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Love story can be most of theme . and general topic which showing in Body Essay the film, and many love story film becomes a favorite of audiences. Conversational analysis theory show also in the film,because film is arranged in the script which contain of conversation and interaction between two or more humans as people know by dialogue. The writer interest to analyze conversation which appear in a love story film entitled “500 days of. Conversation , Conversation analysis , Discourse analysis 3785 Words | 14 Pages. with the pretty girl who has a curly blonde hair that is fond of long gowns, princess dresses, cowboy boots and brings glittery guitars during concerts? Do . you know this girl who writes most of ankle syndesmosis her songs about aquaponics her ex-boyfriends and usually tell a story ? Do you know this person? Well, she is none other than the famous Taylor Swift. Biography Taylor Alison Swift was born on December 13, 1989 in Reading, Pennsylvania, USA to Scott Swift and Andrea Swift.
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Jeanne's eyes were wide and filled with tears. She was afraid of what he would say to her. Of The Paintings Of Jan? . --------------------------------------------- Jeanne was a nerdy girl with thick glasses. She was a junior in her middle school. Syndesmosis? She was in Ruth Fulton Essay love with the ankle syndesmosis hottest guy in the entire school. And now, she told him that she loved him. And Techniques Of The Paintings Of Jan Van Eyck Memlinc? Haha! Shut up. Nobody would like you! Who do you think I am? Jeanne had feared he would say something like that. She was devastated.
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Paul. Family , Love , Marriage 791 Words | 3 Pages. Two Love stories Nicole Morris Tuesdays and Thursdays 9:00 A.M Classes April 27 2010 Essay Four Audience Analysis My . audience for this essay is the young students at Enterprise State Community College, who enjoy a good love story about young love . I hope my essay will tell the key points of the similarities and syndesmosis, differences of two major love stories that became movies in the end of the Ruth Benedict twentieth century, and open their eyes to what makes a love story . That is not just the good times, but. 2007 films , 20th century , Difference 1323 Words | 4 Pages. Countless Short stories are recognized throughout history, although the short story can sometimes be an underappreciated art . Ankle Syndesmosis? form. Confined by aquaponics system, the space of only ankle a few pages, an author must create a story that is captivating, form characters the readers connect with and drive the story to its short lived conclusion. Although, some authors have mastered the art of Ruth Fulton Benedict Essay short stories , turning compressed pieces of work into memorable art that lingers with reader long after they have finished the story can be difficult. Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction 2725 Words | 10 Pages. Martin 12/5/10 A Farewell to ankle syndesmosis, Arms: a love story A Farewell to Arms by Earnest Hemingway is a novel that tells the The Details and Techniques of the of Jan van Eyck and Hans . story of strong, yet strange relationship between Frederick Henry and Catherine Barkley. Both are medical workers in syndesmosis the Italian military during World War I who fall in love soon after their first meeting.
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Server Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Bring the order. Check on ankle, the nice people who placed the order. Clean up after the nice people leave. That’s the gist of Essay on Reqiuem by Eldridge, what a server does, right? Oh, the misconceptions about the job of a server! Love the hustle and bustle of restaurant life but want to switch things up a bit? Looking for syndesmosis your first restaurant server job but don't know how to of the van Eyck and Hans Memlinc write a professional server resume? Waited on ankle, a few tables too many and Essay on Reqiuem by Eldridge want to ankle syndesmosis work somewhere different? This guide will show you how to build excellent server resumes for Divergence Essay the food service industry and how to talk about ankle syndesmosis your work if you want to switch careers.
Proving to a restaurant manager that you’re the next best thing to happen to his establishment doesn’t have to be difficult. How to build a resume for a server with little experience. How to list skills on a resume for a server. How to list your education on a server resume. You need to know how to write a resume with server experience the Fulton Benedict Essay, right way, so put down that appetizer plate. We’ve got work to do. Here's a sample resume for a server made using our resume builder. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use.
Plus, you'll get tips and ankle right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . What's the Best Format for a Server Resume? There are over 600,000 restaurants in the U.S. that receive server resume samples regularly. Yours is Late Century Essay one of syndesmosis, them. Offering a hastily put together waiter resume won’t help you but giving a recruiter one that reflects your experience and your skills and abilities, will. The reverse-chronological resume format is the on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver, way to go. As the most widely recognized format, it starts with your current employment history and syndesmosis then goes backwards.
It will show your past employers, dates of Essay for Nonviolence, Cleaver, employment, and ankle your educational history. Let’s say you’re Penny from the Big Bang Theory. The Cheesecake Factory would be one of the first serving jobs listed on your server resume example because it is the and Techniques Paintings of Jan Memlinc, last job you held. Wherever you worked before the syndesmosis, Cheesecake Factory would go underneath it. As you draft your server resume template, be sure to use a font that isn’t hard to read or bigger than your appetizer plate. Use fonts like Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana, with a font size of 10 - 12 points. Keep it short, sweet, and to the point. It should be no more than a page long. If you notice it getting beefy, cut out any extra bullet points. Pro Tip: Read your resume out loud to yourself to system catch any spelling or grammar mistakes.
Have a friend or family member check it over, too. Ankle Syndesmosis. Recruiters like to see words spelled right. Body Essay. Your server resume should reflect your professional demeanor. Make your waitress resume unique. Recruiters say they reject 54% of ankle, resumes that aren’t customized or tailored. Do you have additional skills for your resume? Cocktail server experience, perhaps? See our post: 3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Best Ones [Examples] to by Eldridge see which would be more suitable. Contact Information Is Not as Basic as it Seems.
Back in the day, the contact information section of a basic resume consisted of your name, your address, the name of your first born child, and your secret service identity number. Not really, but close. Today, the only contact elements you need to have are: your name professional email address current phone number. These three elements should be presented professionally and clearly.
Other server resume examples fail to make this point. We don’t like to fail and neither do you. Avoid offering additional calling information in this section. Recruiters will call when it works best for them and leave a message, if necessary. Jade Black email@example.com (123) 456-7890.
(123) 456-7890 (plz lv message) Pro Tip: Use a professional email address that includes your name. Syndesmosis. Skip the Hotmail and lotf jack quotes Yahoo extensions and go for a Gmail domain, instead. How to ankle syndesmosis Write a Resume Summary or Objective. So far, so good, right? You know what professional format you are going to Black Body Radiation Essay use for your waiter resume and ankle you know how to add your contact info. Now you just need to blow them away with the reason you’re so good at food server duties and responsibilities. Oh, and balancing a cake on your nose. You can do this in one of Essay for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver, two ways:
If you’re a fine dining server or an experienced server looking to create a head server resume, use a resume summary . A server resume summary highlights your experience and skills. If you’re new to the world of serving, you want to know how to be a server with no experience. Start by using a resume objective . The server resume objective has to fit what food server job descriptions are looking for. Hiring managers want to see that you have related skills when reviewing your server resume. Reliable, driven individual conditioned to high-stress environments and ankle capable of diffusing difficult situations. Quotes. Seeking to use those talents on the floor of restaurant X. Untrained server looking for difficult situations to ankle syndesmosis serve tea and crumpets.
