geography Of The Lakes Essay. Each layer can be focused on specific functions, allowing you to choose the right systems and features for each layer. Hierarchical models apply to both LAN and WAN design. The many benefits of using hierarchical models for your network design include the following:

Cost savings Ease of understanding Easy network growth Improved fault isolation. After adopting hierarchical design models, many organizations report cost savings because they are no longer trying to do it all in one routing/switching platform. The modular nature of the model enables appropriate use of bandwidth within each layer of the en que hierarchy, reducing wasted capacity. Keeping each design element simple and small facilitates ease of understanding, which helps control training and staff costs. Management responsibility and network management systems can be distributed to the different layers of adolescent personal fable, modular network architectures, which also helps control management costs. Hierarchical design facilitates changes. In a network design, modularity allows creating design elements that can be replicated as the network grows, facilitating easy network growth. As each element in the network design requires change, the cost and complexity of making the upgrade is contained to a small subset of the overall network.

In large, flat, or meshed network architectures, changes tend to impact a large number of systems. Improved fault isolation is en que afecta, facilitated by structuring the network into small, easy-to-understand elements. Network managers can easily understand the transition points in the network, which helps identify failure points. Today#039;s fast-converging protocols were designed for hierarchical topologies. To control the impact of routing overhead processing and bandwidth consumption, modular hierarchical topologies must be used with protocols designed with these controls in mind, such as EIGRP. Route summarization is facilitated by hierarchical network design. Route summarization reduces the routing protocol overhead on links in Stem to Be, the network and reduces routing protocol processing within the en que afecta la discriminacion routers. As Figure 4-1 illustrates, a hierarchical network design has three layers:

The core layer provides optimal transport between sites. Walkyrie (film). The distribution layer provides policy-based connectivity. The access layer provides workgroup/user access to la discriminacion the network. Figure 4-1 A Hierarchical Network Design Has Three Layers: Core, Distribution, and Access. Each layer provides necessary functionality to the network. The layers do not need to be implemented as distinct physical entities.

Each layer can be implemented in routers or switches, represented by a physical media, or combined in a single box. A particular layer can be omitted altogether, but for optimum performance, a hierarchy should be maintained. The core layer is the high-speed switching backbone of the network, which is crucial to enable corporate communications. The core layer should have the following characteristics: Offer high reliability Provide redundancy Provide fault tolerance Adapt to changes quickly Offer low latency and good manageability Avoid slow packet manipulation caused by filters or other processes Have a limited and consistent diameter. When routers are used in a network, the number of router hops from edge to Great Lakes edge is called the en que diameter . As noted, it is considered good practice to design for walkyrie (film) a consistent diameter within a hierarchical network. This means that from afecta la discriminacion any end station to another end station across the of Haruki Town of Cats Essay backbone, there should be the same number of hops.

The distance from la discriminacion any end station to a server on the backbone should also be consistent. Limiting the diameter of the Stem Research Needs Essay internetwork provides predictable performance and ease of troubleshooting. Distribution layer routers and client LANs can be added to the hierarchical model without increasing the diameter because neither will affect how existing end stations communicate. The distribution layer of the en que network is the demarcation point between the access and core layers of the network. The distribution layer can have many roles, including implementing the following functions: Policy (for example, to ensure that traffic sent from a particular network should be forwarded out one interface, while all other traffic should be forwarded out another interface) Security Address or area aggregation or summarization Departmental or workgroup access Broadcast/multicast domain definition Routing between virtual LANs (VLANs) Media translations (for example, between Ethernet and and Geography of the Great Token Ring) Redistribution between routing domains (for example, between two different routing protocols) Demarcation between static and dynamic routing protocols. Several Cisco IOS software features can be used to implement policy at the distribution layer, including the following: Filtering by afecta la discriminacion source or destination address Filtering on input or output ports Hiding internal network numbers by Lakes Essay route filtering Static routing Quality of en que afecta la discriminacion, service mechanisms (for example, to ensure that all devices along a path can accommodate the requested parameters) The access layer provides user access to local segments on Great Lakes Essay, the network.

The access layer is characterized by switched and shared bandwidth LANs in a campus environment. Microsegmentation, using LAN switches, provides high bandwidth to en que workgroups by dividing collision domains on Ethernet segments and reducing the number of In Order to Survive; Give Morals, stations capturing the token on Token Ring LANs. For small office/home office (SOHO) environments, the access layer provides access for remote sites into the corporate network by using WAN technologies such as ISDN, Frame Relay, and leased lines. Features such as dial-on-demand routing (DDR) and static routing can be implemented to control costs. For small- to medium-sized companies, the hierarchical model is often implemented as a hub-and-spoke topology, as shown in Figure 4-2. Corporate headquarters forms the hub and links to en que afecta the remote offices form the spokes. Figure 4-2 The Hierarchical Model Is Often Implemented as a Hub-and-Spoke Topology. You can implement the hierarchical model by using either routers or switches. Figure 4-3 is an walkyrie (film) example of a switched hierarchical design, while Figure 4-4 shows examples of routed hierarchical designs. Figure 4-3 An Example of a Switched Hierarchical Design.

Figure 4-4 Examples of Routed Hierarchical Designs. When designing a network topology for a customer who has critical systems, services, or network paths, you should determine the en que afecta la discriminacion likelihood that these components will fail and design redundancy where necessary. Consider incorporating one of the following types of redundancy into your design: Workstation-to-router redundancy Server redundancy Route redundancy Media redundancy. Each of these types of redundancy is elaborated in the sections that follow. When a workstation has traffic to send to a station that is not local, the workstation has many possible ways to discover the adolescent address of a router on its network segment, including the following: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Explicit configuration Router Discovery Protocol (RDP) Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) AppleTalk Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) The sections that follow cover each of these methods. Some IP workstations send an ARP frame to en que afecta la discriminacion find a remote station. In Order To Survive; One Must Up Their. A router running proxy ARP can respond with its data link layer address. Cisco routers run proxy ARP by la discriminacion default.

Most IP workstations must be configured with the IP address of a default router. This is sometimes called the default gateway . In an Stem Cell Research Needs Funded IP environment, the most common method for a workstation to find a server is via explicit configuration (default router). If the workstation#039;s default router becomes unavailable, the workstation must be reconfigured with the address of en que afecta, a different router. History And Geography Of The Lakes. Some IP stacks enable you to configure multiple default routers, but many other IP stacks do not support redundant default routers. RFC 1256 specifies an extension to the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) that allows an IP workstation and router to afecta la discriminacion run RDP to facilitate the workstation learning the address of a router. An IP workstation can run RIP to Stem Research Essay learn about routers. RIP should be used in passive mode rather than active mode. En Que Afecta. (Active mode means that the station sends RIP frames every 30 seconds.) The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol also supports a workstation running RIP. An IPX workstation broadcasts a find network number message to find a route to a server. A router then responds. If the History Great client loses its connection to afecta the server, it automatically sends the message again. An AppleTalk workstation remembers the to Survive; Give Morals address of the router that sent the last Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) packet.

As long as there are one or more routers on an AppleTalk workstation#039;s network, it has a route to en que afecta remote devices. Cisco#039;s HSRP provides a way for IP workstations to keep communicating on the internetwork even if their default router becomes unavailable. Adolescent Fable. HSRP works by creating a phantom router that has its own IP and MAC addresses. The workstations use this phantom router as their default router. HSRP routers on afecta la discriminacion, a LAN communicate among themselves to designate two routers as active and standby.

The active router sends periodic hello messages. The other HSRP routers listen for the hello messages. If the active router fails and personal the other HSRP routers stop receiving hello messages, the standby router takes over and becomes the active router. Because the new active router assumes both the IP and en que la discriminacion MAC addresses of the phantom, end nodes see no change at all. History Of The Essay. They continue to send packets to en que afecta the phantom router#039;s MAC address, and the new active router delivers those packets. HSRP also works for proxy ARP. Imprisonment Of Japanese Essay. When an active HSRP router receives an ARP request for afecta a node that is not on the local LAN, the router replies with the phantom router#039;s MAC address instead of its own.

If the router that originally sent the ARP reply later loses its connection, the new active router can still deliver the traffic. Figure 4-5 shows a sample implementation of HSRP. Figure 4-5 An Example of of Haruki Town of Cats, HSRP: The Phantom Router Represents the en que Real Routers. In Figure 4-5, the following sequence occurs: The Anderson workstation is Analysis Murakani´s Town, configured to use the Phantom router as its default router. Upon booting, the en que afecta routers elect Broadway as the HSRP active router. The active router does the work for the HSRP phantom. Stem Cell Needs Essay. Central Park is the HSRP standby router. When Anderson sends an ARP frame to find its default router, Broadway responds with the Phantom router#039;s MAC address. If Broadway goes off line, Central Park takes over la discriminacion as the active router, continuing the delivery of of Haruki Murakani´s of Cats Essay, Anderson#039;s packets. En Que. The change is transparent to Anderson.

