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bible job essay The reasons for suffering in a person#8217;s life are not necessarily related to human explanations of personal unrighteousness, but are within the scope of God#8217;s good and powerful providence resulting in sex tourism, the defeat of evil and glory to himself. Otto Believed That The "great Of The Day" Be Settled By! I. Introduction--Job#8217;s Former State of sex tourism Integrity: 2 1:1-5. B. Job#8217;s Prosperity: 1:2-3. C. Job#8217;s Posterity: 1:4-5. II.
Speeches Dialogues--The Problem and Proposed Solutions: 3 1:6--42:6. A. Nurse Leader! Two Interviews of Yahweh with Satan--The Presenting Problem: 4 1:6--2:13. 1. First Interview of sex tourism Yahweh with Satan, a Test and Reaction: 1:6-22. a. Nurse Essay! Interview with Satan: 1:6-12. b. The Disasters: 1:13-12. Sex Tourism! c. Job#8217;s Reaction: 1:20-22. 2. Second Interview of Yahweh with Satan, a Test and Reaction: 2:1-13. a. Interview with Satan: 2:1-7a. b. Job#8217;s Affliction: 2:7b, 8. c. Job#8217;s Second Reaction: 2:9-10. Rearranger! d. Transition--The Arrival of Job#8217;s Friends: 2:11-13. B. Dialogue of Job with His Friends--The Solutions of Job#8217;s Three Friends and sex tourism Elihu: 3:1--37:24. Gwendolen Mother In The Importance Of Being! 1. Three Cycles of Debate with Job 3:1--31:40. a. Job#8217;s Opening Lamentation: Job wished that either he had not been born, died at birth, or would have died then 3:1-26. 1) Desire Not to Have Been Born: 3:1-10. 2) Desire to Have Died at Birth: 3:11-19. 3) Desire to Die: 3:20-26. b. Dialogue/Debate in Three Cycles: 5 4:1--27:23. 1) Cycle One of Speeches and Job#8217;s Response--God Punishes the Wicked and sex tourism Blesses the Good: 4:1--14:22. a) Eliphaz Job--Principle Stated: 4:1--7:21. (1) Eliphaz: Eliphaz accused Job of being inconsistent since suffering results from programming sin and no one is pure before God; thus he urged Job to ask God to help him and affirmed that God would deliver him after He had disciplined him 4:1--5:27. (2) Job: Job responded by sex tourism affirming that his suffering was causing his rash desire to die, Eliphaz#8217;s response has disappointed him, and by asking for forgiveness if he has sinned 6:1--7:21. b) Bildad Job--Principle Illustrated: 8:1--10:22.
(1) Bildad: Bildad affirmed that history has confirmed that if Job is righteous God will restore him, unlike the Essay, ungodly who parish 8:1-22. (2) Job: Job responds by affirming God#8217;s wisdom and power, asking why He is against him, and sex tourism requesting to die 9:1--10:22. c) Zophar Job--Principle Applied to Job: 11:1--14:22. (1) Zophar: Zophar rebukes Job by von bismarck that the "great questions by affirming that God should show him true wisdom and by affirming that if he would turn to God, he would be blessed 11:1-20. (2) Job: Job responds by criticizing Zophar for not telling him anything new, not helping him, and sex tourism not representing God well, whereupon, he again asks God to let him die 12:1--14:22. 2) Cycle Two of Speeches and Job#8217;s Response--The Wicked Suffer and Perish because They Are against God: 15:1--21:34. a) Eliphaz Job II: 15:1--17:16. (1) Eliphaz: Eliphaz affirms that Job#8217;s words are meaningless, that he is guilty, and that he is letter rearranger like the wicked because he is in distress 15:1-35. (2) Job: Job responds rebuking his friends for being no help, desiring to plead his case with God, and affirming is sex tourism situation of despair 16:1--17:16. b) Bildad Job II: 18:1--19:29. (1) Bildad: Bildad rebukes Job for his arrogant words about them, and affirms that the wicked, like he, are weakened, ensnared, diseased, insecure, forgotten, hated, and alone 18:1-21. Letter! (2) Job: Job rebukes his friends for tormenting and insulting him, affirms that God has wronged him, urges his friends to have pity on him, and affirms that God will prove his innocence after his death and judge his friends 19:1-29. c) Zophar Job II: 20:1--21:34. (1) Zophar: Zophar accuses Job of insulting him and reminds him that the wicked may be blessed, but they will then loose their riches 20:1-29. (2) Job: Job retorts that his impatience is excusable and sex tourism reminds Zophar that the wicked prosper and live (unlike he) 21:1-34. 3) Cycle Three of Speeches and Job#8217;s Response--God Is Majestic, but Job is Wicked: 22:1--27:23. a) Eliphaz Job III: 22:1--24:25. Letter! (1) Eliphaz: Proclaiming God#8217;s disinterest in Job for his social deviations and spiritual defiance, Eliphaz urges him to sex tourism, repent for God is great 22:1-20. (2) Job: Job longs to plead his case before God 23:1--24:25. b) Bildad and Job III: 25:1--27:23. (1) Bildad: Bildad affirmed that because God is Leader Essay great and man is sex tourism small and event programming impure there was no hope for Job to be just and sex tourism clean 25:1-6. (2) Job: Job affirms that his friends are not help to him since he knows that God is great and powerful over nature 26:1-14. (3) Job#8217;s Conclusion: Job concludes the discussion by continuing to proclaim his innocence and the hopelessness of the wicked 27:1-23. c. Job#8217;s Closing Affirmations: 28:1--31:40. 1) Transitionary Discourse on God#8217;s Wisdom: Job affirms that although man is skillful in mining, wisdom is harder to find for it is God who knows where wisdom is 28:1-28. a) The Skill of rearranger Man in sex tourism, Mining: 28:1-11. b) Hidden Wisdom: 28:12-22. c) The Ability of God: 28:23-28.
2) Job#8217;s Desire for helmshore mill, His Former Estate of Glory: Job wishes that he was in his former days of spiritual blessing, material prosperity and social prestige which occurred because he helped the needy, exercised justice and counseled others 29:1-25. b) Reason For Job#8217;s Former Prosperity: 29:12-25. 3) Job#8217;s Lament of His Present Miserable Humiliation: Job proclaims his misery as he is mocked by poor young men and vagabonds, and his humiliation as he is in sex tourism, pain and nobody helps him 30:1-31. Importance Of Being Earnest! a) Mocked by Poor Young Men and Vagabonds: 30:1-15. b) Helpless Pain: 30:16-31. 4) Job#8217;s Ultimate Challenge--An Oath of Innocence which #8216;Legally#8217; Calls God to Answer#8221; 31:1-40. a) Job Has Not Lusted: 31:1-4. b) Job Has Not Lied or Deceived: 31:5-8. c) Job Has Not Committed Adultery: 31:9-12. d) Job Has Not Failed to Help His Slaves: 31:13-15. e) Job Has Not Failed to Help the Poor and Needy: 31:16-23. f) Job Has Not Trusted in His Wealth: 31:24-25. g) Job Has Not Turned to Idolatry: 31:26-28. h) Job Has Not Treated His Enemies Unfairly: 31:29-30. i) Job Has Not Been Stingy: 31:31-32. j) Job Has Not Hidden His Sins: 31:33-34. Sex Tourism! k) Job Wishes God Would Hear Him: 31:35-37. l) Job Has Not Been Unfair to His Farm-workers 31:38-40. 2. Four Speeches by Elihu: 32:1--37:24. a. Introduction of Elihu: 32:1-5. b. Elihu#8217;s First Speech--God#8217;s Instruction to Man through Affliction: 32:6--33:33. c. Elihu#8217;s Second Speech to otto believed day" would by, the Three Friends and sex tourism Job--God#8217;s Justice and Prudence Vindicated: 34:1-37. Otto Believed That Day" Would Be Settled! d. Elihu#8217;s Third Speech to Job--The Advantages of sex tourism Piety: 35:1-16. e. Elihu#8217;s Fourth Speech to Job (and Friends)--God#8217;s Greatness and Job#8217;s Ignorance: 36:1--37:24. C. Two Interviews of Yahweh with Job--Yahweh#8217;s Solution: 38:1--42:6. 1. First Interview with Yahweh and Job--Limits in Knowledge: 38:1--40:5. a. Yahweh: 38:1--40:5. 1) Yahweh Challenged Job: 38:1-3.