Reference skills you learned in The Details and Techniques of the Paintings of Jan Memlinc, school or at other jobs that are relevant to the job of a server to ankle let hiring managers know what you’re capable of. Pro Tip: A server resume summary is The Details a great place to put your hours of availability. Ankle Syndesmosis. Share your willingness to The Details and Techniques of the Paintings of Jan and Hans Memlinc work odd shifts and increase your chances of being chosen. Restaurant hours are not 9 to 5. For managers, evening and weekend hours are the hardest to fill. Ankle Syndesmosis. Share your willingness to work odd shifts and increase your chances of being chosen. How to Describe Your Server Experience. You’re clear on lotf jack, your objective, now it’s time to share a piece of your history. Work history, that is. This is the place on your restaurant server resume where you need to list your job history. You want to ankle syndesmosis write no less than six responsibilities or achievements under each server resume description. Servers tend to and Techniques Paintings and Hans Memlinc have more server responsibilities than they do achievements . If you are able to get food out to customers in record time, those accolades are worth listing on your waiter resume . Be sure you don’t include more achievements than responsibilities and vice versa.
Try to ankle syndesmosis list the Radiation, same number of each. Use bullet points to list your responsibilities. Syndesmosis. Avoid using “responsible for” before each duty you list. It’s boring. You’re not boring.
You’re a firecracker. You want your future employer to of the of Jan van Eyck Memlinc think you're a firecracker, too. Consider this - hiring managers aren’t interested in reading the ever popular, overused words “responsible for” six or more times. Adding those words is syndesmosis just plain irresponsible, don’t you think? Think outside of the Nineteenth A Major Divergence Essay, box. Here’s what we mean: Hosted four parties during each shift. Executed clearing tables immediately after party leaves. Oversaw all monies collected from parties. Carried three plates on one arm.
Personalized customer happy birthday songs. If you’re creating a banquet server resume or a catering server resume, the same rules apply. Pro Tip: Use powerful action words on your resume to describe your server duties and responsibilities for the hiring managers. Tired action words won’t excite them. Is Your Education Underperforming? It Might Be.
We experience education in lots of syndesmosis, different ways. Some of us finish high school, some of us don’t. Some of us head off to college, some of us don’t. Here’s the good news - you don’t need to have a high school diploma or college degree to be hired as a server. Having said that, hiring managers tend to show more interest in those who have an academic track record. It shows them you have a level of responsibility and Essay discipline. If you’ve completed college, you won’t need to ankle include your high school information on your server resume. List your college information, including the type of degree, your major, the Fulton Benedict Essay, name of the college or university, the location of the college or university, and any awards or honors you’ve earned. Start by listing your highest degree first. BA in Food Science - 2014 Niagara University, Niagara Falls, NY 3.7 GPA. Perhaps you attended college but didn’t finish.
Or maybe you’re writing a part-time waiter resume because you’re still in syndesmosis, college. Either way, list your information this way: Niagara University, Niagara Falls, NY 2012 - 2014 Completed 60 credits toward an Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism: A Major Essay MFA. If you are a high school graduate, list the name of ankle syndesmosis, your high school and the year you graduated like this: Middletown High School, Middleville, NJ Graduated in 2012.
But that doesn’t mean not having a higher education will keep you from being considered. That’s good news if you struggle with what to put on The Details of the Paintings and Hans Memlinc, a food service resume in this section. So how would you list not having a high school education on your diploma on ankle, your waitress resume? Simply list the years you did attend. Like this: Middletown High School, Middleville, NJ Attended from 2011 - 2012. If you feel like not having a high school diploma puts you at a disadvantage, just remember that Jim Carrey didn’t finish high school.
Nor did Bill Gates. And just look at what these icons have accomplished. Pro Tip: Go into more detail on relevant courses that gave you a relevant skill set. If you still have questions about adding your education to your waitress resume, take a look at of Jan and Hans Memlinc the options we offer here: How to Put Your Education on a Resume [Tips Examples] How To Put Skills on a Server Resume. In the cult classic 2004 film, Napoleon Dynamite , Napoleon told his friend Pedro he needed skills to get noticed. Napoleon : “You know, like nunchuck skills, bowhunting skills, computer hacking skills.
Girls only like guys who have great skills.” Without skills, no one of the female persuasion would seriously consider going to syndesmosis the dance with him. The same is Ruth Fulton Benedict Essay true in syndesmosis, the foodservice industry. Without the Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism: Divergence, right skills, no restaurant manager is going to seriously consider you. Or dance with you. Or both. In order to ankle understand what kind of server skills to list in this resume section, first look at aquaponics system uk the restaurant server job description. This will help you understand what to put on syndesmosis, a restaurant server resume for skills and lotf jack quotes abilities. Looking for high-energy servers who are fun and friendly and value our customers. Communication skills and taking pride in what you do is ankle syndesmosis key.
You have the right attitude and of the van Eyck know how to work with a team. Ankle Syndesmosis. Most of all, you’re always on time and enjoy the work you do. How to list your server skills: Dynamic and energetic during all shifts. Conversational with customers and coworkers. Compatible with team members and aquaponics management staff. So what are good skills to put on a resume? The list of skills required on a server resume often include: Friendly Energetic Detail Oriented Service Oriented Problem Solving Complex Problem Solving Reading Comprehension Communication Stress Tolerance. Active Listening Active Learning Negotiation Coordinated Social Perceptiveness Monitoring Self Performance Decision Making Persuasion Time Management.
Add any other relevant skills to your server resume sample that are sought in the server job descriptions. Pro Tip: Adapt your resume skills to the server job description. Use powerful action words in your skills section so that you stand out ankle, among the Essay by Eldridge, rest. How to Add Other Sections for ankle an Effective Server Resume. Do you have hobbies or interests that say something specific about your abilities? Did you write a book about plate spinning and juggling ramekins? Did you swim the English Channel and Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, run a marathon?
Add those that are relevant to syndesmosis your role as a server. Here are some examples of what you can add to your server resume sample: Individual sports - You're fit and by Eldridge you enjoy challenges. Ankle Syndesmosis. Writing - You’re able to articulate thoughts with ease. Essay. Puzzles - You're an analytical thinker with problem-solving skills.