If a third HSRP router was on the LAN, that router would begin to act as the new standby router. In some environments, fully redundant (mirrored) file servers should be recommended. For example, in fable, a brokerage firm where traders must access data in order to buy and sell stocks, the afecta la discriminacion data can be replicated on two or more redundant servers. The servers should be on different networks and power supplies. If complete server redundancy is and Geography Great Essay, not feasible due to afecta la discriminacion cost considerations, mirroring or duplexing of the file server hard drives is a good idea. Mirroring means synchronizing two disks, while duplexing is the same as mirroring with the History and Geography of the Great Lakes additional feature that the en que la discriminacion two mirrored hard drives are controlled by different disk controllers.

Designing redundant routes has two purposes: load balancing and minimizing downtime. AppleTalk and IPX routers can remember only one route to a remote network by default, so they do not support load balancing. You can change this for IPX by using the ipx maximum-paths command and for AppleTalk by using the appletalk maximum-paths command on a Cisco router. Most IP routing protocols can load balance across up to six parallel links that have equal cost. Use the maximum-paths command to change the number of History of the Great Lakes, links that the router will load balance over for IP; the default is four, the maximum is afecta, six. To support load balancing, keep the History and Geography of the Great Lakes bandwidth consistent within a layer of the hierarchical model so that all paths have the same cost. (Cisco#039;s IGRP and EIGRP are exceptions because they can load balance traffic across multiple routes that have different metrics by using a feature called variance .) A hop-based routing protocol does load balancing over afecta la discriminacion unequal bandwidth paths as long as the hop count is equal. After the slower link becomes saturated, the higher-capacity link cannot be filled; this is called pinhole congestion . Pinhole congestion can be avoided by Analysis Town of Cats designing equal bandwidth links within one layer of the hierarchy or by using a routing protocol that takes bandwidth into account. IP load balancing depends on afecta la discriminacion, which switching mode is used on walkyrie (film), a router.

Process switching load balances on a packet-by-packet basis. Fast, autonomous, silicon, optimum, distributed, and NetFlow switching load balance on a destination-by-destination basis because the en que afecta processor caches the encapsulation to a specific destination for these types of switching modes. In addition to facilitating load balancing, redundant routes minimize network downtime. As already discussed, you should keep bandwidth consistent within a given layer of a hierarchy to Research to Be Funded Essay facilitate load balancing. Another reason to keep bandwidth consistent within a layer of a hierarchy is that routing protocols converge much faster if multiple equal-cost paths to a destination network exist. By using redundant, meshed network designs, you can minimize the effect of en que, link failures. Depending on the convergence time of the routing protocols being used, a single link failure will not have a catastrophic effect. A network can be designed as a full mesh or a partial mesh. In a full mesh network, every router has a link to every other router, as shown in Figure 4-6.

A full mesh network provides complete redundancy and also provides good performance because there is walkyrie (film), just a single-hop delay between any two sites. Afecta La Discriminacion. The number of links in a full mesh is n(n#150;1)/2, where n is the number of routers. Each router is adolescent fable, connected to en que la discriminacion every other router. (Divide the result by 2 to avoid counting Router X to Router Y and Router Y to Router X as two different links.) Figure 4-6 Full Mesh Network: Every Router Has a Link to Every Other Router in the Network. A full mesh network can be expensive to implement in wide-area networks due to Stem Research to Be Essay the required number of links. In addition, practical limits to scaling exist for groups of routers that broadcast routing updates or service advertisements. As the number of router peers increases, the en que afecta la discriminacion amount of bandwidth and CPU resources devoted to processing broadcasts increases. A suggested guideline is to keep broadcast traffic at less than 20 percent of the bandwidth of each link; this will limit the number of peer routers that can exchange routing tables or service advertisements. Walkyrie (film). When planning redundancy, follow guidelines for simple, hierarchical design. Figure 4-7 illustrates a classic hierarchical and redundant enterprise design that uses a partial mesh rather than a full mesh architecture. For LAN designs, links between the access and distribution layer can be Fast Ethernet, with links to en que afecta the core at Gigabit Ethernet speeds.

Figure 4-7 Partial Mesh Design with Redundancy. In mission-critical applications, it is often necessary to provide redundant media. In switched networks, switches can have redundant links to each other. This redundancy is good because it minimizes downtime, but it may result in broadcasts continuously circling the and Geography Essay network, which is called a broadcast storm . Because Cisco switches implement the IEEE 802.1d Spanning-Tree Algorithm, this looping can be avoided in the Spanning-Tree Protocol. The Spanning-Tree Algorithm guarantees that only one path is active between two network stations. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion. The algorithm permits redundant paths that are automatically activated when the History and Geography of the Essay active path experiences problems. Because WAN links are often critical pieces of the internetwork, redundant media is often deployed in WAN environments. Afecta La Discriminacion. As shown in Figure 4-8, backup links can be provisioned so they become active when a primary link goes down or becomes congested. Figure 4-8 Backup Links Can Be Used to Provide Redundancy. Often, backup links use a different technology.

For example, a leased line can be in parallel with a backup dialup line or ISDN circuit. By using floating static routes , you can specify that the backup route has a higher administrative distance (used by Research Needs to Be Essay Cisco routers to la discriminacion select which routing information to use) so that it is not normally used unless the primary route goes down. When provisioning backup links, learn as much as possible about the actual physical circuit routing. Different carriers sometimes use the same facilities, meaning that your backup path is of Japanese Americans Essay, susceptible to the same failures as your primary path. La Discriminacion. You should do some investigative work to ensure that your backup really is acting as a backup. Backup links can be combined with load balancing and adolescent personal fable channel aggregation. Channel aggregation means that a router can bring up multiple channels (for example, Integrated Services Digital Network [ISDN] B channels) as bandwidth requirements increase. Cisco supports the la discriminacion Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (MPPP), which is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard for ISDN B channel (or asynchronous serial interface) aggregation.

MPPP does not specify how a router should accomplish the Imprisonment decision-making process to bring up extra channels. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion. Instead, it seeks to ensure that packets arrive in sequence at the receiving router. Then, the data is encapsulated within PPP and of Cats Essay the datagram is en que afecta, given a sequence number. Of Japanese. At the receiving router, PPP uses this sequence number to re-create the original data stream. Multiple channels appear as one logical link to upper-layer protocols. This section introduces secure topology models. The information in this book is not sufficient to learn all the nuances of internetwork security. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion. To learn more about internetwork security, you might want to read the book Firewalls and walkyrie (film) Internet Security , by Bill Cheswick and Steve Bellovin, published by Addison Wesley. La Discriminacion. Also, by walkyrie (film) searching for the word security on Cisco#039;s web site (http://www.cisco.com), you can keep up to en que afecta date on security issues. Secure topologies are often designed by using a firewall. A firewall protects one network from fable another untrusted network.

This protection can be accomplished in afecta la discriminacion, many ways, but in Analysis, principle, a firewall is a pair of mechanisms: One blocks traffic and the other permits traffic. Some firewalls place a greater emphasis on blocking traffic, and others emphasize permitting traffic. Figure 4-9 shows a simple firewall topology using routers. Figure 4-9 A Simple Firewall Network, Using Routers. You can design a firewall system using packet-filtering routers and la discriminacion bastion hosts. A bastion host is a secure host that supports a limited number of of Japanese Essay, applications for use by outsiders.

It holds data that outsiders access (for example, web pages) but is strongly protected from afecta la discriminacion outsiders using it for anything other than its limited purposes. The classic firewall system, called the three-part firewall system , has the Analysis Essay following three specialized layers, as shown in Figure 4-10: Another router that acts as an outside packet filter between the isolation LAN and the outside internetwork. An isolation LAN that is a buffer between the corporate internetwork and the outside world. La Discriminacion. (The isolation LAN is called the demilitarized zone (DMZ) in some literature.) A router that acts as an inside packet filter between the corporate internetwork and the isolation LAN.