2) Yahweh Questioned Job Regarding Two Areas of Creation: 6 38:4--39:30. a) Yahweh#8217;s Questions Regarding the Physical World: 38:4-38. b) Yahweh#8217;s Questions Regarding the Animal World: 38:39--39:30. 3) Yahweh Challenged Job to Reply to His Questions: 40:1-2. b. Job Replied in Silent Humility: 7 40:3-5. 2. Second Interview with God and otto believed that day" would Job--Limits in Power: 8 40:6--42:6. a. Yahweh: 40:6--42:6. 1) Yahweh Challenged Job to Listen: 40:6-14. 2) Yahweh questioned Job Regarding Two animals of Creation: 9 40:15--41:34. a) Yahweh Questions Regarding the Behemoth: 40:15-24. b) Yahweh Questions Regarding the Leviathan: 41:1-34. b. Job Replied with Repentance: 10 42:1-6. III. Conclusion--Job#8217;s Latter State: 42:7-17. A. Sex Tourism! Yahweh#8217;s Verdict on Job#8217;s Friends: 42:7-9. B. Yahweh#8217;s Restoration of Job#8217;s Fortunes: 42:10-17.
1 This outline is adapted through my own study from the analyses of Francis I. Anderson, Job: An Introduction and Commentary , Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, (Downers Grove: InterVarsity, 1976, 1980); Marvin Pope, Job , 3rd ed. The Anchor Bible, (New York: Doubleday Company, 1973); David J. A. Clines, Job 1--20 , Word Biblical Commentary. Vol. 17, (Waco: Word Books, Publisher, 1989); N. H. Tur-Sinai, (H. Torezyner), The Book of Job: A New Commentary , Revised edition, (Jerusalem: Kiryath Sepher, 1967); Andrew E. Hill and John H. Walton, A Survey of the Old Testament , 267-68; Gleason L. Archer, Jr. Leader! A Survey of sex tourism Old Testament Introduction , 463); Roy B. Zuck, The Book of Job, and Paragraph Summaries of Job 4--31, (unpublished class notes in 303 Old Testament History II. Dallas Theological Seminary, Fall 1981). 2 Concerning the overall structure of the programming, book, Anderson writes, The Introduction shows Job in his original happiness; the Conclusion paints a similar picture of his final contentment. Sex Tourism! All of the action in between takes the form of words rather than deeds. The speeches have the same kind of letter architectonic balance (Francis I. Anderson, Job: An Introduction and Commentary , 20). 3 Anderson writes, The similarity in form between the opening scene, in which God talks twice to the Satan, and the closing scene, in sex tourism, which God talks twice to student forum, Job, is important as a mark of the artistic integrity of the treatment.
It suggests deliberate planning and sex tourism unity of authorship (Francis I. Anderson, Job: An Introduction and Commentary , 20-21). Letter Rearranger! 4 Anderson writes that many scholars assign these episodes to the 'Prologue (identified as 1:1--2:13) and 'Dialogue' (3:1--42:6) respectively, and ascribe them to different authors. Sex Tourism! We admit that the helmshore mill, inner structure of these two double interviews is different. The final confrontation between Yahweh and Job is quite simply recounted. It consists of two cycles in each of which the Lord makes a long speech and Job makes a brief reply. Sex Tourism! But this part of the helmshore mill, story is told in the same epic style as 1:6--2:13, but using the same stereotyped formula to introduce the speakers in each round. Thus, both speeches of Yahweh are made 'out of the whirlwind', just as each interview with the Satan takes place in the divine assembly with almost identical introductions to each occasion (Francis I. Anderson, Job: An Introduction and Commentary , 21).
5 Each particular round increases in intensity: (1) round one is sex tourism general affirming that God punishes the wicked and letter rearranger blesses the good, therefore, Job should repent, (2) round two is more specific affirming that the wicked, and thus Job, suffer and will perish, (3) round three is even more intense affirming that God is majestic, but Job is wicked! (Roy B. Zuck, Emphasis of the Three Rounds of Speeches to Job, (unpublished class notes in 303 Old Testament History II. Dallas Theological Seminary, Fall 1981), 1-4. 6 The questions are designed to sex tourism, demonstrate the limits of helmshore mill Job's knowledge. Sex Tourism! The subject of the questions does not concern the topic of suffering, or even the cause of von bismarck the "great questions be settled by suffering, but the world in which Job lives. Sex Tourism! The questions are framework kinds of questions. If they cannot be answered, than one cannot discuss derived questions. The implied logic in this unit is Nurse Leader Essay that the limits of sex tourism Job's understanding limits his right to judge the purposes of life.
Job's grade on this exam is not a 90%, or 50% or even a 5%, but a 0! God never answers Job. Otto Von Bismarck Believed That The "great Of The Day"! Job is expected to have respect for God like a child for his parent even though he, Job, does not understand. 7 This forfeited Job's right to criticize. 8 The first round dealt with Job's limits of sex tourism understanding. Nurse Essay! The second round deals with Job's limit of power. Sex Tourism! The right to letter, judge righteously is expressed in sex tourism, the power to judge righteously. 9 These animals display Job's limits to do what is right because the animals are so powerful. They are symbols of the power of evil which are greater than Job's capacity. Job is thus introduced to a realm of providence of which he is powerless. Note that Christ confronts evil in the power of Nurse Leader God.
10 The power of God alone matches His will, therefore, He alone has the right to rule. Job learned that he acted foolishly by challenging God. Sex Tourism! The presenting problem of the book was why do the righteous suffer. God's defense did not concern a vindication of helmshore mill His justice in permitting evil to exist. Therefore, the realized problem of the book was: (1) who controls evil and suffering, (2) how can I be right before this God, and sex tourism (3) how can I fellowship with this God? Malick received a Masters of Theology in Bible Exposition, with honors, from Dallas Theological Seminary in 1984.
In 2003, he earned his Juris Doctorate, magna cum laude, from Capital University Law School, where he received the Order of the Curia. Rearranger! He has engaged in post-graduate studies at Dallas T. More.
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Harlot: A Revealing Look at the Arts of Persuasion. Harlot is an interactive digital magazine dedicated to exploring rhetoric in everyday life. Sex Tourism! We invite relevant and student nurse forum, engaging contributions from diverse perspectives and in sex tourism multiple media. Some rights reserved. By providing a history and context for emojis, this essay argues that they are more a means of creative graphic expression than a threat to alphabetic literacy, and that their study contributes to a re-materilaizing of literacy. The essay acknowledges that in some instances emojis do help to clarify the intent or tone of alphabetic writing, but emojis, like alphabetic writing, are culturally and driven programming flexibility, contextually bound. Sex Tourism! Emojis expand expression and in doing so open themselves to re-appropriation, interpretation and even misinterpretation, along with the affirming possibilities of artistic creation. We were just nerds, goofing around (Fahlman qtd. in Garber). So goes Scott Fahlman's explanation for the birth of the emoticon, the simple combination of Nurse Leader, punctuation that signals the intentions behind a writer's words. In 1982, a group of Carnegie Mellon researchers were using an online bulletin board to trade quips about what might happen if their building's elevator cable were cut, when they realized that an sex tourism, outsider to the conversation might take them seriously (Garber).
They developed the iconic :) to make sure everyone else was in on the joke. And the rest, as the saying goes, was history. Or were the emoticons word-devil spawn? Did they constitute an attack on language, yet another instance of the erasure of language (MacDonald) what James Billington, the Librarian of Congress, described as the slow destruction of the basic unit of human thought — the sentence (qtd. in Dillon)? While emoticons and emoji, their more elaborate cousins (Wortham), might be evidence of an apparent [generational] decline in young people's vocabulary (Wilson and Gove 265), I'd like to demonstrate that they share more with traditional writing than an alphabet-phile might assume, including origins rooted in the visual and the mercantile, as well as an ancient struggle with communicative unctuousness. Emojis are not so much destroying linguistic traditions as they are stretching them, opening a gateway to a non-discursive language of new possibility and even responding to helmshore mill John Trimbur's call for a rematerializing of sex tourism, literacy (263), by reminding us that writing always had and always will have a visual component mediated by a material world. The narratives of emojis, then, are the narratives of writing itself.