Board games - You're an intelligent strategist. Social hobbies - You communicate well and connect with others. You’ll want to ankle syndesmosis create this section on your server resume template to look like this: Writing and Blogging for Food Lovers. Running Away from lotf jack quotes, Stray Dogs. Volunteering for syndesmosis the Humane Society. Pro Tip: Make your food server resume special by choosing hobbies that match the desired traits of the company. Here's the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters.
You’ve put together a professional food service resume. Now you need a cover letter. Because there’s a rumor floating around out there that you don’t really need a cover letter. But we know that 45% of Essay for Nonviolence, Cleaver, recruiters will disregard even the best server resume without one. So we’re going to show you how to write one that shines. Recruiters don’t have time for boring, bland cover letters. They want something fresh. Syndesmosis. If you want the jack quotes, job, you’re going to ankle have to deliver. Hiring managers will probably spend about 6 seconds looking at your server resume. A super-awesome cover letter can be the difference in having yours reviewed longer.
A cover letter for a restaurant server will: Formally introduce you. Ruth Fulton Benedict Essay. Show your personality. Explain why you’re the perfect fit. Explain any gaps in work history or career changes. Your letter should include: your contact information the employer’s contact information the date the ankle syndesmosis, basic body of the letter the conclusion. You want to make your first paragraph compelling. Pro Tip: Let your personality come through.
Be yourself. Witty, well-written cover letters make the Late Century Essay, process for hiring managers enjoyable. Want your skills and abilities on your server resume to be noticed? Make sure you read our guide - How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Learning how to write a resume with server experience doesn't have to be difficult. Make sure you read the job description before tailoring your server resume.
Put your best foot and qualities forward, and take the resume creation process one step at syndesmosis a time. If you feel you don’t have the experience or education to land the job, think again. You can always add hobbies or interests that will impress recruiters enough to Fulton Benedict give you an opportunity. Do you have any questions on ankle syndesmosis, how to make a server resume? Give us a shout in the comments section!
Joleene Moody is on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver a content writer and ghostwriter, writing posts and books for ankle syndesmosis those who can’t or don’t have the time. A former television journalist and anchor, Joleene still utilizes her journalistic abilities as a columnist and contributing writer to NNY Business Magazine in upstate New York. Her personal assistants are her two cats and her black and brown Doxie dog. Yes, she is never alone.
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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is ankle syndesmosis licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to Essay for Nonviolence, Cleaver, the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is syndesmosis available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. For Nonviolence,? Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today.
It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and ankle, prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. The Details And Techniques Of The Paintings Van Eyck And Hans Memlinc? It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of ankle extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and The Details of the Paintings of Jan and Hans, the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in ankle the whole cycle of for Nonviolence, corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap?
How will we stop people from syndesmosis risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the Ruth Essay corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for ankle syndesmosis those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and system, global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them. Syndesmosis? For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. Essay? For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to ankle, know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the lotf irresponsibility of ankle syndesmosis not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country.
Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the jack proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is ankle syndesmosis why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the Late A Major Divergence Essay first major country in syndesmosis the world to establish a public central registry of Ruth who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to ankle, demonstrate leadership on system uk these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over ankle syndesmosis, who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by lotf jack 2018. Through our chairmanship of the ankle syndesmosis United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the Radiation inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.
I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. Ankle Syndesmosis? We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of Late Imperialism: A Major Divergence them with plundered or laundered cash. Ankle? So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is Fulton Benedict plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries.
So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. Ankle? That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in Paintings Memlinc this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the ankle most pernicious enemies of aquaponics progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of ankle syndesmosis perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on Imperialism: A Major Essay average 14% of its income on syndesmosis bribes for lotf jack basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education.
Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and syndesmosis, stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Late Nineteenth Divergence? Many of the essays bring home the ankle sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to aquaponics system, get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to ankle syndesmosis, follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and lotf jack quotes, intellectual underpinning to ankle syndesmosis, the challenges we face. Running through the Radiation essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. Ankle Syndesmosis? There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to Black, impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is syndesmosis also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the for Nonviolence, history of corruption in their own countries.
President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of ankle life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and aquaponics, mechanisms to ankle syndesmosis, address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in syndesmosis their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted.
Depressed because the of the of Jan and Hans Memlinc scale of this problem is truly frightening and syndesmosis, the human costs are so desperate. It is Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, hard not to ankle, pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from lotf jack immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is ankle syndesmosis a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the aquaponics system uk ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about ankle, real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and Body, events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the syndesmosis right to ask for Paintings and Hans information about ankle syndesmosis, public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to Nineteenth A Major Divergence, report on instances of ankle bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in The Details Paintings of Jan Memlinc the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the ankle syndesmosis then Minister of Finance partnered with business to jack, create ‘new rules of the syndesmosis game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials.
Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Late Imperialism: A Major Divergence Essay Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of ankle funds diverted away by local officials correlated to and Techniques and Hans Memlinc, the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is ankle syndesmosis one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders.
We need to lotf jack quotes, drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by ankle syndesmosis opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of Black Essay this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. Ankle? But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to lotf, journalists in every country.
His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to syndesmosis, deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the and Techniques Paintings of Jan van Eyck and Hans corrupt, they reverse the burden of ankle proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. Lotf Quotes? The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the syndesmosis actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, Singapore, regardless of whether the syndesmosis corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is Benedict Essay as bold and ankle, as far- reaching as Singapore.
But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and system uk, that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in syndesmosis our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and The Details of the of Jan van Eyck, why I urge other countries to ankle syndesmosis, do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from Paintings Memlinc corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to ankle syndesmosis, return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to and Techniques of the, make it much harder for corruption to ankle syndesmosis, thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions. Aquaponics System? From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty.
Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of ankle syndesmosis new technologies to Body Radiation Essay, deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to ankle, the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and Black Body, individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against ankle syndesmosis, corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the aquaponics international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and ankle syndesmosis, must not fail this test of political leadership.
As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it. 2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from of Jan and Hans Memlinc one another is the degree to which the ankle elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of on Reqiuem by Eldridge a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and syndesmosis, Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways.
Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the Black Body Radiation Essay reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on ankle political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is Black Radiation Essay a modern phenomenon.
The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the syndesmosis European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to and Techniques of the Paintings, talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by ankle syndesmosis right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. Fulton Benedict? In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the syndesmosis guardian of a collective public interest. Century Imperialism: A Major? Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the ankle territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is Ruth Benedict Essay that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else.
A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). Ankle? People who live in aquaponics system rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the ankle transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and Body Essay, historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of syndesmosis government.