Figure 4-10 Structure and Components of a Three-Part Firewall System. Services available to the outside world are located on of Japanese Americans Essay, bastion hosts in la discriminacion, the isolation LAN. Example services in these hosts include: Anonymous FTP server Web server Domain Name System (DNS) Telnet Specialized security software such as Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS) The isolation LAN has a unique network number that is different than the corporate network number. Only the isolation LAN network is visible to the outside world. On the outside filter, you should advertise only the route to the isolation LAN. If internal users need to Essay get access to Internet services, allow TCP outbound traffic from the internal corporate internetwork. En Que Afecta. Allow TCP packets back into to Survive; Give Morals Essay the internal network only if they are in afecta la discriminacion, response to a previously sent request. All other TCP traffic should be blocked because new inbound TCP sessions could be from hackers trying to walkyrie (film) establish sessions with internal hosts.

To determine whether TCP traffic is a response to a previously sent request or a request for a new session, the en que router examines some bits in the code field of the TCP header. If the acknowledgement field (ACK) is History and Geography Lakes Essay, valid or reset the connection (RST) bits are set in a TCP segment header, the segment is a response to a previously sent request. The established keyword in Cisco IOS access lists (filters) is en que, used to indicate packets with ACK or RST bits set. The following list summarizes some rules for the three-part firewall system: The outside packet filter router should allow inbound TCP packets from walkyrie (film) established TCP sessions. The outside packet filter router should also allow packets to en que la discriminacion specific TCP or UDP ports going to specific bastion hosts (including TCP SYN packets that are used to establish a session).

The inside packet filter router should allow inbound TCP packets from established sessions. Always block traffic from History Lakes Essay coming in en que, from between the firewall routers and hosts and the internal network. Walkyrie (film). The firewall routers and hosts themselves are likely to be a jumping-off point for hackers, as shown in Figure 4-11. Figure 4-11 Firewall Routers and Hosts May Make Your Network Vulnerable to Hacker Attacks. Keep bastion hosts and afecta firewall routers simple.

They should run as few programs as possible. In Order To Survive; One Must Up Their. The programs should be simple because simple programs have fewer bugs than complex programs. Bugs introduce possible security holes. Do not enable any unnecessary services or connections on the outside filter router. La Discriminacion. A list of suggestions for implementing the outside filter router follows: Turn off Telnet access (no virtual terminals defined). Walkyrie (film). Use static routing only. Do not make it a TFTP server. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion. Use password encryption. Turn off proxy ARP service. In Order Give Up Their. Turn off finger service.

Turn off IP redirects. Turn off IP route caching. Do not make the router a MacIP server (MacIP provides connectivity for IP over AppleTalk by tunneling IP datagrams inside AppleTalk). To provide stalwart security, hardware firewall devices can be used in addition to or instead of packet-filtering routers. For example, in la discriminacion, the three-part firewall system illustrated earlier in Analysis of Haruki Town of Cats, Figure 4-10, a hardware firewall device could be installed on the isolation LAN. A hardware firewall device offers the following benefits: Less complex and more robust than packet filters No required downtime for installation No required upgrading of hosts or routers No necessary day-to-day management. Cisco#039;s PIX Firewall is a hardware device that offers the features in en que, the preceding list, as well as full outbound Internet access from Imprisonment of Japanese Essay unregistered internal hosts.

IP addresses can be assigned from the private ranges, as defined in RFC 1918 (available at ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1918.txt). The PIX Firewall uses a protection scheme called Network Address Translation (NAT) , which allows internal users access to en que la discriminacion the Internet while protecting internal networks from Americans unauthorized access. The PIX Firewall provides firewall security without the administrative overhead and risks associated with UNIX-based or router-based firewall systems. The PIX Firewall operates on afecta, a secure real-time kernel, not on UNIX. The network administrator is provided with complete auditing of Town Essay, all transactions, including attempted break-ins. The PIX Firewall supports data encryption with the en que afecta Cisco PIX Private Link, a card that provides secure communication between multiple PIX systems over the Internet using the data encryption standard (DES). The PIX Firewall provides TCP and UDP connectivity from Stem Needs internal networks to en que la discriminacion the outside world by using a scheme called adaptive security . All inbound traffic is verified for correctness against the following connection state information: Source and destination IP addresses Source and destination port numbers Protocols TCP sequence numbers (which are randomized to eliminate the possibility of hackers guessing numbers) The CCDA objective covered in this section is In Order One Must Give Up their, as follows: Draw a topology map that meets the customer#039;s needs and includes a high-level view of internetworking devices and interconnecting media.

Local-area networks can be classified as a large building LAN, campus LAN, or small/remote LAN. The large building LAN contains the major data center with high-speed access and floor communications closets; the large building LAN is en que afecta, usually the headquarters in larger companies. And Geography Of The Lakes Essay. Campus LANs provide connectivity between buildings on a campus; redundancy is en que afecta la discriminacion, usually a requirement. Small/remote LANs provide connectivity to remote offices with a small number of nodes. It is important to remember the Cisco hierarchical approach of network design. First, build a high-speed core backbone network. Second, build the Cell Research to Be Funded distribution layer, where policy can be applied. En Que. Finally, build the adolescent access layer, where LANs provide access to the network end stations. Large building LANs are segmented by floors or departments.

Company mainframes and servers reside in a computing center. Media lines run from the computer center to the wiring closets at en que afecta la discriminacion the various segments. From the Research to Be Funded wiring closets, media lines run to the offices and cubicles around the work areas. Figure 4-12 depicts a typical large building design. Each floor may have more than 200 users. Following a hierarchical model of access, distribution, and core, Ethernet and Fast Ethernet nodes may connect to afecta la discriminacion hubs and switches in the communications closet. Uplink ports from closet switches connect back to one or two (for redundancy) distribution switches. Distribution switches may provide connectivity to server farms that provide business applications, DHCP, DNS, intranet, and other services. A campus LAN connects two or more buildings located near each other using high-bandwidth LAN media.

Usually the media (for example, copper or fiber) is Murakani´s Essay, owned. High-speed switching devices are recommended to minimize latency. En Que La Discriminacion. In today#039;s networks, Gigabit Ethernet campus backbones are the standard for new installations. In Figure 4-13, campus buildings are connected by using Layer 3 switches with Gigabit Ethernet media. Ensure that a hierarchical design is implemented on the campus LAN and that network layer addressing is adolescent personal fable, assigned to control broadcasts on the networks. Each building should have addressing assigned in such a way as to maximize address summarization. La Discriminacion. Apply contiguous subnets to buildings at the bit boundary to apply summarization and ease the design. Campus networks can support high-bandwidth applications such as video conferencing.

Although most WAN implementations are configured to support only IP, legacy LANs may still be configured to walkyrie (film) support IPX and AppleTalk. Small/remote sites usually connect back to afecta la discriminacion the corporate network via a small router (Cisco 2500). The local-area network service is provided by a small hub or LAN switch (Catalyst 1900). The router filters broadcasts to the WAN circuit and adolescent personal forwards packets that require services from the corporate network. A server may be placed at the small/remote site to provide DHCP and other local applications such as NT backup domain controller and DNS; if not, the router will need to en que be configured to forward DHCP broadcasts and other types of services. Walkyrie (film). Figure 4-14 shows a typical architecture of en que la discriminacion, a small or remote LAN. Walkyrie (film). Building Cisco Remote Access Networks from la discriminacion Cisco Press is an excellent resource for more information on remote access. The CCDA objectives covered in this section are as follows: Recognize scalability constraints and In Order to Survive; Morals Essay issues for standard LAN technologies.

Recommend Cisco products and LAN technologies that will meet a customer#039;s requirements for en que la discriminacion performance, capacity, and scalability in Up their, small- to medium-sized networks. This section identifies some of the constraints that should be considered when provisioning various LAN media types. En Que La Discriminacion. For additional reference material on this subject, refer to Appendix D, LAN Media Reference. Table 4-1 provides scalability information that you can use when provisioning IEEE 802.3 networks. Table 4-1 Scalability Constraints for IEEE 802.3. Maximum Segment Length (meters) 100 from hub to station. 100 from hub to walkyrie (film) station. Maximum Number of Attachments per en que la discriminacion Segment. 2 (hub and station or hub-hub)

2 (hub and Imprisonment of Japanese Americans station or hub-hub) Maximum Collision Domain. 2500 meters of en que la discriminacion, 5 segments and 4 repeaters; only 3 segments can be populated. 2500 meters of walkyrie (film), 5 segments and en que 4 repeaters; only walkyrie (film), 3 segments can be populated. 2500 meters of 5 segments and 4 repeaters; only 3 segments can be populated.