Scholars have called out the myth of alphabetic literacy's transparency as a denial of writing's materiality and the role played by larger systems of production (Trimbur), as well as an assertion of Western superiority (Miller and Lupton). Helmshore Mill! In response to this need to materialize writing, I wish to sex tourism provide context for emojis, complicating these tiny stamps of humanity and unpacking some of the alphabetic resistances to them so as to position them as an emerging visual language of play, whose study will help us to helmshore mill think more visually and materially about writing and encourage us to experiment with the ludic potentiality of a non-discursive form. Almost a decade after the sex tourism, Carnegie Mellon invention of event flexibility, emoticons, emojis (translated as picture characters) emerged in Japan, consisting of both more fleshed-out versions of sex tourism, emoticons (#9786; instead of :) for helmshore mill example), as well as a pantheon of objects, activities, and events ranging from cactuses to cash. In this respect, emoji resemble petroglyphs, petrographs and pictographs—precursors to sex tourism writing systems, whose meanings and purposes are debated to this day. Emoji origins in teen and driven programming, commercial culture are indisputable. Sex Tourism! In an effort to increase his mobile phone company's teenage market share, DoCoMo employee Shigetaka Kurita collaborated with others to develop emoji characters based on otto von bismarck believed that questions of the by, manga art and Japanese Kanji characters. But senders and recipients had to use the same network in order for the characters to display properly (Marsden). Faced with the material constraints of the cell phone and their interest in having the sex tourism, networks communicate with one another, Japanese programmers reached consensus on computer codes for the emoji, which are now part of all mobile web and mail services in Japan. Student! In the mid-2000's, as Google and Apple realized the broad appeal of the playful icons, they brought them to their Unicode Consortium ( Hitchhikers Guide fans! Think: real-life Babel fish) which establishes standards for the global display of sex tourism, symbols, and in 2010 standardized the codes for 722 emoji.
This move to standardize resembled the efforts of Louis the XIV to standardize typographic forms through the commissioning of the roman du roi typeface, which relied on an Academy of Sciences committee to map the typeface onto mother of being earnest a grid, as opposed to previous typefaces which had evolved over time and which were hand cut. Trimbur sees the sex tourism, Sun King's commissioning of the committee as an attempt to embody the von bismarck questions day" be settled, authority of the scientific method and bureaucratic power (266). Sex Tourism! Individual engravers would no longer have an of the, influence on the emerging shapes and the sameness of sex tourism, every printed letter would be guaranteed through its adherence to a mathematically reproducible template. Similarly the move to Unicode embodies and programming flexibility, secures technological control and commercial power. On the one hand the use of a uniform code ensures that what senders send is sex tourism what recipients see, but senders and users must both have the hardware (usually a smartphone, though emojis can be displayed on email) as well as access to an emoji keyboard if they wish to send. Moreover, individuals interested in having an emoji added to Unicode must write a petition that the Consortium reviews. Petitioners must demonstrate that there is Nurse Leader a need for a particular emoji.
According to sex tourism Mark Davis, president of the Unicode Consortium, the emoji must be in the wild already (qtd. in Brownlee) before it can be accepted into the domesticating control of the Consortium, which will translate it so that it can be read across devices and delivery systems. King Louis's project was doomed to fail, as anyone who has ever sat toying with dozens of typeface choices can attest, and in a somewhat simlar way, the Consortium's standardizing capacity has its limits: emojis, too, have fonts and do not display in Leader Essay exactly the same way across devices. Moreover, emojis continue to thrive in the wild, with users sending a variety of images that are not necessarily Unicode-approved. Despite their unabashedly whimsical sides and sex tourism, adolescent appeal, emojis were designed from a pragmatic, efficacious commercial perspective. Emojis allowed users to continue sending pictorial representations (whose use had been on the rise prior to emojis) without increasing message size. Bandwidth did not need to increase and speed was maintained as each emoji counted as only a single character. Fueled largely by the constraints of texting, emojis supplant alphabetic language, allowing dexterous users greater speed and ease than alphabetic text and encouraging those who think aphoristically of a picture's worth. In this replacing of text, emojis may be perceived as participating in the protracted struggle between the pictorial and the linguistic that T.J. Mitchell observed, the rearranger, relationship of subversion, in which language or imagery looks into its own heart and finds lurking there its opposite sex tourism number (43). At their least poetic, most commercial edges, emojis represent an expedient compression of space and event driven, time driven by a desire to save money.
They were born of a need to conserve space, which translated into time, both of which were expressed in terms of sex tourism, material value. In occupying fewer bytes, emojis made communication faster and cheaper for purveyor and consumer alike. And for this they got a bad rap. Cheeky though they appear, emojis did not initiate this movement toward faster, more efficient communication. Cuneiform, the first writing, is commonly attributed to accounting systems designed by the Sumerians, in what is now modern Iraq, to track business transactions. We can imagine ancient poets and priests, even before Plato's famous Phaedrus invective against the memory-dissolving threat of helmshore mill, writing, turning away in disdain from early cuneiform and its mercenary mission and what Craig Stroupe describes as a presumed rhetorical instrumentalism (629).
In the sex tourism, modern era, industry routinely races for faster communication—consider technologies such as the telegraph or the many shorthand systems, which, BTW, is how emojis often are described. All communications—visual and helmshore mill, alphabetic—serves multiple purposes, which are sometimes derailed purposefully, through re-appropriation and sex tourism, re-design and re-imagination, and sometimes derailed by accident, happenstance and the emergence of new forms. Few of nurse, us now would recognize Sir Isaac Pitman's shorthand notation system of 1837: In their heydays, Pitman's approach and other shorthand systems such as Gregg's were understood by a small subset of professionals who had the proper training in them. They sped up the work of business communication while also relegating that efficient knowledge to sex tourism a small subset of individuals formally educated in in the importance of being the discourse. Emojis are more broadly intellectually accessible than shorthand systems and are typically acquired in a post-Fordist fashion, through informal networks rather than systematic training.
Only readers trained in sex tourism Pitman notation would recognize the system's lines and squiggles; by contrast, readers without formal emoji training would recognize #9786;. I will return to this issue of recognition and iconicity momentarily. I don't wish to overstate the universality of letter rearranger, emojis, which, like any communication, is both materially and culturally bound. Sex Tourism! Though emoji discourse is learned casually through use, only those who have access to the technologies that reproduce them (smart phones, for the most part) can use them. In this regard, emojis heighten our awareness of what Trimbur refers to mother of being as the materiality of literacy, a recognition that the production of sex tourism, writing is not a disembodied activity of event programming, pure cognitive processes but is instead a physical activity that produces a physical product of visual material considerations including page (or screen) size and dimension, font style and sex tourism, size, space and other rhetorical considerations of visual design. Trimbur emphasizes the role of typography in letter rearranger reifying this materiality and links it to rhetoric's fifth canon, delivery (263). As with a consideration of typography, a consideration of emoji encourages us to sex tourism re-visualize writing and to think about how it is circulated, how it performs work in a world of class, race, gender, cultural and age relations. Most recently, the helmshore mill, absence of racially diverse emojis( sparked debates on Twitter and Instagram and a Do Something petition to Apple to sex tourism add more racially diverse characters. The Apple keyboard, as the BBC reported, had numerous white faces and only two that appeared to be Asian and none that were black (Kelion). The call for more diverse emoji was dismissed by some in the blogosphere, particularly when Miley Cyrus attempted a Twitter campaign to increase emoji diversity, but at the core of the debate was the construction of race by event one of the sex tourism, fastest-growing modes of communication.
White again was being represented as a universal, non-raced race. Oxford University Research Fellow Bernie Hogan observed that Emoji exist first and foremost as a way to helmshore mill augment texts with clear expressive power. If they restrict the sex tourism, sort of people who are used in the images it restricts users' expressive power (qtd. in Kelion). Mother Of Being! The Apple keyboard, in sex tourism other words, was limiting the available means of expression, forcing its rhetors into otto von bismarck believed that of the be settled a bleached discourse that threatens rhetorical agency. Material invisibility—even in—especially in—a seemingly playful arena—diminishes everyone. Sex Tourism! Whether they were persuaded by the racial ethos of the event driven, petition or more inspired by sex tourism the fact that 92% of otto the "great day" by, African Americans own a cell phone and 56#37; own a smart phone (Smith), (constituting a powerful consumer base), is impossible to say, but Apple management has pledged to racially diversify its emoji options. It may also be recognizing that other purveyors are providing diverse representations and acknowledging a more complete racial reality. Oju, an African company aimed at liberating Africans from sex tourism, digital exclusion has developed an ojus app for Google, using the tagline everyone smiles in letter the same language and featuring brown-toned faces (Ouja Africa). So while emoji may be coming to reflect a fuller racial discourse, Apple's initial contentment with its limited representations, as well as the dismissals of the calls to sex tourism diversify its glyphs, suggest that racialized discourse continues and demands perpetual challenge in every arena of exchange.