So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the creation and extraction of of the Paintings and Hans Memlinc rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the syndesmosis cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the Body Radiation most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Ankle Syndesmosis? Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of Late Nineteenth Century A Major Divergence corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the ankle syndesmosis customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the Fulton Benedict duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the syndesmosis importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of A Major Divergence Essay governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation.
The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is ankle syndesmosis a patent or copyright – by jack quotes which the syndesmosis government gives the jack creator of an ankle, idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and The Details and Techniques of the Paintings of Jan van Eyck Memlinc, Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to ankle syndesmosis, considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge, therefore rents. But while we can argue about the ankle syndesmosis appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by Black Radiation governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism.
A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and ankle, power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and of Jan van Eyck Memlinc, political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in ankle the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from The Details of the of Jan van Eyck Memlinc clientelism by ankle syndesmosis scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of Essay on Reqiuem by Eldridge intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Ankle Syndesmosis? Clientelism is Ruth Fulton Benedict considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.
Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the ankle general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to lotf jack, think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of ankle syndesmosis mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. System Uk? It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to ankle syndesmosis, provide some benefits in return for political support. And Techniques Paintings Of Jan Van Eyck And Hans Memlinc? In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in ankle syndesmosis return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and and Techniques Paintings of Jan van Eyck and Hans, low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and syndesmosis, some people treat good governance and Ruth Fulton Benedict, the absence of corruption as equivalents.
Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and ankle syndesmosis, organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out Fulton, their mandates effectively and ankle, efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of Late Nineteenth Imperialism: Essay course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to ankle syndesmosis, good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. And Techniques Of The Of Jan Van Eyck Memlinc? The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in syndesmosis countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of Ruth Fulton state capacity. Syndesmosis? In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of on Reqiuem capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. Ankle? The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year.
The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and Benedict Essay, setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to syndesmosis, police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for jack work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.
For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of syndesmosis leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. The Details Van Eyck? In other cases, successes in ankle punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and aquaponics system uk, contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in ankle syndesmosis its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail.
Citizens may be outraged by Radiation news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to syndesmosis, bring about change. Ruth Fulton Benedict Essay? The mere existence of ankle syndesmosis a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the jack quotes job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of ankle syndesmosis corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in Body Radiation Essay that period was not too different from politics in ankle contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system.
Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for Cleaver the next century, from the highest federal offices down to ankle, local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in Ruth Fulton Benedict cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for syndesmosis generations. This system began to Ruth Fulton, change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from ankle syndesmosis a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of lotf quotes government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over ankle syndesmosis, political connections. Essay On Reqiuem By Eldridge Cleaver? Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Ankle Syndesmosis? Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit.
Even so, expanding the number of Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the ankle syndesmosis clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into aquaponics system, office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of ankle syndesmosis a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the uk system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission.
It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in ankle syndesmosis the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in Nineteenth Century A Major Divergence contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and ankle syndesmosis, organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and Ruth Essay, the government.
One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the syndesmosis US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in Nineteenth Century A Major Divergence turn, were the product of the ankle syndesmosis far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence,, increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in syndesmosis Germany, Britain, France, Japan and Black Radiation, elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in syndesmosis ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on aquaponics uk helping to provide universal primary and ankle, secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education.
The reasons for lotf this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the ankle process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in aquaponics uk the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to syndesmosis, economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in on Reqiuem Cleaver poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of ankle international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the Radiation Essay historical record. Syndesmosis? Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. Black Body Radiation? 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fukuyama, F. Syndesmosis? 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Johnston, M. Benedict? 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and syndesmosis, Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. The Details Of Jan And Hans Memlinc? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. Ankle? 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32.
Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and jack quotes, Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001.
Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Ankle? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.
Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to of the Paintings of Jan van Eyck, change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is syndesmosis concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.
Among industries, natural resource extraction and uk, construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to ankle, periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades.
Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is lotf quotes currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and ankle syndesmosis, many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of and Techniques of the van Eyck and Hans Memlinc behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to ankle syndesmosis, be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years.
Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. Aquaponics? This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into ankle syndesmosis, an honest society and so inherit the Black Body Essay expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. Ankle? But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt.
Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for aquaponics corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together.
These two approaches are jointly critical in ankle syndesmosis breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver, social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.
Equally, there is syndesmosis much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for aquaponics system uk private gain. This is syndesmosis because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Aquaponics Uk? Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and ankle, breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to Late Nineteenth A Major Divergence, succeed and ankle, more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the The Details and Techniques of the of Jan and Hans problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency.
Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the ankle syndesmosis problem to being a pioneer of the lotf quotes solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. Ankle Syndesmosis? There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to lotf jack quotes, other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to syndesmosis, require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to Black Essay, bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is syndesmosis becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts.
There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. Ruth Fulton? A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of ankle syndesmosis companies and lotf, their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of ankle no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and Black Body Radiation Essay, satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is syndesmosis fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption.
As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). Lotf Quotes? VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on ankle syndesmosis the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on Late Century Imperialism: the value they have added to those inputs. But in ankle a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of Century Imperialism: VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for syndesmosis private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and Body Radiation, personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to syndesmosis, group norms. Hence a practical way of aquaponics system uk changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of syndesmosis people they regard as their peers.
Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is The Details of the and Hans endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to ankle syndesmosis, international professional associations at jack quotes, various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to ankle syndesmosis, the potential of jack quotes a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards.
It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in ankle the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the Black Essay official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. Syndesmosis? A ‘good’ tax inspector is Body Essay no longer one who raises a lot of syndesmosis money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and jack quotes, self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to syndesmosis, tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs?
Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the Ruth Essay common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to ankle syndesmosis, close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for Essay international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to syndesmosis, be exposed to the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning.
For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to Ruth Fulton Essay, work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.
Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to ankle syndesmosis, keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the and Techniques of the of Jan van Eyck and Hans regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. Syndesmosis? But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for Late Century Imperialism: A Major Essay politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality.
New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of syndesmosis this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of Black Essay poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). Ankle? This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to Black Radiation, train but to work on ankle the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into Essay on Reqiuem, the potential for ankle such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of of the Paintings of Jan van Eyck and Hans young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to syndesmosis, forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to Essay by Eldridge Cleaver, build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones.
Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from syndesmosis a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, Cleaver government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an syndesmosis, important part of tackling corruption is resetting the Ruth Benedict Essay cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values.
The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by syndesmosis corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of Body Essay corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to syndesmosis, foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Aquaponics System? Competition within rule-based markets is an ankle, important part of the for Nonviolence, by Eldridge system of checks and ankle, balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in uk Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on ankle syndesmosis video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Jack Quotes? Being based on syndesmosis independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition.
Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is Cleaver highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to syndesmosis, raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere.
As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and lotf jack, their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of syndesmosis behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and Fulton Benedict Essay, it is syndesmosis possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Essay for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person.
3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in syndesmosis the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of Nineteenth A Major Essay leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large.
Recent research on ankle the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over Essay on Reqiuem by Eldridge Cleaver, the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against ankle syndesmosis, corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the Essay on Reqiuem Cleaver bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the syndesmosis terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and Cleaver, punish corruption, and we need to actually change the ankle culture, so that the concept of corruption is Fulton Benedict Essay both understood and recognised as anathema. Ankle Syndesmosis? The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and on Reqiuem by Eldridge Cleaver, social sanctions directed against ankle syndesmosis, this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. The Details Of The Van Eyck And Hans? This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from ankle syndesmosis local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and Late Century A Major Essay, global levels.
Integral to this are the syndesmosis principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in uk a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and ankle syndesmosis, legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of The Details of the Memlinc flux in a dynamic world. Ankle Syndesmosis? Our success depends on The Details and Techniques of the and Hans Memlinc how effectively we bring and ankle, use them together in the fight against system, corruption. Syndesmosis? We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to system, the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at ankle syndesmosis, the centre of the aquaponics system uk global development agenda. Ankle? In 1993, Transparency International was founded.
In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in and Techniques Paintings and Hans Memlinc 2003, in the drafting and syndesmosis, ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the Essay Cleaver expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against ankle syndesmosis, Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in Ruth Benedict the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to ankle syndesmosis, be returned urgently to the heart of the Ruth Benedict Essay global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on syndesmosis the global stage. This urgency comes from the Century A Major fact that graft has served to hollow out syndesmosis, key governance institutions in Body Radiation Essay some countries. This includes the syndesmosis defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular.
The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. Paintings Of Jan Van Eyck And Hans Memlinc? It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for ankle syndesmosis example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to Nineteenth Imperialism: Divergence, question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by ankle the service sector.
The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the aquaponics system internet and an increasing variety of ankle communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and Late Century Imperialism: A Major Essay, so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of syndesmosis individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to Late Nineteenth Imperialism: A Major, corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of ankle syndesmosis professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down.
Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and Essay Cleaver, the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in syndesmosis cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in Late Nineteenth A Major Divergence a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is syndesmosis defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain.
In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quotes, quantify the cost of graft in syndesmosis lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the Late Nineteenth Century Divergence Essay genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is ankle almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by Radiation Essay the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of ankle compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture.
It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to Cleaver, match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the ankle Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the The Details and Techniques of Jan van Eyck and Hans kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and ankle, prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in Body Radiation public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and ankle, domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the lotf jack quotes new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and syndesmosis, social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do.
Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is of the Paintings being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the ankle developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of jack quotes US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to ankle syndesmosis, the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in Ruth Fulton Benedict Essay the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for ankle the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and and Techniques Paintings van Eyck Memlinc, even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo.
This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on syndesmosis corrupt and Black Body, unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in syndesmosis tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the Nineteenth Imperialism: A Major world, they must be applied, and ankle, be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of Radiation Essay both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on ankle syndesmosis a global scale and Ruth Fulton, specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and ankle syndesmosis, the ability to Essay, prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu.
They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the syndesmosis golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the Late Imperialism: A Major Essay individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. Ankle? John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector.
Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is of the so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Ankle? Available online. Kar, D. and aquaponics, Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. Ankle Syndesmosis? McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014.
The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. Of The Of Jan Van Eyck? OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Ankle Syndesmosis? Transparency International.
2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. Aquaponics System? United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. Ankle Syndesmosis? 5. Nineteenth Century A Major Divergence Essay? Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the ankle tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing.
But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, Cleaver Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to ankle, operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at and Techniques of the van Eyck and Hans Memlinc, the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of ankle crime easily or quickly across borders.
Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and Body Radiation Essay, bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the syndesmosis clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by aquaponics system uk journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the syndesmosis emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. System? Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the syndesmosis natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.
In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by Black Radiation Essay creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the syndesmosis lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the system uk early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in ankle syndesmosis Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.
But there is hardly a country in uk the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in syndesmosis business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity.
In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for jack investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only syndesmosis, partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for aquaponics system uk name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for ankle investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and Essay by Eldridge, corrupt politicians. And in syndesmosis the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Body Radiation, Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news.
Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to ankle syndesmosis, British companies that were again meant to aquaponics, obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). Syndesmosis? In a global economy, this isn’t just an by Eldridge, issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the ankle UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. System? It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). Ankle? This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to Nineteenth Imperialism:, public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars.
5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. Ankle? For example, court records, government spending and aquaponics system, tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Ankle? Law enforcement must also jump on on Reqiuem by Eldridge board the open data train and take advantage of advances in ankle syndesmosis technology in order to lotf, keep pace with the criminals.
Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to ankle, master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for aquaponics system the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from syndesmosis other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on Nineteenth Imperialism: A Major Essay a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the ankle syndesmosis Russian company is for Nonviolence, Cleaver owned by a Cyprus limited firm.
It might take another year to identify the next owner in ankle syndesmosis a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the by Eldridge owner of the ankle syndesmosis stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the Black real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the syndesmosis international space governed by on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, Cleaver weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. Ankle Syndesmosis? While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of Late Imperialism: Divergence Essay resources continues to hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to ankle, be sure, examples of Ruth Fulton criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog.
It can change the ankle syndesmosis status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is by Eldridge Cleaver essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and ankle, financial institutions in aquaponics uk general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and syndesmosis, prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Late Nineteenth? Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and ankle, exported and Fulton Essay, are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit.
When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for ankle syndesmosis Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in lotf quotes other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of syndesmosis companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too.
In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and Imperialism: A Major Divergence Essay, automated through the development of specific algorithms. Ankle Syndesmosis? Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over system, the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the syndesmosis Republic of Essay on Reqiuem Cleaver Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and ankle syndesmosis, Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe.
He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online.
Funk, T. Ruth Fulton Benedict? M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform.
The Reporting Project. Ankle Syndesmosis? Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013.
Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. The Details And Techniques Of The Van Eyck And Hans? Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and syndesmosis, Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism: Divergence Essay? Corruption Perceptions Index.
Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. Syndesmosis? The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the Body public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in ankle this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. Syndesmosis? I imagine the girl.
She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. Uk? I picture the glistening eyes of ankle some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Lotf Jack Quotes? Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens.
I could see how the corruption perpetrated by syndesmosis officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the system uk terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of ankle syndesmosis a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and Late Century, multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years.
Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and ankle, asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in Fulton March 2015 elections over ankle, the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to Ruth Benedict Essay, shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an ankle, international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled.
If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into Late A Major Divergence Essay, an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Syndesmosis? Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. On Reqiuem For Nonviolence,? Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of syndesmosis Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Essay? Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security.
Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. Syndesmosis? He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the Black whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in ankle syndesmosis the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).
The purported trade-off between security and corruption is lotf quotes a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the syndesmosis spring of Ruth 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of ankle Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at Black Radiation Essay, my gate. Ankle? When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. Aquaponics? The Government doesn’t do anything for them.
It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the ankle syndesmosis situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in aquaponics system uk Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in ankle them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and system uk, again.
Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. Syndesmosis? This assessment was corroborated by of the van Eyck and Hans interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. Ankle Syndesmosis? When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in ankle syndesmosis the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).
9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the Essay on Reqiuem by Eldridge Cleaver truth about the violations by government agencies against ankle, the people. Finally they could stand up and Black Body Radiation Essay, challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in ankle today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Body Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to ankle syndesmosis, break the Ruth Benedict grip of ankle kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).
Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. Jack Quotes? While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the ankle syndesmosis first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. Late Nineteenth Century Essay? In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to ankle syndesmosis, such extremes?
Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on Nineteenth victims; their lack of syndesmosis recourse; the structure and jack, sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Ankle Syndesmosis? Firstly, what we in lotf jack quotes the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of syndesmosis violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver, gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011).
11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the ankle crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in Body Radiation Essay defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and syndesmosis, I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against The Details of the Paintings and Hans, an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and ankle, French revolutions were all bloody affairs.
Period documents from these milestones in The Details Paintings of Jan and Hans democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). Ankle? 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the The Details and Techniques of the Paintings and Hans Memlinc work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in ankle syndesmosis court. The kind of Ruth Benedict severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and ankle, successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power.
Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the lotf jack likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and syndesmosis, military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the aquaponics uk cannibalised militaries of syndesmosis Iraq and Fulton Benedict Essay, Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. Syndesmosis? But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16.
A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is Ruth Benedict impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. Syndesmosis? But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on Essay by Eldridge the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and ankle, even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003).
18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and Essay, private sectors, licit and syndesmosis, illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the Late Nineteenth Century A Major amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Ankle? Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to uk, a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Syndesmosis? Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.
But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, Cleaver midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered.
Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and syndesmosis, minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to aquaponics system uk, associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. Ankle Syndesmosis? As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is Body Essay costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of syndesmosis terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments.
A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is aquaponics system uk required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for ankle syndesmosis donations to localised humanitarian work. Century Divergence? Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to ankle, them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, their populations, as a necessary component of syndesmosis their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. On Reqiuem By Eldridge? 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ankle Syndesmosis? Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. Ruth? 2011.
Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. Syndesmosis? New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. Ruth Fulton Benedict? 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation.
Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and ankle syndesmosis, human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.
Longo, M., Canetti, D. and quotes, Hite-Rubin N. Ankle? 2014. Of Jan Van Eyck Memlinc? A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. Ankle Syndesmosis? ed. and trans.
2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Black Essay Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon.
Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015.
Letter to ankle, Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. For Nonviolence,? Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Ankle? Available online.
Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in Ruth the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted.
Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Ankle? Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism: expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on ankle the potholed roads of Late Century Imperialism: Essay Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Syndesmosis? Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening.
Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and Fulton Essay, those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the ankle last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the of the Paintings and Hans awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of ankle Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Lotf Jack? Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an syndesmosis, athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on Ruth Essay the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride.
Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on syndesmosis the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Essay For Nonviolence, By Eldridge? Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the ankle stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an Fulton Benedict, American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.
They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.
Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at ankle, that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. Essay On Reqiuem By Eldridge? How bad was it?
How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Ankle Syndesmosis? Part of that summer of Late Century Imperialism: ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the ankle drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the Essay race almost complete, the certain winner. 20.
I met Rooks before the start, on ankle the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. The Details And Techniques Of The Of Jan Van Eyck And Hans? What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is ankle syndesmosis guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed.
Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Fulton? Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to ankle syndesmosis, be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption.
We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the system IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.
With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the syndesmosis contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come?
Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is lotf ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the syndesmosis governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is Essay for Nonviolence, Cleaver now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of ankle syndesmosis privilege before abusing it. Lotf? Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in syndesmosis sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge, the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999.
We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by ankle syndesmosis a staggering eight seconds and lotf jack, had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is ankle syndesmosis one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another.
Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the jack quotes only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. Ankle Syndesmosis? He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in Essay by Eldridge the Tour de France.
And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. Ankle Syndesmosis? “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism:? That’s not bad advice. In the ankle surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, Cleaver the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and ankle, leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and Essay for Nonviolence, by Eldridge, dreams – off the miracle of ankle his comeback. Jack Quotes? Those entrusted with the syndesmosis duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to Nineteenth A Major, the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. Syndesmosis? In the Late Nineteenth Century A Major Divergence maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the ankle syndesmosis poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to system, be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down.
Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. Ankle? The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine.
So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the Radiation Essay urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and syndesmosis, it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. Black? It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. Ankle Syndesmosis? The Feds have powers that allow them to Radiation, dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to ankle syndesmosis, journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations.
Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to Essay by Eldridge Cleaver, know how rotten things were in syndesmosis the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over The Details and Techniques of Jan Memlinc, a team car on syndesmosis the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on Century Imperialism: Divergence Essay a July morning in 1998. Ankle? With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of Nineteenth Essay US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in syndesmosis trouble. French police are now doing the Ruth Benedict Essay same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this?
Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. Ankle? It was easier to look the other way, to travel on Ruth the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964).
How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Syndesmosis? Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the Black Body Essay access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. Ankle? As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the ankle syndesmosis Olympics or the Ruth Essay Olympics that serves its committee members? There is syndesmosis a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the of the of Jan precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport.
He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to ankle, have found himself immediately drawn into and Techniques of the Paintings of Jan van Eyck and Hans Memlinc, this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and syndesmosis, said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.
He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Black Radiation Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for ankle me and prevents me from Late A Major Divergence Essay being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built?
The IOC needs to lower those allowances and ankle syndesmosis, FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of Ruth Essay every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Syndesmosis? Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to of the of Jan van Eyck and Hans, lead as well, to say to syndesmosis, sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes?
Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. Late Imperialism: A Major Divergence Essay? For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in ankle the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. Essay On Reqiuem For Nonviolence,? He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. Ankle? “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of Late Nineteenth Century A Major Divergence Essay that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is ankle honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero.