See the en que afecta details in the section 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Design Rules later in this chapter. The most significant design rule for Ethernet is that the adolescent personal fable round-trip propagation delay in one collision domain must not exceed 512 bit times, which is en que afecta la discriminacion, a requirement for collision detection to work correctly. This rule means that the maximum round-trip delay for a 10 Mbps Ethernet network is 51.2 microseconds. The maximum round-trip delay for Imprisonment of Japanese a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is only 5.12 microseconds because the bit time on a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is 0.01 microseconds as opposed to 0.1 microseconds on a 10 Mbps Ethernet network. To make 100 Mbps Ethernet work, distance limitations are much more severe than those required for 10 Mbps Ethernet. The general rule is that a 100 Mbps Ethernet has a maximum diameter of en que afecta, 205 meters when unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling is used, whereas 10 Mbps Ethernet has a maximum diameter of 500 meters with 10BaseT and 2500 meters with 10Base5. 10 Mbps Fiber Ethernet Design Rules. Table 4-2 provides some guidelines to help you choose the History and Geography Great right media for your network designs. 10BaseF is based on the fiber-optic interrepeater link (FOIRL) specification, which includes 10BaseFP, 10BaseFB, 10BaseFL, and en que a revised FOIRL standard. The new FOIRL allows data terminal equipment (DTE) end-node connections rather than just repeaters, which were allowed with the older FOIRL specification. Table 4-2 Scalability Constraints for 10 Mbps Fiber Ethernet.

Backbone or repeater fiber system. Allows DTE (End Node) Connections? Maximum Segment Length (Meters) Allows Cascaded Repeaters? Maximum Collision Domains in Meters. 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Design Rules. 100 Mbps Ethernet, or Fast Ethernet, topologies present some distinct constraints on the network design because of their speed. The combined latency due to cable lengths and Stem to Be Funded Essay repeaters must conform to en que la discriminacion the specifications in order for the network to and Geography of the Great Lakes work properly. This section discusses these issues and en que la discriminacion provides example calculations. The overriding design rule for 100 Mbps Ethernet networks is that the round-trip collision delay must not exceed 512 bit times. However, the bit time on a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is 0.01 microseconds, as opposed to 0.1 microseconds on a 10 Mbps Ethernet network.

Therefore, the adolescent personal fable maximum round-trip delay for a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is 5.12 microseconds, as opposed to the more lenient 51.2 microseconds in a 10 Mbps Ethernet network. For a 100 Mbps Ethernet to afecta work, you must impose distance limitations based on Imprisonment, the type of la discriminacion, repeaters used. The IEEE 100BaseT specification defines two types of repeaters: Class I and of Haruki Town Class II. Class I repeaters have a latency (delay) of 0.7 microseconds or less. Only one repeater hop is allowed. Class II repeaters have a latency (delay) of 0.46 microseconds or less. One or two repeater hops are allowed. Table 4-3 shows the maximum size of collision domains, depending on the type of repeater. Table 4-3 Maximum Size of Collision Domains for 100BaseT. Mixed Copper and Multimode Fiber. DTE-DTE (or Switch-Switch)

412 meters (2000 if full duplex) One Class I Repeater. One Class II Repeater. Two Class II Repeaters. The Cisco FastHub 316 is a Class II repeater, as are all the Cisco FastHub 300 series hubs. These hubs actually exceed the Class II specifications, which means that they have even lower latencies and therefore allow longer cable lengths. For example, with two FastHub 300 repeaters and copper cable, the maximum collision domain is 223 meters.

Figure 4-15 shows examples of afecta la discriminacion, 100BaseT topologies with different media. Figure 4-15 Examples of 100BaseT Topologies with Various Media and Repeaters. Other topologies are possible as long as the Analysis of Haruki Town of Cats round-trip propagation delay does not exceed 5.12 microseconds (512 bit times). When the la discriminacion delay does exceed 5.12 microseconds, the network experiences illegal (late) collisions and CRC errors. To determine whether configurations other than the standard ones shown in Figure 4-15 will work, use the One Must Give following information from the IEEE 802.3u specification. To check a path to make sure the path delay value (PDV) does not exceed 512 bit times, add up the following delays: All link segment delays All repeater delays DTE delay A safety margin (0 to 5 bit times) Use the following steps to calculate the PDV: Determine the delay for each link segment; this is the link segment delay value (LSDV), including interrepeater links, using the following formula. (Multiply by two so it is en que afecta, a round-trip delay.)

For end-node segments, the of Japanese Americans Essay segment length is the en que afecta cable length between the physical interface at the repeater and the physical interface at the DTE. Use your two farthest DTEs for a worst-case calculation. For interrepeater links, the segment length is the cable length between the repeater physical interfaces. Cable delay is the delay specified by the manufacturer if available. Walkyrie (film). When actual cable lengths or propagation delays are not known, use the en que delay in bit times as specified in Table 4-4. Cable delay must be specified in bit times per Research to Be Essay meter (BT/m). Add together the LSDVs for all segments in the path. Determine the delay for each repeater in the path. If model-specific data is not available from the manufacturer, determine the class of repeater (I or II). MII cables for la discriminacion 100BaseT should not exceed 0.5 meters each in length. When evaluating system topology, MII cable lengths need not be accounted for separately.

Delays attributed to the MII are incorporated into DTE and repeater delays. Use the and Geography of the Great DTE delay value shown in Table 4-4 unless your equipment manufacturer defines a different value. Decide on an appropriate safety margin from 0 to 5 bit times. Five bit times is a safe value. Insert the en que values obtained from the preceding calculations into the formula for calculating the PDV:

If the PDV is less than 512, the Analysis of Haruki of Cats path is en que la discriminacion, qualified in terms of walkyrie (film), worst-case delay. Table 4-4 shows round-trip delay in bit times for standard cables and maximum round-trip delay in bit times for DTEs, repeaters, and maximum-length cables. Note that the values shown in Table 4-4 have been multiplied by en que two to provide a round-trip delay. Walkyrie (film). If you use these numbers, you need not multiply by two again in the LSDV formula (LSDV = 2 _ segment length _ cable delay for en que la discriminacion this segment). Table 4-4 Network Component Delays 1. Round-Trip Delay in Bit Times per Meter.

Maximum Round-Trip Delay in Bit Times. One T4 DTE and Stem Cell to Be one TX/FX DTE. Category 3 cable segment. Category 4 cable segment. Category 5 cable segment. 111.2 (100 meters) STP cable segment. 111.2 (100 meters) Fiber-optic cable segment. Class I repeater.

Class II repeater with all ports TX or FX. Class II repeater with any port T4. Example Network Cabling Implementation. See Figure 4-16 for this example. Company ABC has all UTP Category 5 cabling. Two Class II repeaters are separated by 20 meters instead of the standard 5 meters. The network administrators are trying to en que afecta determine whether this configuration will work.

Figure 4-16 An Example Network Cabling Implementation for Company ABC (Showing the Two Most Distant DTEs) To ensure that the PDV does not exceed 512 bit times, the network administrators must calculate a worst-case scenario using DTE 1 and DTE 2, which are 75 meters from their repeaters. Assume that DTE 1 starts transmitting a minimum-sized frame of 64 bytes (512 bits). DTE 2 just barely misses hearing DTE 1#039;s transmission and starts transmitting also. The collision happens on the far-right side of the Analysis Murakani´s Town of Cats network and must traverse back to DTE 1. En Que La Discriminacion. These events must occur within 512 bit times. Essay. If they take any longer than 512 bit times, then DTE 1 will have stopped sending when it learns about the collision and will not know that its frame was damaged by the collision. To calculate the link delays for the Category 5 cable segments, the repeaters, and DTEs, the afecta la discriminacion administrators use the walkyrie (film) values from Table 4-4. (Remember that Table 4-4 uses round-trip delay values, so you need not multiply by two.) To test whether this network will work, the network administrators filled in Table 4-5. Table 4-5 Delays of Components in Company ABC#039;s Network.

Calculation of Network Component Delay. Total (Bit Times) 75m _ 1.112 bit times/m. 75m _ 1.112 bit times/m. 20m _ 1.112 bit times/m. Add Individual Totals. The grand total in Table 4-5 is la discriminacion, fewer than 512 bit times, so this network will work.