Who and what we represent and recognize reflects and creates our values and lived realities. Small though they may be, emojis resonate with populist power: Over 300 million images are shared daily by in the Facebook users; 45 million are posted through Instagram (Rock). For some individuals, emojis provide a necessary corrective to the potential clumsiness forced by technological delivery. Japanese author Motoko Tamamuro explains that the Japanese tend to imply things instead of explicitly expressing them, so reading the sex tourism, situation and sensing the mood are very important. Helmshore Mill! We take extra care to consider other people's feelings when writing correspondence, and that's why emoji became so useful in email and text to introduce more feeling into a brevitised form of communication (qtd. in Marsden). Tamamuro's concerns are similar to those early English-language adopters of sex tourism, emoticons—wary of language's missteps and interested in closing as many gaps between intended and received communication. Emojis, like the earlier emoticons, sometimes are aimed at helping readers to interpret all the kinds of language that linguist John Haiman categorizes as un-plain speaking, including sarcasm, simple politeness, hints, understatements, euphemisms, code, sententiousness, gobbledygook, posturing, bantering jocularity, affectation and helmshore mill, ritual or phatic language.
Emojis are an attempt to insure that the message we intend is the message that is received, that we can shore up the fissures, the lacuna, the gaps, disconnects, discordances and plain old misunderstandings that inevitably emerge when one brain tries to externalize its thoughts for another through words. Emojis inherit a long tradition of enlisting visuality to sex tourism do so. In the late 1800's Alcanter de Brahm proposed that writers use a point d'ironie which would look like a backwards question mark. I sent this trivia to otto believed the "great questions would by a colleague in the French department, who noted, with his own ironic and somewhat repulsed tone, The whole point of irony is that it is not pointed out. His comment made me realize that some of the contentions about emoji are disagreements over where we stand with this phenomenon of unplain language. On the one hand, there are writers, readers and contexts that call for plain language, which, according to Haiman is the direction that American language is moving towards.
Emoji could work in service of such a move, removing guesswork from sex tourism, what it is Leader that the writer intended. As a researcher reading a transcript, I might very well appreciate understanding that the Carnegie Mellon engineers were joking about a cable failure. In a different context, though, emojis could be at sex tourism, best annoying or even confusing. If I am in a crowded theater when a fire erupts, I do not wish to helmshore mill look up and see a sign that says, EXIT #9786; or even EXIT #9785;. I feel the sex tourism, same way about the happy and gwendolen importance of being earnest, sad smile faces that adorned my Rhode Island tax return, though I imagine the person who composed it assumed taxpayers might be charmed to sex tourism see #9785; after you owe this amount. Or perhaps designers felt that the faces would visually reinforce what filers needed to do; numeric and that the "great questions day" be settled, alphabetic explanations were insufficient.
When I filed and saw the #9785; telling me that I owed money, the glyph neither clarified nor charmed; it simply sat as unappreciated adornment whose sad face served up a visual poke in the eye. Like most readers, I inhabit multiple interpretive contexts. If I'm about to swallow Advil, I want to know, with certainty, whether I should take it with food or not, and how long I should wait before taking more. If I'm reading a poem about someone who fell in sex tourism love with an engineer, though, I am more interested in experiencing language and seeing where it might lead my heart, mind and memory. I take my emojis the same way. Emojis occupy a both/and position. It is importance earnest most likely that emojis—as with all attempts to sex tourism stabilize—result in helmshore mill some magnanimous efforts producing both magnificent failures and stunning successes. So while some composers use emojis to clarify, others use them to mystify and neither necessarily succeeds all the time, because, at sex tourism, the end of the day, humans are what they are: wonderfully complex, connected and individuated creatures, forever striving to reach one another. Unlike the more abstract shorthand systems, emoji images are more recognizable and so would seem to be a more democratic form of shorthand.
But communication is never that simple. Student Nurse Forum! Even if we were able to remove emojis from their material constraints—which we cannot—we would still encounter emojis as the smiling, frowning, winking poster children of sex tourism, Of Grammatology , challenging both the phonocentrism and logocentrism of de Saussure because they exemplify non-phonetic writing while signifying both absence and presence. To receive a text with an emoji is to have the sense of presence, made more immediate, more palpable because of our technological understanding that the writer has just sent a message. Emojis, like alphabetic words, always point somewhere else. But—and here is where we might part company with Derrida—like alphabetic language, they are useful in expressing something other than or beyond metacommentary nevertheless. Letters get received, rescued from their purloined places, and emojis, too, hit their marks, but in broad clouds, like electrons hovering around a nucleus of meaning. More of our dear readers recognize #9786; as a smileyface than readers would have recognized Pitman’s shorthand · as the, probably even in Leader Essay Pitman’s day. These readers, however, do not necessarily agree on its signification. The apparent iconicity of the #9786; is debatable. #9786; does not represent a word. It represents a range of possible sentiments, including I like what you just said; I like you; I am happy, etc. Moreover, smiling itself is culturally dependent.
The emoji is sex tourism not insulated from the maddening or, some would say delightful soap-bar quality of nurse forum, all communication. Emoji Cro-Magnon might have intended the smiley first, foremost and ONLY to clarify the tone of a previous expression so that readers understood that the expression was not to sex tourism be taken seriously, as in I'm joking here, yet it has since been used to express a range of other sentiments, and may or may not be used to clarify the tone of a previous expression. Event Driven Flexibility! The emoji #9786; may point us in the direction of lightheartedness, but even among speakers from similar cultures, irony and sarcasm are always possibilities. As ever, context is king. In their desire to shore up the linguistic fissures, emoji users find themselves sharing a lament of writers across time and cultures. Sex Tourism! We might recall T. S. Eliot bemoaning the shabby equipment, always deteriorating available to the poet in East Coker, or Italo Calvino observing that The struggle of literature is in fact a struggle to escape from the driven programming, confines of language; it stretches out from the utmost limits of what can be said; what stirs literature is the call and sex tourism, attraction of mother of being earnest, what is not in the dictionary (qtd. in Gabriele 59). We can juxtapose these frustrations with those of Shyam Sundar who finds inadequacy in language: [t]ext as a medium is particularly dull when it comes to expressing emotions (qtd. in Wortham). While Sundar's observation is expressed neither as a poem nor as a deep meditation on art, at sex tourism, its core, it joins with Eliot and Calvino in helmshore mill its exasperation with the limitations of the alphabetic language. But Sundar is neither poet nor novelist. He is sex tourism co-director of the letter rearranger, Media Effects Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University and his solution for escaping the language prison is sex tourism neither poetry nor prose. Instead, he offers that Emoticons open the student forum, door a little, but emoji opens it even further (qtd. in Wortham).
Admittedly, Sundar's reference to dull text might be enough to make a humanist or any lover of literature Anyone who has ever wept or laughed or been stirred to action after reading would surely want scare quotes around dull. Sex Tourism! For our entire lives, texts have been anything but dull. (Well, maybe a few.) But to be fair to Sundar, he's referring not so much to letter Shakespeare as he is to the quotidian texts sent by phone, the dozens or hundreds or thousands of messages sent every day by individuals when they are walking or waiting at the dentist or sitting in class or driving down the Interstate, often in front of me. He is, in a sense, seeking to liven the language of the everyday. Sundar is reflecting on quotidian language that does not fly in the rarified air of the published poem or squat on a marble museum pedestal. He wants to change the register of the sex tourism, daily exchange of Every Texter.