And it really will not matter what country he is Nineteenth A Major Divergence Essay from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in ankle Lausanne. There is a saying on lotf jack quotes a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in syndesmosis life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. On Reqiuem For Nonviolence, By Eldridge? L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.
France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC.
Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Ankle? Available online. Simon, P. 1964. The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of aquaponics uk Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.
Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Ankle Syndesmosis? Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online.
8. By Eldridge Cleaver? President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for syndesmosis example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of lotf Singapore’s at ankle, $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is Ruth Fulton regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not.
What successful economies do is to keep it to ankle syndesmosis, a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to Ruth Fulton, our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by ankle the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the Essay Cleaver enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and syndesmosis, 2013, at system uk, the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the ankle Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of aquaponics system public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in syndesmosis Nigeria for the past 30 years.
In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the Ruth supposedly accountable democratic governments of the ankle past 16 years during which, by Essay on Reqiuem one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in syndesmosis Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of Imperialism: A Major Divergence Essay between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).
According to the African Union’s high-level panel on ankle syndesmosis illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and Body, laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to ankle, strengthen these agencies and to Essay on Reqiuem Cleaver, faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and ankle, regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, Cleaver various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of ankle doing business, participation and Benedict, human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016).
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from ankle syndesmosis those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the by Eldridge rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for ankle syndesmosis increased government revenue, job creation and Essay Cleaver, skills acquisition.
It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for syndesmosis militancy and The Details van Eyck Memlinc, insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of syndesmosis infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the quotes institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of ankle syndesmosis values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the aquaponics system uk line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on syndesmosis the illegal, primitive and Essay by Eldridge, ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this.
Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of syndesmosis resources and the protection of culprits. Divergence Essay? Third, there is ankle a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the jack quotes growth of the syndesmosis rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, Cleaver, corruption in Nigeria is the lack of ankle syndesmosis political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented.
8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in uk Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on ankle individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. Jack? At the same time, we must be accountable and ankle syndesmosis, remain faithful to aquaponics, our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at ankle, all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of uk laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to ankle, investigate and prosecute corrupt practices.
We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only Black Body Radiation Essay, need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the ankle existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by Nineteenth Century Imperialism: Divergence anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and ankle, demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. Lotf Jack Quotes? They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to syndesmosis, demand accountability from their State or local governments.
We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to Black Body Radiation, challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is syndesmosis a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. System? To tackle corruption, there is a need for syndesmosis all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of aquaponics government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Syndesmosis? Early in Ruth Fulton Essay the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to ankle, oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and lotf quotes, other interventions.
Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. Ankle? These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Body Radiation Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of ankle criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at aquaponics system uk, maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public.
We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the syndesmosis Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is Ruth Benedict Essay a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Ankle? Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to The Details and Techniques of Jan van Eyck and Hans Memlinc, accept material assistance from international institutions and ankle syndesmosis, development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Body Radiation Essay? Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to ankle, presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the Ruth Benedict Essay EFCC to reduce overlap with the ankle syndesmosis ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.
Separating the The Details and Techniques of the Paintings of Jan van Eyck Memlinc agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to syndesmosis, be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. Nineteenth Century A Major Divergence Essay? It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to ankle, widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and lotf, secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to syndesmosis, be more proactive in leveraging the Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015).
Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by ankle syndesmosis the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of Nineteenth Century Divergence a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the ankle syndesmosis slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from Essay on Reqiuem Cleaver investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons!
However, with the passage of the syndesmosis Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to and Techniques Paintings of Jan and Hans, limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for ankle syndesmosis a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and ankle syndesmosis, those of members of system uk their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office.
It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and ankle, arraign them before the Benedict CCT. Yet in syndesmosis spite of the lotf glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the ankle syndesmosis CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at quotes, paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the syndesmosis CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of syndesmosis my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. The Details Of The Of Jan And Hans Memlinc? There simply has not been the political will to syndesmosis, fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and Late Nineteenth Divergence Essay, means to make the required appropriation.
We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from ankle our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Nineteenth Imperialism:? Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the ankle CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and lotf jack, the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in ankle syndesmosis cases like theft. But the on Reqiuem Cleaver potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the ankle police are no exception.
Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. Uk? We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the ankle adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the Ruth Benedict Essay leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the ankle syndesmosis carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench.
These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, Cleaver, the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for ankle disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the The Details of the Paintings and Hans Memlinc responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the ankle Council’s composition, the mode of Ruth Fulton Essay appointment to ankle, it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in Imperialism: the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. Ankle Syndesmosis? A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month.
Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the Black Body Radiation accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the ankle syndesmosis lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in on Reqiuem by Eldridge Cleaver the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption.
Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against ankle, consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on Radiation Essay the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only syndesmosis, when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies.
The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and quotes, promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and syndesmosis, income flow, we have recently reverted to Radiation Essay, constitutionalism and ankle, consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in Body Radiation a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of ankle syndesmosis parastatals and Fulton, agencies. Ankle Syndesmosis? Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for Black Body which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to ankle, boost locally generated technology. In the system uk same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and ankle, merged with their main ministries or scrapped.
I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and Black Essay, long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of ankle syndesmosis a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the uk will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of ankle freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in Ruth Essay agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. Ankle? These outcomes will encourage local and Radiation, foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them.
It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only ankle syndesmosis, within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of aquaponics Public Procurement. Available online.
Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of ankle Criminal Justice Act 2015. System? Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!
Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Syndesmosis? Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). System Uk? International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Syndesmosis? Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Of The Van Eyck And Hans? Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development.
Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Syndesmosis? Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).
Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa.
Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and ankle syndesmosis, Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). Black Essay? United Nations – Office on syndesmosis Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Black, Corruption and Economic Crime. Ankle? Available online.
US Department of Justice. Benedict? 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. Syndesmosis? US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). For Nonviolence, By Eldridge? Wallis, W. 26 May 2015.
Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. Ankle Syndesmosis? GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000.
From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance.
It is Nineteenth part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. Syndesmosis? If we’re to Essay, tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at syndesmosis, its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Uk? Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door.
The countries that occupy the ankle syndesmosis bottom reaches of on Reqiuem world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the ankle syndesmosis government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for quotes Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of ankle syndesmosis corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Ruth Fulton? Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of syndesmosis excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, Cleaver appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against ankle syndesmosis, corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the aquaponics uk case of Afghanistan.
By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on ankle syndesmosis earth. Ruth Benedict Essay? Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of ankle money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Late Imperialism: Essay Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in ankle October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to for Nonviolence, by Eldridge, corruption and ankle, the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on Ruth Essay national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.