Some cable manufacturers specify propagation delays relative to the speed of light or in nanoseconds per meter (ns/m). Analysis Town. To convert these values to bit times per en que afecta la discriminacion meter (BT/m), use Table 4-6. Table 4-6 Conversion to adolescent fable Bit Times per Meter for Cable Delays 1. Speed Relative to Speed of afecta, Light. Nanoseconds per Meter (ns/m) Bit Times per Meter (BT/m)

Table 4-7 lists some scalability concerns when designing Token Ring segments. Refer to IBM#039;s Token Ring planning guides for more information on Cell Research Needs Funded Essay, the maximum segment sizes and maximum diameter of a network. Table 4-7 Scalability Constraints for Token Ring. Maximum Segment Length (Meters) Depends on afecta la discriminacion, type of cable, number of MAUs, and so on. Depends on of Japanese, type of cable, number of MAUs, and so on. Maximum Number of Attachments per Segment. 260 for STP, 72 for UTP. Maximum Network Diameter. Depends on type of cable, number of afecta, MAUs, and so on.

Depends on type of cable, number of MAUs, and so on. The most recent development in the Ethernet arena is Gigabit Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet is Stem Cell Needs to Be Essay, specified by en que afecta la discriminacion two standards: IEEE 802.3z and 802.3ab. The 802.3z standard specifies the operation of Gigabit Ethernet over fiber and coaxial cable and introduces the Gigabit Media Independent Interface (GMII). The 802.3z standard was approved in June 1998. The 802.3ab standard specifies the operation of History Great Essay, Gigabit Ethernet over Category 5 UTP.

Gigabit Ethernet still retains the frame formats and frame sizes and it still uses CSMA/CD. As with Ethernet and Fast Ethernet, full duplex operation is possible. Differences can be found in the encoding; Gigabit Ethernet uses 8B/10B coding with simple nonreturn to zero (NRZ). Because of the 20 percent overhead, pulses run at 1250 MHz to achieve a 1000 Mbps. La Discriminacion. Table 4-8 covers Gigabit Ethernet scalability constraints.

Table 4-8 Gigabit Ethernet Scalability Constraints. Maximum segment length. 1000BaseLX (long wave) Single/multiple mode fiber. 1000BaseSX (short wave) 62.5 micrometers: 220m.

50 micrometers: 500m. Shielded balanced copper. The FDDI specification does not actually specify the maximum segment length or network diameter. It specifies the walkyrie (film) amount of allowed power loss, which works out to afecta la discriminacion the approximate distances shown in Table 4-9. Table 4-9 Scalability Constraints for Cell to Be Funded Essay FDDI. Dual ring, tree of concentrators, and la discriminacion others. Dual ring, tree of concentrators, and others. Maximum Segment Length.

2km between stations. 60km between stations. 100m from walkyrie (film) hub to station. Maximum Number of la discriminacion, Attachments per Segment. 1000 (500 dual-attached stations) 1000 (500 dual-attached stations) 2 (hub and station or hub-hub)

Maximum Network Diameter. The CCDA objectives covered in this section are as follows: Describe the walkyrie (film) advantages, disadvantages, scalability issues, and applicability of standard internetwork topologies. Recognize scalability constraints and issues for standard LAN technologies. This section covers the en que afecta following hardware technologies as they can be applied to LAN design: Repeaters are the basic unit used in networks to connect separate segments. Repeaters take incoming frames, regenerate the Needs Essay preamble, amplify the la discriminacion signals, and walkyrie (film) send the frame out all other interfaces. Repeaters operate in the physical layer of the en que OSI model.

Because repeaters are not aware of Town Essay, packets or frame formats, they do not control broadcasts or collision domains. Repeaters are said to be protocol transparent because they are not aware of upper-layer protocols such as IP, IPX, and so on. One basic rule of afecta, using repeaters is the 5-4-3 Rule. The maximum path between two stations on the network should not be more than 5 segments with 4 repeaters between those segments and no more than 3 populated segments. Repeaters introduce a small amount of latency, or delay, when propagating the frames. A transmitting device must be able to detect a collision with another device within the specified time after the delay introduced by the cable segments and repeaters is adolescent fable, factored in. The 512 bit-time specification also governs segment lengths. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion. A more detailed explanation of the specification can be found at http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/ethernet.htm. Figure 4-17 illustrates an In Order to Survive; One Must Give Up their Morals Essay example of the 5-4-3 Rule.

With the afecta increasing density of LANs in the late 80s and early 90s, hubs were introduced to walkyrie (film) concentrate Thinnet and 10BaseT networks in the wiring closet. Traditional hubs operate on the physical layer of the OSI model and perform the afecta same functions as basic repeaters. Bridges are used to connect separate segments of a network. They differ from repeaters in that bridges are intelligent devices that operate in the data link layer of the OSI model. Bridges control the collision domains on the network. Bridges also learn the MAC layer addresses of each node on each segment and on to Survive; One Must Morals, which interface they are located. For any incoming frame, bridges forward the frame only if the en que afecta destination MAC address is on another port or if the bridge is not aware of its location.

The latter is called flooding . To Be Funded Essay. Bridges filter any incoming frames with destination MAC addresses that are on the same segment from la discriminacion where the frame arrives; they do not forward the frame on. Bridges are store and Americans Essay forward devices. They store the entire frame and verify the CRC before forwarding. If a CRC error is detected, the frame is discarded. Bridges are protocol transparent; they are not aware of the upper-layer protocols like IP, IPX, and AppleTalk. Bridges are designed to flood all unknown and broadcast traffic. Bridges implement the en que afecta la discriminacion Spanning-Tree Protocol to build a loop free network topology. Bridges communicate with each other, exchanging information such as priority and bridge interface MAC addresses.

They select a root bridge and then implement the Spanning-Tree Protocol. Some interfaces are placed in a hold state, while other bridges will have interfaces in forwarding mode. Looking at Figure 4-18, note that there is no load sharing or dual paths with bridge protocols as there is in routing. Switches are the to Survive; One Must Give Morals evolution of bridges. Switches use fast integrated circuits that reduce the latency that bridges introduce to the network. Switches also enable the capability to en que la discriminacion run in cut-through mode. Personal Fable. In cut-through mode, the switch does not wait for the entire frame to enter its buffer; instead, it forwards the frame after it has read the destination MAC address field of the frame. Cut-through operation increases the en que la discriminacion probability that error frames are propagated on the network, which increases CRC and Analysis of Haruki Essay runt frames on the network. Because of these problems, most switches today perform store-and-forward operation with CRC check as bridges do. Figure 4-19 shows a switch; note that it controls collision domains but not broadcast domains.

Figure 4-19 Switches Control Collision Domains. Switches have characteristics similar to bridges; however, they have more ports and en que afecta la discriminacion run faster. Switches keep a table of MAC addresses per port, and they implement Spanning-Tree Protocol. Switches also operate in the data link layer and In Order One Must Give Morals Essay are protocol transparent. Each port on a switch is a separate collision domain but part of the same broadcast domain. Switches do not control broadcasts on the network. Routers make forwarding decisions based on network layer addresses.

In addition to controlling collision domains, routers control broadcast domains. Each interface of a router is en que, a separate broadcast domain defined by a subnet and a mask. Routers are protocol aware, which means they are capable of forwarding packets of routed protocols such as IP, IPX, Decnet, and AppleTalk. Figure 4-20 describes a router; each interface is a broadcast and a collision domain. Figure 4-20 Routers Control Broadcast and Collision Domains. Routers exchange information about destination networks by using one of several routing protocols. Imprisonment Americans. The following are lists of la discriminacion, routing protocols. The lists are divided by the protocols that can be routed.

For routing TCP/IP: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (ISIS) Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) For routing Novell: Novell Routing Information Protocol (Novell RIP) NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) For routing AppleTalk: Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Routing protocols are discussed in further detail in Chapter 6, Designing for Specific Protocols. Routers are the preferred method of forwarding packets between networks of of Haruki Murakani´s Town of Cats Essay, differing media, such as Ethernet to Token Ring, Ethernet to FDDI, or Ethernet to afecta la discriminacion Serial. Stem Needs Essay. They also provide methods to en que afecta filter traffic based on adolescent, the network layer address, route redundancy, load balancing, hierarchical addressing, and multicast routing. LAN switches that are capable of running routing protocols are Layer 3 switches . These switches are capable of en que la discriminacion, running routing protocols and In Order Give Up their Morals communicating with neighboring routers.

An example is a Catalyst 5500 with a Routing Switch Module (RSM). Layer 3 switches have LAN technology interfaces that perform network layer forwarding; legacy routers provide connectivity to WAN circuits. The switches off-load local traffic from the WAN routers. Layer 3 switches perform the functions of both data link layer switches and network layer routers. Each port is a collision domain. Interfaces are grouped into broadcast domains (subnets) and en que a routing protocol is selected to provide network information to other Layer 3 switches and routers.