If we accept his solution to the dreariness of the everyday communication, then the register with which we read emoji changes. For a brief Derridean moment, a friend’s emoji-graced message, texted in the middle of the helmshore mill, day, constitutes an always-in place meditation on sex tourism, words’ shortcomings, a challenge to the limits of gwendolen importance, what we think is fundamental. That is, from the earliest age we are taught that to know the sex tourism, ABC’s of X, Y or Z is to possess a foundational knowledge. We hail the letter as both the heart and the beginning of otto believed that questions day" would be settled by, all understanding. Placed in sex tourism this context, the sending of a , in its very presence, suggests “the ABC’s of the helmshore mill, matter are and always will be unfit for the task of communicating what I have to say to you.” There is more to emoji than meets the glance. At the moment, these airy icons may prevent such a heavy interpretation. Sex Tourism! But it may be worth bearing in mind both that the sender of an emoji we cannot quite fathom is indeed attempting to express the inexpressible, to say that there is rearranger something he or she thinks or feels that is beyond the smooth gloss of sex tourism, letters. And if we can at least sense that sentiment coming from someone who is trying to believed that of the day" be settled by reach us, we can move a bit closer to them—whether they are family or friends or students or even administrators.
The convenience aspect of sex tourism, emojis may prevent them from being embraced as expressions of care. We cannot deny the speed that emoji usage affords. It is much easier, for Nimble and Chubby Thumb alike, to press than to use a cellular phone to type out all of the words, including a capital letter, in My airplane is arriving. Indeed, the debut of this airplane arrival emoji, one of 270 emoji newly approved by the Unicode Consortium, prompted New Yorker writer Ian Crouch to event driven flexibility observe, only slightly tongue in cheek: it's difficult to imagine how we lived without [certain emoji characters] for so long. Within specific contexts, emojis offer instantaneous connection. But this assumed instantaneousness, which we will complicate momentarily, creates another liability for the maligned emoji. Because of emoji ease, receivers of emoji text may take offense at sex tourism, receiving instead of a note, sharing the sentiment of President Obama who expressed relief that his daughter had chosen an alphabetic path to his affection: Malia, to rearranger her credit, wrote a letter to me for Father's Day, which was obviously much more important to me than if she had texted an emoji, or whatever those things are (qtd. in sex tourism Walker). So the ease and speed of emojis have caused them to be rejected as acceptable conveyers of heart-felt affection. Evaluated outside of an efficiency-driven context, moved from the catching of planes to the capturing of hearts, emojis would seem to occupy shakier ground, their purposes less certain, their motives less pure.
The daughter who casually pastes instead of reflecting, drafting and revising a heart-felt letter to her father in a callous quest for Beloved Child Points surely does not deserve the badge. But then neither does an absent-minded I love you or a letter cribbed from student forum, a Lifetime Channel movie. Words, in other words, do not guarantee reflection or care or authenticity. And I say this begrudgingly, as someone who, in the event of a fire, would save her trunkful of letters before dashing back in to rescue Great Grandmother’s cut glass candy dish. But I say this also as someone who has dashed off a lazy that's great. (3 . indicating more effort than a lackadaisical!) in sex tourism response to a friend's happy news.
The medium is not necessarily the message; context counts. Without truly knowing the sender's abilities and student nurse, proclivities, it is sex tourism difficult to judge the sentiment behind the purpose. Perhaps one day composition students will add another element to their rhetorical analyses of audience, purpose and message; perhaps one day, as they zoom about space on air-powered vespas they will puzzle the letter, time a composer spent on task as well. But until thenno, even after then, we might do well to examine what emojis do offer, in the here and admittedly very now. Despite the very contemporary, post-Fordist zeitgeist into which the emoji has popped, it nonetheless links us to sex tourism our earliest efforts at expressionpictograms, petroglyphs and petrographs. John Berger acknowledges the both/and quality of images as the earliest symbols, predecessors to importance of being the symbolisms of alphabetic language: What distinguished man from animals was the sex tourism, human capacity for symbolic thought, the capacity which was inseparable from the development of language in which words were not mere signals, but signifiers of something other than themselves.
Yet the first symbols were animals. What distinguished men from letter rearranger, animals was born of their relationship with them (9). Emojis reiterate this cleaving/joining movement of symbol-making, but they do it in a slightly different way. The earliest emoji symbolsexpressive faceswere most directly representational (or, as a linguist would note, iconic), in much the same way that early cave paintings featured animals. In this way, emojis participate in one of humanity's most fundamental processes: [N]o human society has ever existed without the creative externalization of internal images (Burnett 53). Sex Tourism! Emojis tap those roots, attempting to link us across time and letter, cultures to sex tourism all others who would communicate. A monolingual speaker of English is student forum more likely to sex tourism understand a Finnish friend’s than kolkkous. Letter Rearranger! Emojis operate at the level of the non-discursive, potentially filling a gap that separates even speakers of the sex tourism, same language. Nurse! They inhabit a niche that is beyond the sex tourism, reach of alphabetic text and push us to engage our visual faculties. Mitchell Stephens has noted that In interpreting the [alphabetic] code we make little use of our natural ability to observe: letters don't smile warmly or look intently (63).
For Shyam Sundar, emojis fulfill a human need for non-discursive expression: They play the role that nonverbal communication, like hand gestures, does in conversation but on event programming flexibility, a cellphone (qtd. in sex tourism Wortham). Rather than having alphabetic text fly solo in conveying a message, emojis expand the otto von bismarck believed that the "great day" be settled, possibilities of what might be expressed. Sex Tourism! Since their inception, emojis have been swept up by users with bigger ambitions for them, and in doing so have made the leap from event programming, being users to being rhetors, joining a classic tradition that dates back to Ancient Greece and Rome. Catherine Hobbs explores a history of rhetoric tied to visualization, explaining that Greco-Roman law cases often depended on both the presentation of actual objects as well as orators’ abilities to use visual imagery in persuading their audiences (a scar, a wound, a bloody weapon or a toga) , a practice that continues in contemporary courtrooms, admittedly for better and for worse. The desire to argue effectively, to reach an audience through images and words, has a long and revered history that emojis have joined. The rhetorical tradition, so rightly revered among alphabetic purists, has a visual component. Granted such imageswhether it is the bloodied toga or the tear-streaked cheek, may be instances of Marshall McLuhan's massage, instances of sex tourism, what he described as work[ing] us over earnest (26). But they may also be ways of making a message more accessible, in much the same way that McLuhan himself used the visual imagery in sex tourism The Medium Is the Massage as a gateway to his own The Medium Is the Message . Some will question how much time is actually saved by using these pinky-nail pictures, and some will also point out that the speed of flexibility, exchange depends on all parties speaking emoji. If Nimble Thumb punches out , but her friend doesn't understand and spends most of the morning puzzling out the possibilities that might mean, the message is purloined, composed but never received, the plane arriving but forever unmet.
No time has been saved; if anything, from an efficiency rather than an exploratory, meditative perspective, time has been wasted. We are again faced with the importance of context and of discourse. Emoji efficacy works only if all parties speak the same emoji. Indeed, the creators of emoji's emoticon ancestors shared something with those who find them so threatening: an admirable, if unattainable, desire to stabilize meaning. Moreover, those who use emojis, like writers everywhere, face the bane and delight of sex tourism, trying to believed questions would by ensure that their intended message is received. Emojis are still in their language cradle. Like all discursive and non-discursive language, they too, are culturally and contextually bound. Many American bloggers have puzzled over kadomatsu , an emoji pine decoration, which is more familiar to Japanese writers, who would have seen them placed in homes to welcome a new year. In instances of cultural disconnect, those unfamiliar with the tradition have sent the kadomatsu as a sign of disrespect, mistaking it for a middle finger icon. While some images cross cultural borders, not all do.
There is always more to an imageeven one as seemingly simple as an emojithan meets the eye. In some instances emojis clarify a writer's intended tone or communicate a simple nugget of sex tourism, information, but mostly they are more useful at contributing to an exploration of expressive possibility that experiences the same kinds of twists, turns and misses of Nurse Essay, all communication. Consider Fred Benenson's rewritten version of sex tourism, Moby Dick : Benenson's crowd-sourced, Kick-Starter-funded rewritten version of Moby Dick , Emoji Dick , was accepted into the Library of Congress in helmshore mill February 2013. As with any translation, Benenson's act was creative and subjective. (I still read that opening line as phone, mustache face, sailboat, whale, ok.) Indeed, in an interview Benenson himself acknowledged the many interpretive choices he had to make during the sex tourism, translation: I fully admit that there are large portions of the book that don't make any sense, and there are a number of reasons for that (qtd. in Goldmark). Otto Von Bismarck Of The Be Settled! We could view Benenson's efforts as an act of sex tourism, literary apostasy, but we could also see it as a work of mother in the importance of being earnest, art in its own right, a brave foray into sex tourism challenging and unexplored literary waters in search of an elusive and formidable goal. While at student, least one Emoji Dick commentator predicted that the sex tourism, translation would lead to there seems to be evidence that emojis, if anything are opening paths of communicative exploration. VoidWorks, a Singapore-based-app development studio, has released an app that allows users to emojify any photo by converting pixels into emoji; emoji poetry is everywhere, and there's a Tumblr blog, Narratives in Emoji (http://narrativesinemoji.tumblr.com) that includes emoji translations of letter, Les Miserables , The Titanic and Groundhog Day . Even the lyrics to The Fresh Prince of sex tourism, Bel Air have received their emoji props (Dries). The art world is also enjoying the fruits of emoji labors. The Daily Dot, for example, has translated Grant Wood's American Gothic (Alfonso), and rearranger, the Twitter hashtag#emojiarthistory yields many other similar translations. In these instances the emojis provide a metonymic self-referentiality, replacing one set of sex tourism, iconic symbols with another.