Combining Hubs, Switches, and Routers. Available in Ethernet and of the Great Lakes Essay Fast Ethernet, hubs are best used in small networks where there are few nodes on la discriminacion, the segment. Hubs do not control the broadcasts nor do they filter collision domains on the network. In Order To Survive; Give Up Their Morals Essay. If higher bandwidth is required, use 100 Mbps hubs. When the number of afecta la discriminacion, nodes on the network grows, move to switches. With the cost of switch ports comparable to walkyrie (film) hubs, use switches as the afecta la discriminacion basic network connectivity devices on the network.

Switches reduce collisions and resolve media contention on the network by walkyrie (film) providing a collision domain per port. Replace hubs with switches if the utilization is over en que 40 percent on Ethernet networks or above 70 percent on Token Ring and FDDI networks. Switches cannot resolve broadcast characteristics of protocols; use routing to Research to Be Funded resolve protocol-related problems. En Que Afecta. As you can see in the sample in Essay, Figure 4-21, the repeaters are pushed to la discriminacion the outer layer of the design, connecting to switches. Switches control the collision domains. Fast Layer 3 switches are used for routing between LAN segments, and the router provides access to the WAN. Figure 4-21 Combining Routers, Switches, and In Order to Survive; Give Up their Hubs. Use routers for en que segmenting the network into personal fable separate broadcast domains, security filtering, and access to the WAN. If broadcast traffic on the network is over 20 percent, use routing. The CCDA objectives covered in this section are as follows:

Assemble Cisco product lines into an end-to-end networking solution. Recommend Cisco products and LAN technologies that will meet a customer#039;s requirements for performance, capacity, and scalability in small- to medium-sized networks. Update the en que afecta la discriminacion network topology drawing you created in walkyrie (film), the previous section to en que afecta include hardware and media. A CCDA must be familiar with Cisco products, product capabilities, and how to best apply the products to meet performance, scalability, redundancy, and cost requirements. This section lists and explains Cisco equipment for walkyrie (film) LAN requirements. A complete list of Cisco products can be found at en que the CCO web site.

The FastHub 400 10/100 series is a full line of products that includes 12- and 24-port 10/100 Fast Ethernet repeaters in managed and walkyrie (film) manageable versions. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion. The FastHub 400 10/100 series provides low-cost 10/100 autosensing desktop connectivity where dedicated bandwidth is not required. The Cisco 412 provides 12 UTP ports of 10/100 Fast Ethernet. The Cisco 424M provides 24 UTP ports of 10/100 Fast Ethernet in walkyrie (film), a SNMP-managed version. The Catalyst 1900 and 2820 series provide 12- or 24-switched, 10-Mbps 10BaseT ports. Different models provide Fast Ethernet uplinks in 100BaseT and afecta la discriminacion 100BaseF media. Different models can keep 1KB, 2KB, or 8KB storage of MAC addresses. The specifications of the various models in of Haruki Murakani´s Town Essay, these series are presented in Table 4-10.

Table 4-10 Catalyst 1900 and afecta la discriminacion 2820 Series Specifications. 12 10BaseT Two 100BaseTX 1KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 12 10BaseT One 100BaseTX One 100BaseFX 1KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 24 10BaseT Two 100BaseTX 1KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 24 10BaseT One 100BaseTX One 100BaseFX 1KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 24 10BaseT Two 100BaseFX 1KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 24 10BaseT Two 100BaseTX 48-volt DC Dual-Feed Power System 1KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 24 10BaseT Two slots 2KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 24 10BaseT Two slots 8KB MAC Enterprise Edition. For higher speeds, the Catalyst 2900 series provides 10/100 ports with Gigabit Ethernet uplinks. Catalyst 2948G offers 48 ports of 10/100 Ethernet with two Gigabit Ethernet uplinks.

Catalyst 3000 Series Stackable Switches. The Catalyst 3100 switch is designed for networks that require flexibility and growth with minimal initial investment. This switch contains 24 fixed 10BaseT Ethernet ports, one StackPort slot for scalability, and one expansion FlexSlot for broad media support. It is designed for Imprisonment Americans Essay a variety of en que afecta la discriminacion, campus LAN and enterprise WAN solutions; the Catalyst 3100 switch fits well in of Japanese Americans, a wiring closet and branch office applications. The Catalyst 3200 is en que la discriminacion, a high port density stackable switch chassis with a modular Catalyst 3000 architecture supervisor engine and seven additional media expansion module slots. The expansion slots are backward compatible with all existing Catalyst 3000 media expansion modules. The seventh slot, called FlexSlot , is an Cell Research to Be Funded expansion slot that accepts either a standard Catalyst 3000 expansion module or new doublewide expansion modules providing forward and backward investment protection. The 3011 WAN access module for the Catalyst 3200 and Catalyst 3100 provides WAN interconnect integrated with the switch backplane.

The 3011 WAN access module was the first FlexSlot module to be introduced. Based on the Cisco 2503 router, the 3011 provides two high-speed serial ports, an ISDN BRI port, and an auxiliary (AUX) port. Catalyst 3900 Token Ring Stackable Switch. The Catalyst 3920 switch provides 24 Token Ring ports. En Que La Discriminacion. With the Catalyst 3920 switch, you can start with a single 24-port switch and add capacity as you need it, while still managing the entire stack system as one device. Catalyst 3500 10/100 Autosensing Switch. The Catalyst 3500 XL architecture is fable, designed to meet the en que la discriminacion technical requirements of In Order One Must Up their Morals, autosensing 10/100BaseT Ethernet interfaces. Autosensing enables each port to self-configure to la discriminacion the correct bandwidth upon determining whether it is of Japanese, connected to a 10- or 100-Mbps Ethernet channel.

This feature simplifies setup and configuration and provides flexibility in en que afecta, the mix of 10 and 100 Mbps connections the switch supports. Network managers can alter connections without having to replace port interfaces. Each Catalyst 3500 XL comes with two or eight Gigabit Ethernet gigabit interface connector (GBIC) ports. Customers can use any of the following IEEE 802.3z-compliant GBICs based on their connection needs: 1000BaseSX, 1000BaseLX/LH, or the In Order One Must Give Essay Cisco GigaStack stacking GBIC. These GBIC ports support standards-based, field-replaceable media modules and provide unprecedented flexibility in switch deployment while protecting customers#039; investments. The Catalyst 4912G is a 12-port dedicated Gigabit Ethernet switch featuring high-performance Layer 2 switching and intelligent Cisco OSI network (Layer 3) services for high-speed network aggregation. The Catalyst 4003 offers 24 Gbps of switching bandwidth and provides expansion to 96 ports of en que la discriminacion, 10/100 Ethernet or 36 ports of Gigabit Ethernet. Lakes. Up to 96 10/100 Ethernet ports, or up to 36 Gigabit Ethernet ports, can be installed into one managed unit. The Catalyst 4000 series provides an afecta la discriminacion advanced high-performance enterprise switching solution optimized for wiring closets with up to Imprisonment Americans 96 users and data center server environments that require up to 36 Gigabit Ethernet ports.

New FlexiMod uplinks support up to afecta la discriminacion eight 100BaseFX riser connections with EtherChannel benefits. The Catalyst 4000 series provides intelligent Layer 2 services leveraging a multiGigabit architecture for 10/100/1000-Mb Ethernet switching. The modular three-slot Catalyst 4003 system leverages the software code base from the industry-leading Catalyst 5500/5000 series to provide the rich and proven feature set that customers demand in the wiring closet for true end-to-end enterprise networking. The Cisco Catalyst 5000 series features modular chassis in 2-, 5-, 9-, and 13-slot versions. Walkyrie (film). All chassis share the same set of line cards and software features, which provides scalability while maintaining interoperability across all chassis. The Catalyst 5002 is en que afecta, positioned to Analysis of Haruki deliver a consistent architecture and features set in afecta, a smaller package that addresses the Give Up their Morals Essay needs of smaller wiring closets. The Catalyst 5002 switches at the 1 Mpps (million packets per second) range. The Catalyst 5002 is la discriminacion, a fully modular, two-slot Catalyst 5000 series member, using the Research to Be Funded Essay same architecture and afecta software as the Catalyst 5000.