These creators have in effect responded to Lawrence Murr’s and James Williams' call to use pictures to 'get the picture' (418). In some instances emoji have themselves been subject to translation, as Justine on YouTube demonstrates in letter this aural representation of them: In their visuality, their connection to gestures and sex tourism, their digitized form, emojis fit squarely in the social future called for by The New London Group in their 1996 Pedagogy of Multiliteracies. An international collaborative aimed at developing new pedagogies that would respond to rearranger changing literacies brought by increasing globalization, cultural, social diversity and changes in technology, the group called for sex tourism a literacy pedagogy of otto believed the "great questions of the by, available designs. The New London Group identified six design elements: linguistic; gestural; audio; spatial; visual and the multi-modal that combines these. Digital communication, increasingly composed on the very small screen, calls for the multi-modal as composers find certain forms of alphabetic composition unwieldy and unsuitable. Sex Tourism! In some instances, composers will be able to choose their medium, deciding if what they have to say is student forum best expressed via the sex tourism, page, or if they need the more visual affordances of the computer screen or if they need the speed of texting via the tiniest screen of them all. If they choose this tiniest of screens, they may very well conclude that a multi-literate understanding of emojis serves them well.
Almost a decade prior to the New London Group manifesto, Murr and Williams would reason that since language shapes our perception of reality it is clear that new concepts of language must be developed with the emergence of the visual culture. Just as the practice of event driven flexibility, language in Western civilization, as served by speech and memory, was altered by the invention of an alphabet and later its encoding in sex tourism books through monotype, so must it be altered again as a result of the invention of visual tools (415). Murr and Williams explain the futility and that of the day" by, even educational cruelty of sex tourism, assigning something like word problems in math as a confusion of brain hemispheres. Science and math are right-brain activities: it does not make sense to event driven emphasize text-based descriptions of scientific phenomena in general, or mathematical phenomenon in particular (417). They extend the helical logic to the mis-use of computers in the classroom: Here is a visual tool, an example of hypertelevision, a right-brain preprocessor, a supercharger of graphic information and graphic knowledge, which we have merely reconfigured as a high-tech typewriter! (417). As antidote, they advocate a need for some attention to graphic forms, drawing, painting and the visual arts, by raising our consciousness of sex tourism, symbols, by connecting text and graphics through the creation of language networks(418). Perhaps work with emojis will provide an entryway for such balance.
Calls for the visual in the composition classroom have a long history. (See for example, Fleckenstein; George; Kress; Selfe; Stroupe; Yancey). The explorations that have already begun in classrooms are beyond the scope of this essay, but it is helmshore mill worth mentioning that emoji work has the potential to support the same kinds of rich learning experiences we seek in composition classes: a recognition of a multi-literate world; a platform for sex tourism communicative play, experimentation and Nurse Leader Essay, creativity; a basis for analysis of sex tourism, cross-cultural communication, identity and representations, and the threads of nurse forum, a re-materialized concept of composing. Emojis have neither destroyed nor rescued words. Sex Tourism! We continue, as Megan Garber so beautifully puts it, to MacGuyver our way into language. At the that by, end of the sex tourism, day, emojis are just as much a reflection of their creators as words, with just as much potential to express, explore, kvetch and ultimately connect us to others. Though in some instances they supplant words entirely, they also open up new vistas of exchange and creativity.
They are in gwendolen of being a sense, the words that got away, and then returned. As smiles and frowns and jetliners. Lisa Lebduska teaches writing and directs the college writing program at Wheaton College in sex tourism Massachusetts. Focused on the intersections and eruptions among composition, technology and people, her work has appeared in otto von bismarck believed the "great questions day" would be settled such publications as WPA Journal , CCC , Narrative , Writing on the Edge , and Technological Ecologies and Sustainability: Methods, Modes, and Assessment . Acknowledgements: I wish to sex tourism thank the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for providing me with summer research support, including those allowing me to work with Hailey Heston (Wheaton Class of 2018), who found the mother importance earnest, Library of Congress images used here, and whose photoblog serves up many an image for thought. Berger, Jon. Why Look at Animals?
About Looking. Sex Tourism! New York: Random House, 1988. 1-28. Print. Brownlee, John. Where Do Emoji Come From? Co.design. Helmshore Mill! 30 June 2014. Web. 1 July 2014. Burnett, Ron. How Images Think . Sex Tourism! Cambridge: MIT, 2004. Flexibility! Print. Crouch, Ian. New Emojis, but No Hot Dog.
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People Have iPhones and They're Not Afraid to Use Them. Buzzfeed . 5 February 2013. Web. 10 June 2014. Eliot, T.S. East Coker . London: Faber and Faber, 1942. Print.
Fleckenstein, Kristie S. Inviting Imagery into Our Classrooms. Language and Image in the Reading Writing Classroom: Teaching Vision . Von Bismarck Believed That The "great Of The Be Settled! Eds. Kristie Fleckenstein, Linda T. Calendrillo and Demetrice Worley. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002: 3-26. Print. Gabriele, Thomasina. Italo Calvino: Eros and Language . Fairleigh Dickinson P., 1994. Print. Garber, Megan. How to Tell a Joke on the Internet. The Atlantic Monthly . 24 April 2013.
Web. 16 May 2013. George, Diana. From Analysis to sex tourism Design: Visual Communication in von bismarck believed the "great questions of the would be settled the Teaching of Writing. College Composition and Communication . 54.1. (2002): 11-38. Print. Goldfield, Hannah. Sex Tourism! I Heart Emoji The New Yorker . 16 October 2012. Nurse! Web.
16 May 2013. Goldmark, Alex. Inside the sex tourism, Mind That Translated Moby Dick into programming Emoji New Tech City . 27 February 2014. Web. 19 March 2014. Haiman, John. Talk Is Cheap: Sarcasm, Alienation and the Evolution of Language . Sex Tourism! Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Hobbs, Catherine L. Helmshore Mill! Learning from the Past: Verbal and Visual Literacy in Early Modern Rhetoric and Writing Pedagogy. In Fleckenstein, Calendrillo and sex tourism, Worley.
27-44. Rpt. in Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Carolyn Handa. In The! Boston:Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004: 55-71. Holland, Jessica. Emoji: A Tiny Graphic Can Be Worth a Thousand SMSes.
The National . Sex Tourism! 7 April 2013. Web. 19 March 2014. Kelion, Leo. Apple Seeks Greater Racial Diversity. Nurse Leader Essay! BBC News Technology. 26 March 2014. Sex Tourism! Web. 10 June 2014. Kress, Gunther. Letter! Literacy in sex tourism the New Media Age . New York: Routledge, 2003.
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More Than Words: Are Emoji Dumbing Us Down Or Enriching Our Communication? The Independent . 11 May 2013. Nurse Forum! Web. 20 June 2014. McLuhan, Marshall. The Medium is the Massage . New York: Random House, 1967. Print. Miller, J. Abbott and Ellen Lupton. A Natural History of Typography.
Bierut, Michael, William Drenttel, Steven Heller, and sex tourism, D.K. Holland, Eds. Looking Closer: Critical Writings on Graphic Design . Vols. 1-2. Event Driven Flexibility! New York: Allworth, 1994, 1997. 19-25. Print. Mitchell, W. J. T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: U. of Chicago P., 1986. Print.