The switch can deliver more than one million packets per Imprisonment of Japanese Americans second throughput across a 1.2-Gbps, media-independent backplane that supports Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, FDDI, Token Ring, and en que afecta ATM. The Catalyst 5000 will continue to address the needs of switched 10BaseT and walkyrie (film) group switched wiring closets with performance in the 1#150;3 Mpps range. The Catalyst 5505, a five-slot chassis like the Catalyst 5000, is designed for a high-end wiring closet and data applications with performance in the 1#150;25 Mpps range. The Catalyst 5505 combines the size of the original Catalyst 5000 with the performance boost and added features of the Catalyst 5500 series. The Catalyst 5509 supports high-density 10/100 Ethernet for the wiring closet, or high-density Gigabit Ethernet for backbone applications, delivering over 25-Mpps switching performance. The Catalyst 5509 provides dedicated switching for up to 384 users, making this chassis an ideal platform for wiring closet solutions. The Catalyst 5509 also supports high-density Gigabit Ethernet for switched intranet backbones and afecta data centers. The Catalyst 5500 is the walkyrie (film) most versatile switch in the Catalyst family, able to support LightStream 1010 ATM switching or Catalyst 8500 Layer 3 switching line cards in afecta, addition to all the walkyrie (film) Catalyst 5000 family line cards. The Catalyst 5500 is positioned as a high-capacity wiring closet or data center switch, delivering over 25-Mpps switching performance. The Catalyst 5500 is afecta la discriminacion, a 13-slot chassis that is rack-mountable using the of Haruki Town rack-mount kit.

All functional components, including power supplies, fan trays, supervisors, ATM switch processors (ASPs), and interface modules are accessible and hot-swappable from the network side of the afecta chassis. This setup ensures ease of use in tight wiring closets. Cisco Programmable Fabric Using VXLAN with BGP EVPN By David Jansen, Lukas Krattiger Feb 9, 2016 Cisco Video Surveillance By Brian Morgan, Jason Ball Jan 25, 2016 CCNA Collaboration CICD 210-060 Official Cert Guide: Managing Endpoints and End Users in CUCM By Michael Valentine Nov 9, 2015. 2017 Pearson Education, Cisco Press . Of The Great Essay. All rights reserved. 800 East 96th Street , Indianapolis , Indiana 46240.

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Free Environmental Studies essays. In this project we are going to discuss the afecta, subject light pollution. We will discuss the following topics: What is light pollution Causes light pollution Effects of light pollution on individual organisms Types of light pollution Effect on Analysis Murakani´s Town of Cats astronomy What will happen if all dark places would be gone Solutions. We werent familiar with the topic, which made it exciting for us to do. We could actually learn something new, which is the purpose of the project.

We spent a lot of time in en que afecta, the mediatheek looking for information. When we knew something about light pollution, we could start writing. We have spent a lot of Research to Be, time working on our project. La Discriminacion. We think that we did a good job at doing the project. We do believe that there is a solution to the problem, as long as we all try.

Everything can help, even the smaller things. We hope that you enjoy reading our project and maybe even learned something new. A basic evolutionary fact is that we humans are diurnal (active mainly during the day) species. Humans have eyes that are adapted to living in the suns light. We have engineered the night to receive us by filling it with artificial light.This engineering is almost the same like damming a river. It has benefits, but also consequences. These consequences are light pollution. Light pollution (aka: photopollution or luminous pollution) occurs at night and walkyrie (film), is obtrusive (bothering), misdirected, inappropriate, or excessive artificial light.

Components of light pollution are: Urban Sky Glow, which is the brightening of the la discriminacion, night sky over inhabited areas; Light Trespass, when light falls where it is not intended or needed to fall; Glare, visual discomfort caused by excessive brightness and high levels can decrease visibility.; Clutter, light sources which are bright and excessive. These light sources can be found in over-lit urban areas. It is the walkyrie (film), brightening of the night sky and it diminishes the afecta, view of Research Needs Funded, stars and planets. Light pollution is pollution caused by misplaced artificial light and reflections such as outdoor light which scatters in the atmosphere and reflects back to the ground. The light allows a fraction of light to go up in the sky. This leads to sky glow.

The particles in the atmosphere, which cause air pollution, accentuate light pollution by increasing the amount of light scatter. It has been proven that around one-third of the en que la discriminacion, energy used for the outdoor lighting is and Geography of the Great Lakes, reflected into the outer space, where it is wasted, because it doesnt serve any useful purpose. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion. The rate at which urban areas are expanding also plays a big part to the increase of light pollution. Effects of Analysis of Haruki Murakani´s, light pollution on individual organisms. The most common effect of light pollution is that it interferes with biological cycles and activities. With all our artificial light we disrupt our own and other organisms sleeping cycles. La Discriminacion. This is mainly a big problem with nocturnal species, that wake up at sundown. Because of the Research Needs to Be Funded Essay, artificial lighting, the are more exposed to predators so they have less time to find food.

Organisms depend on afecta their genes which tell them when they need to wake up or sleep, but with all our artificial lighting this gets mixed up. Humans can experience this when they travel to different time zones, everything is different and your mind and body are confused. A lot of different animals are affected by of Cats Essay light pollution. For example, sea turtles are also affected by light pollution from artificial lighting. Afecta. Lights that are turned on at night confuse the unhatched turtles, they may think its time to hatch when they shouldnt. If they hatch to adolescent fable, early, or during the wrong part of the day, the en que la discriminacion, chances of survival will become a lot smaller. With the artificial lighting by to Survive; One Must Give Up their Morals Essay the beaches or on the roads, instead of crawling to en que afecta, the sea they might crawl to the roads. Not only walkyrie (film) reptiles are affected by light pollution, also insects, amphibians, mammals and birds. Insects that are attracted to light like flies will fly around street lights during the night and they will stay in en que afecta, one place, this makes them vulnerable to nocturnal predators. Since they fly around the Imprisonment Americans, lights the opportunities to mate are reduced which leads to en que la discriminacion, population reduction. Overall the Analysis of Haruki Murakani´s of Cats, number of insects will be reduced over afecta la discriminacion, the years.

Amphibians are also affected by light pollution, even if they dont live in an urban city, because light pollution isnt only causing problem in the areas with a large amount of One Must Give Up their, light, areas around it are also affected. Amphibians get really confused by light pollution because they dont know when its nighttime with all the artificial lighting. Since they eat at night to avoid predators, they become an easier prey because they dont know when they need to get food. Also mammals are affected by light pollution, especially nocturnal mammals like bats, coyotes and bats. They are so affected by light pollution because there is en que, too much light at of Japanese Americans, night to find food.

It becomes more difficult to find a breeding site, which leads to less reproduction opportunities, and the population of the en que afecta la discriminacion, species will shrink. Birds that migrate at night rely on the light that is reflected by walkyrie (film) the moon and stars to find their way through the dark. They get confused and could get stuck in an urban area, because they were caught off their guard by all the lights. When birds end up in cities there is usually little food and they are more vulnerable to predators or human inventions like cars or trains. Besides all the organisms that are affected by light pollution, us humans who invented artificial lighting that causes this light pollution are also affected by it. Since we are so advances with technology and other things like that we have found ways so we dont suffer from light pollution. En Que Afecta. But we cant completely solve it with our inventions like curtains. Even our sleeping patterns get mixed up when we travel across time zones. Our natural sleep rhythm gets affected by light pollution too.

Us humans have a hormone called melatonin. This hormone helps us sleep and creates a natural rhythm for sleep. Light pollution and to Survive; Morals Essay, artificial lighting disturbs the natural rhythm and decreases the amount of melatonin in our body. Afecta. Which leads to Murakani´s of Cats Essay, broken nights and a bad sleeping patterns. If you look at a bigger picture of how light pollution affects organisms, you will see that different organisms are affected in the same ways. Theyre biological cycles get mixed up, they have trouble finding out when its nighttime.

Also they have a smaller chance of survival because of the light pollution. All the consequences to these organisms are bad and disrupt the natural rhythms. Types of light pollution. Urban Sky-glow: Sky glow exists in large cities. It is the glow which you can see over many cities and towns in the evening. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion. Urban Sky Glow is the walkyrie (film), brightening of the afecta la discriminacion, night sky. It is Stem Cell, caused when artificial light escapes from misdirected and badly designed light sources into the atmosphere. It is scattered by particles (pollen, bacteria, dust, spores, mineral particles) or by water droplets while it travels through the afecta, atmosphere.

The light gets reflected and masks the background stars and cases a hazy glow over the night sky. This type of light pollution is a concern to astronomers, because it creates a hazy glow over the night sky. Skyglow makes it hard for astronomers to see anything besides the adolescent personal fable, most luminous stars and planets. Skyglow also caused behavioral disorders in many species of animals. for example; sea turtles and afecta, birds, who rely on adolescent fable the night sky for breeding and to find their way. In heavily polluted areas Urban Sky-glow is worse.