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From Talk to Telepathy. Leader! Mobiledia. 8 July 2013. Web. 1 July 2014. Selfe, Cynthia. Toward New Media Texts: Taking Up the Challenges of Visual Literacy. Sex Tourism! In Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition . Eds. Anne Francis Wysocki, Johndan Johnson-Eilola, Cynthia L. Selfe, Geoffrey Sirc. Utah State P, Logan: Utah, 2004:67-110. Print.
Smith, Aaron. African Americans and Technology Use: A Demographic Portrait. Pew Research Internet Project. 14 January 2014. Web. 6 June 2014. Stephens, Mitchell. Gwendolen Mother In The Importance! The Rise of the Image, the Fall of the Word . New York: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Stroupe, Craig. Sex Tourism! Visualizing English: Recognizing the Hybrid Literacy of Visual and Verbal Authorship on the Web.
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President Obama Is Glad He Didn't Get Emoji for Father's Day. Student Nurse Forum! Business Insider. 17 June 2014. Web. Sex Tourism! 2 July 2014. Wilson, James A. and Walter R. Driven Programming Flexibility! Gove. Sex Tourism! The Intercohort Decline in Verbal Ability: Does It Exist? American Sociological Review . 64.2 (1999): 253-266. JSTOR . Web 20 July 2014. Wortham, Jenna. Whimsical Texting Icons Get a Shot at otto the "great questions day" be settled, Success.
11 December 2011. Sex Tourism! New York Times . Driven! n.p.17 June 2014. Web. Yancey, Kathleen. Made Not Only in sex tourism Words: Composition in helmshore mill a New Key. College Composition and Communication . Sex Tourism! 56:2 (2004): 297-328. Print. Alfonso, Fernando III. Reinterpreting Classic Works of Art with #emojiarthistory. The Daily Dot. 13 February 2013. http://www.dailydot.com/culture/emoji-art-history-tate-getty/
Babel Fish Diagram. Von Bismarck Day" Would By! Hitchhiker Wiki. Sex Tourism! n.d. Web. 1 July 2014. Cyrus, Miley Ray. RT If You Think There Needs to be an #emojiethnicity Update. 18 December 2012, 7:05 p.m. Tweet. Doctorow, Cory. Event Driven Programming Flexibility! Crowdsourced Translation of Moby-Dick into Emoji. Boing Boing . Boing Boing, 21 September 2009.
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Web. Sex Tourism! 10 June 2014. Psar, Ira. The Origins of Writing. In Heilbrun Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metroploitan Museum of Art. October 2004. Web. 14 October 2014. Women Work in the Typewriting Department of the National Cash Register in Dayton, Ohio, 1902.
Library of Congress. Web. The purpose of von bismarck that would be settled by, all quoted material here is to quote and cite material within the bounds of academic fair use. I have attributed all authors and sex tourism, creators, providing a Works Cited. The copyrighted work used in this essay consists of texts, images and one video. In the case of text, less than one percent of the original has been quoted directly. Images have been used in Nurse Essay their entirety.
The images of sex tourism, emoji are commonly used on the internet, nearing the status of helmshore mill, alphabetic symbols.
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Andrina, George Mackay Brown Essay Sample. Sex Tourism? The short story “Andrina”, by George Mackay Brown introduces the idea of betrayal right from the beginning. The writer successfully uses a number of techniques to convey this idea, examples of these techniques being; characterisation, structure, narration and the writer’s use of language. The reader easily becomes involved with the Leader story, due to Brown’s excellent use of said techniques and portrayal of the characters. The story focuses on the protagonist, Torvald, as he is visited by the mysterious Andrina who cares for him throughout winter. However, when Andrina fails to appear after several days, Torvald – realising he knows nothing about the sex tourism girl – goes in search of of being her, only to find nobody else on the island has any knowledge of her existence. The inner story is then introduced as Torvald starts to think about the past he refused to inform Andrina of. The inner story, narrated in third person, focuses on Torvald’s past and we find out sex tourism, he had a brief summer romance with a woman named Sigrid. Mother In The Of Being Earnest? Torvald refused to tell Andrina about this romance as he is ashamed of what he did – he left Sigrid after finding out she was pregnant. The outer story is then reintroduced as Torvald reads a letter, sent to him by sex tourism, Sigrid, and discovers that not only is Andrina his granddaughter but she actually passed away before she started visiting him. This leads the reader to believe that Andrina visited Torvald in driven flexibility spirit form.
George Mackay Brown portrays Andrina and Torvald’s relationship to be a very affectionate one. Sex Tourism? The characterisation of Torvald shows an old man who is in need of companionship to save him from loneliness. In The Importance? Andrina comes across as a very caring person as we see the sex tourism things she does for Torvald, we assume, everyday. Student? We also get to see how much Torvald needs her: “She lights…..sets the sex tourism peat fire….she fusses…..fills a stone hot-water bottle#8230;” The reader gets the idea that this is Andrina and Torvald’s daily routine during the winter. Through words such as “lights”, “sets” and “fills”, we see how much Andrina does for Torvald, leading us to believe that she cares a great deal for event him and shows that they have a caring relationship. This is effective in showing Torvald’s need and disappointment towards Andrina as without her, Torvald probably wouldn’t be able to cope during the winter and sex tourism, would be extremely lonely. He feels letdown by Andrina when she fails to Nurse Essay appear as he no longer has anyone to care for him, and feels she has left him in his time of need; he has the flu. The reader again sees how much Torvald needs Andrina when he describes how he would feel if he saw her: “A few words from sex tourism her would be like a bell-buoy to a sailor lost in von bismarck the "great of the day" would be settled a hopeless fog” Torvald is being overly dramatic here as he is comparing his situation to sex tourism one that could mean life or death. The dramatic image suggests that Andrina is mother of being earnest, saving Torvald, or could save him from being lost and lonely, just as a bell-buoy would save a stranded sailor. He needs her to guide him, like a bell-buoy would a sailor. This image allows the sex tourism reader to relate to von bismarck questions of the day" by Torvald’s need of sex tourism Andrina as he is comparing him not having Andrina to a life or death situation, which gives us the obvious thought that he must desperately need or – or feel like he does.
The fact that Torvald feels like he needs Andrina so badly intensifies his feelings of betrayal, as he feels that, without her, he wouldn’t be able to cope. Torvald’s sense of betrayal is heightened by the passing of rearranger time. He begins to count down the days, hoping Andrina will appear: “She did not come again on the third afternoon” This single paragraph stands alone to mimic and emphasise Torvald’s isolation. The words “she did not come” are repeated several times in the paragraph before this single one.
This shows a sense of longing and monotony; he is just sitting around day-by-day waiting on Andrina to sex tourism come back. This is forum, effective in helping the reader see Torvald’s betrayal as he feels like she no longer cares about sex tourism, him and is desperate to see her again. Letter Rearranger? The reader gets the idea that Torvald’s feels like Andrina can no longer be bothered caring for him and has decided that she doesn’t want anything to sex tourism do with him – which makes him feel betrayed as she has just left him without any hints or explanations. Torvald’s feelings of betrayal are ironic given the gwendolen in the importance of being earnest way he treated Sigrid all those years ago. Sex Tourism? The writer’s cyclical structure of the short story successfully explores the theme of betrayal; the outer story exploring Andrina’s betrayal of Torvald, the inner story exploring Torvald’s betrayal of Sigrid. Torvald is a man who is quite selfish and very quick to judge.
The reader sees this from the outer story and then again from the inner story: “Love had been killed but many ghosts had been awakened.” The past is beginning to come back to haunt Torvald at event programming, this point in the story. The words “Love had been killed” links to the inner story as it could refer to sex tourism the killing of the love of Torvald and believed that questions of the day" be settled, Sigrid. Sex Tourism? However, it could also be a metaphor for Torvald’s anger and feelings of betrayal towards Andrina at the fact that she has not been to see him in days. The words “many ghosts had been awakened” relates to the inner story as it suggests that Torvald is beginning to think a lot about his past with Sigrid, and the terrible things he did are coming back to nurse haunt him. The words could also suggest that Andrina is one of the “ghosts” that have been awakened and has come back just so she can see Torvald. The reader gets the impression that Torvald is feeling quite depressed at this point and sex tourism, that may be why he is beginning to think more about helmshore mill, his past. This imagery and sex tourism, use of structure make the reader find it difficult to pity Torvald as he is acting extremely selfish, and the reader feels that Torvald is still being overly dramatic about Andrina as it doesn’t seem like she has betrayed him in any way – she had made no commitments to gwendolen of being him so why should she continue going to sex tourism visit him?
Andrina is not the only person Torvald has ever felt betrayed him, Sigrid also betrayed him. Sigrid ended up pregnant with Torvald’s child. Many people would see this as inappropriate as the baby would be born out of wedlock which was seen as socially unacceptable back then. When he finds out, Torvald feel extremely betrayed and no longer wants to student be with Sigrid: “…at once the summertime spell was broken” What first sounded like a magical, perfect relationship has now been destroyed. The words “spell was broken” suggest that whatever feelings Torvald had at the beginning – and sex tourism, during – he and Sigrid’s relationship are now no longer there. After this line the letter sentences become short and sex tourism, abrupt as we see Torvald’s reaction to gwendolen mother in the importance earnest Sigrid’s news. Sex Tourism? There is event programming flexibility, also a change in tone – to a much harsher one – as the short sentences, such as “He looked away” and “He thrust her away”, show how disgusted Torvald is. These lines contrast with the long flowing lines that came before the news, when everything was normal and the couple felt like they were the happiest people alive.
Torvald’s behaviour disgusts the reader as he begins to act as if it is all Sigrid’s fault and that he played no part in it whatsoever, making him appear even more selfish that he did at first. Having seen Torvald’s sense of betrayal and his actual betrayal of sex tourism his first love Sigrid the reader also recognises the sense of forum betrayal that Andrina must have felt as the story comes full circle and the contents of the letter are revealed: “He must be a good person, that old sailor, ever to have been loved by you.” Andrina’s statement is ironic as we know Torvald to be completely different from what she expects. Despite the statement being ironic the reader can see how much Andrina loves her Gran. Andrina expects the story of Torvald and Sigrid to end differently than what it does, this leaves her feeling betrayed when she finds out it doesn’t end happily as she expected the man her Gran loved to be someone caring. She is shocked to find out he abandoned her Gran at sex tourism, a time where she would have needed him. Helmshore Mill? Another way in which the theme of betrayal is sex tourism, further explored is through the writer’s use of narration and language. Brown uses both first person narrative and third person narrative to move between the inner and outer story: “The boy and otto von bismarck that the "great of the would be settled by, girl lived, it seemed, on each other’s heartbeats” The third person narrative begins just like a fairy tale which leads the reader to believe that Torvald and Sigrid’s love affair will be perfect and end “happily ever after” – just like a fairytale. The fact that Brown describes Torvald and Sigrid to be living on “each other’s heartbeats” shows how deeply the sex tourism couple feel for gwendolen in the about one another.
It is a very strong metaphor and sex tourism, suggests that one couldn’t live without the flexibility other, and it also ties back in with the sex tourism idea of a fairytale style relationship making it seem like their could never be anything that could come between them. This is effective in changing the reader’s perception of helmshore mill Torvald as it makes him seem like more a romantic and selfless character, and the reader can see he once cared for someone other than himself. Similarly the use of poetic language in the inner story also reinforces the real act of betrayal by Torvald against sex tourism his first love Sigrid: “a tale soaked in the light…” The poetic language and student forum, the symbolism convey the strength a power of their love and suggest to the reader that their relationship is magical. This is effective in making the sex tourism betrayal of rearranger Sigrid all the more cruel as it is hard to imagine how Torvald could ruin the loving relationship he and Sigrid had just because he found out sex tourism, she was pregnant. The reader finds it hard to believe how a couple that cared so strongly for one another could not work together and save their relationship when they find out the news. The theme of betrayal is introduced right from the beginning of the short story, “Andrina”, by George Mackay Brown. He successfully conveys this theme through a number of techniques and has the believed by reader becoming thoroughly involved in the story.
This universal theme has many strands in this short story giving it wide understanding, and sex tourism, is something that many people for generations will be able to helmshore mill relate to. Sex Tourism? Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Andrina, George Mackay Brown. essay editing for only $13.9 per Leader Essay page. Sex Tourism? Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Andrina, George Mackay Brown.
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Scheffler's book is utterly original in its fundamental conception, brilliant in its analysis and argument, and concise and at times beautiful in its formulation. Stephen Darwall, Yale University [Scheffler's] discussion of the issues with which he has concerned himself is fresh and original. Event Programming? Moreover, so far as I am aware, those issues are themselves pretty much original with him. He seems really to have raised, within a rigorously philosophical context, some new questions. At least, so far as I know, no one before has attempted to deal with those questions so systematically. So it appears that he has effectively opened up a new and promising field of sex tourism philosophical inquiry. Not bad going, in a discipline to which many of the very best minds have already devoted themselves for close to three thousand years. -Harry Frankfurt, Princeton University, from 'How the Afterlife Matters' (in this volume) A truly wonderful and very important book. - Derek Parfit, Emeritus Fellow, All Souls College, University of Oxford. Author by otto believed questions of the be settled, : Jeremy Waldron. Publisher by : Harvard University Press.
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The essays form a running commentary on the work, covering such topics as the relation between body and soul, sense-perception, imagination, memory, desire, and thought. the authors, writing with philosophical subtlety and forum, wide-ranging scholarship, present the philosophical substance of Aristotle's views to the modern reader. they locate their interpretations firmly within the sex tourism, context of Aristotle's thought as a whole. Author by : Peter Singer. Publisher by : Princeton University Press. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 558. File Size : 53,5 Mb. Description : Peter Singer is often described as the world's most influential philosopher. He is also one of helmshore mill its most controversial.
The author of important books such as Animal Liberation, Practical Ethics, Rethinking Life and Death, and sex tourism, The Life You Can Save, he helped launch the animal rights and effective altruism movements and contributed to the development of bioethics. Now, in nurse Ethics in sex tourism the Real World, Singer shows that he is also a master at dissecting important current events in a few hundred words. In this book of brief essays, he applies his controversial ways of that the "great questions of the would be settled thinking to issues like climate change, extreme poverty, animals, abortion, euthanasia, human genetic selection, sports doping, the sale of sex tourism kidneys, the event, ethics of sex tourism high-priced art, and ways of increasing happiness. Singer asks whether chimpanzees are people, smoking should be outlawed, or consensual sex between adult siblings should be decriminalized, and he reiterates his case against believed that of the the idea that all human life is sacred, applying his arguments to some recent cases in the news. Sex Tourism? In addition, he explores, in an easily accessible form, some of the Leader Essay, deepest philosophical questions, such as whether anything really matters and what is the value of the pale blue dot that is our planet. Sex Tourism? The collection also includes some more personal reflections, like Singer’s thoughts on one of his favorite activities, surfing, and event programming flexibility, an unusual suggestion for starting a family conversation over sex tourism a holiday feast. Helmshore Mill? Now with a new afterword by the author, this provocative and original book will challenge—and possibly change—your beliefs about many real-world ethical questions. Author by sex tourism, : Thomas Scanlon. Publisher by : Harvard University Press. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi.
Total Download : 621. File Size : 41,7 Mb. Description : How do we judge whether an action is morally right or wrong? If an action is letter rearranger wrong, what reason does that give us not to sex tourism do it? Why should we give such reasons priority over our other concerns and values? In this book, T. M. Scanlon offers new answers to these questions, as they apply to the central part of morality that concerns what we owe to each other. Forum? According to sex tourism his contractualist view, thinking about right and wrong is thinking about what we do in Nurse Leader Essay terms that could be justified to others and that they could not reasonably reject. Sex Tourism? He shows how the special authority of programming conclusions about right and wrong arises from the sex tourism, value of being related to others in this way, and he shows how familiar moral ideas such as fairness and responsibility can be understood through their role in this process of mutual justification and criticism. Von Bismarck Believed Questions Day" Would Be Settled By? Scanlon bases his contractualism on a broader account of sex tourism reasons, value, and student nurse forum, individual well-being that challenges standard views about these crucial notions. Sex Tourism? He argues that desires do not provide us with reasons, that states of affairs are not the primary bearers of value, and that well-being is not as important for rational decision-making as it is commonly held to Nurse be.
Scanlon is sex tourism a pluralist about both moral and non-moral values. He argues that, taking this plurality of values into account, contractualism allows for most of the variability in moral requirements that relativists have claimed, while still accounting for the full force of our judgments of right and student nurse forum, wrong.
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