It will always exist if the air quality is poor. Empire State Building Night an example of en que afecta la discriminacion, sky glow. Walkyrie (film). Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons. Clutter: Light clutter is the excessive groupings of en que la discriminacion, light. These groupings of walkyrie (film), light may cause confusion, distraction from objects, and possibly cause accidents. Clutter light pollution is caused by afecta things like street lights, these can be dangerous to the people driving since the walkyrie (film), drivers can be distracted by these lights. Las Vegas Strip by BrendelSignature at English Wikipedia an example of Clutter Transferred from en.wikipedia to en que afecta la discriminacion, Commons by Common Good using CommonsHelper.. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons. Glare: Glare is a visual sensation that is adolescent, cause by excessive and uncontrolled brightness. Glare from street-lights, car-yard and security lights can shine directly into afecta the eyes and cause discomfort.

This makes it hard for Murakani´s, the eye to adjust effectively to changing levels of illumination, so compromising night vision. En Que Afecta. there are three forms of glare: Discomfort glare: The sensation of annoyance or pain induced by overly bright sources. Give Up Their Morals. This can be caused by any light source thats bright enough to cause glare. Disability glare: The reduction in visibility caused by intense light sources in the field of en que afecta, view. This can be caused by any light source thats bright enough to adolescent personal, cause glare. Blinding glare: When there is a light source thats so bright that it can cause a moment of blindness, the amount of time the blindness lasts depends on the brightness of the afecta la discriminacion, light source. Light trespass: Light trespass is unwanted and uncontrolled light that shines outside the area that it is Imprisonment Essay, designated to illuminate. Afecta. It causes discomfort, distraction, annoyance, or a reduction in visibility, and wastes energy and money. These are several characteristics of Essay, nighttime lighting that can cause Light trespass:

Spill light: The light that illuminates surfaces beyond the property line. Brightness: The presence of en que afecta, bright sources which are in a persons field of view which can cause discomfort glare, disability glare or blinding glare. Astronomy is very sensitive to light pollution. Light pollution interferes with our visibility due to Town, sky glow. Sky glow is unshielded light that is send in all directions.

Sky glow, mostly caused by big cities, makes it hard to see dim objects in en que, the sky at night, such as nebulae, stars and galaxies. Sky glow reduces the contrast between the Essay, sky and en que, between the stars and of the Essay, galaxies, which makes it even harder to see dim objects. Astronomers use a broad-band light filters, which reduce the effects of light pollution on astronomy. The broad-band light filters do that by filtering out spectral lines and so alter the en que, view of dim objects. The filters help by blocking light from Up their Essay some wavelengths, which modify the colors of the afecta, objects. But the broad-band filters can only affect certain object types. They affect nebulae, but have little effect on galaxies and stars. Of Cats Essay. The visibility of en que afecta, objects such as nebulae and galaxies is affected more than stars, due to their.

Of course, these broad-band filters cant stop light pollution affecting astronomy, but they sure help to see even better during the night time. What will happen if all dark places are gone? Most of us live in an area where it is not dark enough for Stem Research Funded, our brains to recognize it as night. Humans and other species have evolved to be in tune with cycles of day and night, so if we would destroy our night, the following problems will occur everywhere. Light pollution is bad for afecta la discriminacion, our health, it can cause cancer, so if all the dark places would be gone there would be higher nighttime lighting levels, which will cause a big increase of cancer patients. Light pollution is Americans Essay, a disturbance to animals, animals are, just like we are, evolved to be in tune with cycles of day and night. If all dark places would be gone, animals would be confused, which can cause their death, for example, a sea turtle hatches her eggs, when the hatchlings go swimming, they use light in the reflected water to find their way home, and because of light pollution on the beach, they will lose their way. Also birds are affected by en que la discriminacion light pollution, they can get captured by the artificial lightning, fly in circles until they die from exhaustion. Many more animals are affected by light pollution, they become an easy prey for predators which has an unknown effect on In Order to Survive; One Must Give the ecosystem. Astronauts and astronomers have already complained that the streetlight interferes with their equipment.

If all the dark places would be gone, we could not see anything in space which will stop us from discovering and learning more from space. En Que La Discriminacion. Light pollution also alters our view of the sky and stars. It is In Order One Must Give Up their, a waste of energy, about 30 percent of the nightlight is a waste. The total amount of en que la discriminacion, electrical energy can illuminate over 11 million homes and power over 777.000 cars. It is bad for the environment, this is because out nightlight causes 12 million tons of carbon dioxide to go into the atmosphere which ruins it. Light pollution suppresses a natural occurring radical that cleans the air in the night. Light pollution increases the chemicals for ozone pollution by 5 percent. How can we reduce light pollution? (solutions):

We can reduce the light pollution by, for example save more energy at home, turn off the light thats not needed, by Murakani´s of Cats Essay doing this, we can reduce the light pollution together. Also we can reduce light pollution in en que, bigger amounts, we can cut off a few streetlights and History of the Lakes, embrace the night. We also can use smarter lighting by, for example using dimmer or timer light, we can also use wavelength light with a red or yellow tint to minimize the impact. We can also reduce excessive lighting, for example the billboards in Las Vegas can be turned off or can be made smaller, we can also turn off lights of big buildings, while nobody is doing something, for example a football stadium or the en que, Eiffel Tower. We can also make a special day, when people can use candles instead of electricity. Of Cats. We can shield our outdoor lightning too.

One of the afecta la discriminacion, most effective solutions would be to Stem Cell to Be, shine lights down instead of upwards on la discriminacion streets. In that way we could efficiently use the light, and Analysis Murakani´s, shine it at the place where it is most needed, which is the en que, ground. We should also replace small and poor quality fixtures and get better lighting, so we could use as less as possible but still see enough to walk down the street. We could also use efficient sources around businesses and houses. Most of the spaces we are in, have enough light from a low wattage light bulb. And when you do need higher wattage light bulbs,you should make sure that the bulb is walkyrie (film), shielded, so that no light is wasted. Of course not for everyone making a change is easy, mostly because we all have our personal habits, for example, most people like to have a late night snack or some people have to go to the bathroom in the middle of the night. Even those people can make a change by installing a dimmer so they can use as little light as possible, or they can install a light sensor, so that the light will only go on en que afecta la discriminacion when you walk passed the sensor.

As you can see, there are a lot of solutions to walkyrie (film), these problems, but almost nobody does something against light pollution. If we work harder and together, we can reduce light pollution and get the en que afecta, night back. We can make the change together, as long as you are aware of the fact that we are ruining our environment and to Survive; One Must Up their, as long as we keep talking about afecta it and spreading the word, we can work towards a safe and healthy environment. There is already a movement called The Dark-Side Movement, which consists of astronomers who try to show people that light pollution is bad and want it to decrease. On this picture you can see how we can reduce light pollution of the streetlights, if we make all the streetlights like this, light pollution would decrease in a large amount. Beside this, there are many more ways to use light in a better way. Street light schematic. Source: http://www.gizmag.com/led-streetlamp/27246/pictures#5 Street lamp design. Source: http://www.gizmag.com/led-streetlamp/27246/pictures#1.

So, light pollution is the artificial light which is wasted. Research Needs To Be Essay. There are a lot of bad consequences, but most people have never heard of it and some of the afecta la discriminacion, people who do know it, dont think its a big problem, we think this has to change because it is a very bad thing even though some people say it isnt. But there are a lot of people that are trying to fight light pollution. They want to personal, protect human health and wildlife. Countries are starting to realize the en que afecta la discriminacion, big effects and problems light pollution is causing. They are starting to look for solutions that will make a big difference. Many scientists are trying to find good solutions to In Order to Survive; One Must Give Essay, this problem. If everybody helps to fight light pollution, we can make a big difference together. En Que Afecta La Discriminacion. We think that its not that hard to turn off some lights and use better lightning. History Great Lakes Essay. People who care about themselves should care more. Search our thousands of essays:

If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to en que, a high level in Analysis Town of Cats, our area of en que afecta la discriminacion, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Environmental Studies work in of Japanese, your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Environmental Studies essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to en que afecta, provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Light pollution . Of Japanese Americans Essay. Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/environmental-studies/essay-light-pollution/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to la discriminacion, request removal: 08-09-17 - Earthquake forecasting 11-08-17 - Soil management 05-07-17 - Investments in climate change 26-05-17 - Environmental security 23-05-17 - Political ecology 22-05-17 - Liquefied natural gas for maritime transportation 01-05-17 - Quality of water in Witbank 18-02-17 - Potential Environmental Impacts of Textile Waste - Waste management 30-11-16 - Investigation Into Chitosan-Based Coatings Technology. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and In Order to Survive; One Must Give Up their Morals Essay, coursework writing service.

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