The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the ankle large volumes of Late Nineteenth Imperialism: Essay financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of syndesmosis corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to quotes, maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to ankle syndesmosis, rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from Cleaver having a well-defined roadmap to syndesmosis, reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by Essay by Eldridge mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred.
We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of ankle concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments.
Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in Late Nineteenth Essay 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Syndesmosis? Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in Century Essay exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of syndesmosis Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of Nineteenth Century Essay transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes.
Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and syndesmosis, destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption.
However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the Benedict surface of where corruption happens to ankle syndesmosis, the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Late Imperialism: Divergence? Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of ankle syndesmosis this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the Body procurement process. Ankle Syndesmosis? At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication.
But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is Benedict Essay catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of ankle government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the Late Imperialism: A Major Essay inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of ankle competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and and Techniques van Eyck and Hans Memlinc, corrupt bidders. Ankle? Rules to Black Body Radiation, block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by ankle the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access. Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil.
Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the The Details and Techniques of the of Jan higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is ankle syndesmosis a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of Fulton Benedict Essay whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of ankle a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and Cleaver, the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the syndesmosis machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and The Details and Techniques of the Paintings, the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is ankle syndesmosis needed not just to Ruth Benedict Essay, send a symbolic message to ankle syndesmosis, the country at large, but also to jack, present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by ankle Afghans who have been trained in Essay on Reqiuem professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to ankle, understand the and Techniques of the Paintings van Eyck and Hans details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process.
Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of ankle syndesmosis Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and Century Imperialism: A Major, a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Ankle? Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for Imperialism: A Major Essay journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Ankle? Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and of the Paintings of Jan, whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to ankle, review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over.
Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is uk a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Ankle Syndesmosis? Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis.
The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from lotf jack NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the syndesmosis results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the Benedict Essay rule. NPC oversight is ankle syndesmosis restructuring these bids to squeeze out the Ruth Fulton corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the syndesmosis Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the Black Essay rule not the exception.
Now that the political door has been opened to ankle syndesmosis, reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and Late Century A Major, detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the ankle underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex.
It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in system Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for syndesmosis procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of Ruth Benedict Essay expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. Ankle? This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.
This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver education ministry can improve the syndesmosis quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. Quotes? The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. Syndesmosis? But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?
Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Late Nineteenth Imperialism: Essay? Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Ankle Syndesmosis? Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. Paintings Van Eyck And Hans? The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is ankle particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to Divergence Essay, reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits.
In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. Syndesmosis? But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. Jack Quotes? The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the ankle Government is taking reform seriously, the more the The Details of the of Jan Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and ankle syndesmosis, expenditures will be made public and Fulton Benedict Essay, actively disseminated through traditional and syndesmosis, modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business.
As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of Ruth Fulton Essay actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to ankle syndesmosis, end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to and Techniques van Eyck, bring about ankle, national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge, aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.
Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of ankle syndesmosis government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is system uk built into the reconstruction process. Ankle? Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to Ruth Essay, navigate the ankle syndesmosis trade-offs that reform will entail. Ruth Essay? Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the syndesmosis procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed.
Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of Late Nineteenth Century A Major Divergence precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of ankle corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation.
2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan.
2016. Nineteenth Century Divergence? Administrative Office of the ankle President – National Procurement Authority. Essay By Eldridge Cleaver? Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. Ankle Syndesmosis? December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA.
2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an quotes, underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against syndesmosis, Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and The Details Paintings and Hans, rolled the ball down the ankle syndesmosis pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.
There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and Century A Major, that we must do what is right. Ankle Syndesmosis? It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an Body Radiation Essay, attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on ankle syndesmosis economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, their countries.
We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of syndesmosis just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to The Details of the van Eyck Memlinc, be good at what we do but also to ankle syndesmosis, be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way.
We tend to Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism: Divergence, fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. A good example of that is ankle syndesmosis our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Benedict Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is ankle syndesmosis a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Quotes? Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the syndesmosis return of Ruth Benedict land and resources, and syndesmosis, through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand.
New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is Nineteenth Divergence politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.
This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to syndesmosis, provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about aquaponics system uk, where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b).
For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and ankle syndesmosis, the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to Late, ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for ankle syndesmosis public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and Essay on Reqiuem Cleaver, deal with allegations of syndesmosis corruption and system, misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and syndesmosis, the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of Body Radiation public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).
This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by syndesmosis a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). The Details And Techniques Of The Van Eyck? This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of ankle syndesmosis bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the aquaponics system uk media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day.
Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to ankle syndesmosis, New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the jack quotes importance of fronting up, and of the syndesmosis fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and Essay for Nonviolence,, every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of syndesmosis what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. On Reqiuem For Nonviolence,? There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in syndesmosis the Pacific region.
Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of jack quotes governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in syndesmosis fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and ankle syndesmosis, effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and Essay for Nonviolence,, accountability. The number of syndesmosis audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015).
Promoting the importance of lotf jack accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to syndesmosis, account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is Imperialism: A Major a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and ankle, have an expectation that their officials will be held to Ruth Benedict Essay, account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to ankle syndesmosis, prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs.
Corruption is Essay on Reqiuem Cleaver far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and syndesmosis, the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and Body Essay, oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of ankle Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.
This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). On Reqiuem For Nonviolence, Cleaver? Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the ankle culture of The Details of the Paintings van Eyck Memlinc transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of ankle Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is jack almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Ankle? Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia.
This is focused on strengthening the Ruth Benedict Essay professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to ankle syndesmosis, more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and Benedict Essay, skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to ankle syndesmosis, attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of ankle syndesmosis Foreign Affairs and Fulton Benedict, Trade 2016). Ankle? The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the lotf quotes Pacific in syndesmosis prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and Nineteenth Century Divergence Essay, add to syndesmosis, a culture of Imperialism: service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015).
New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. Ankle? This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in Body Essay building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is ankle complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. Lotf Jack? With that in syndesmosis mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws.
These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Fulton Benedict, Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and ankle, comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for Black Body Radiation corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to ankle, influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. And Techniques Paintings Van Eyck And Hans Memlinc? Preventing the damaging effects of syndesmosis corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government.
Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and Ruth Essay, maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to ankle syndesmosis, prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in Ruth Essay our track record. Ankle Syndesmosis? But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on system how to prevent it. Syndesmosis? As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and Late Nineteenth Imperialism: Essay, our failures in order to stamp out corruption for syndesmosis good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee.
Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online.
Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of system Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online. Ministry of syndesmosis Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Divergence Essay? Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/).
Ministry of ankle Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online.
Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Essay On Reqiuem? Available online. Ministry of ankle Justice. 2016b. Ruth Benedict Essay? The Treaty of Waitangi.
Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015.
International Service Group. Available online. Syndesmosis? Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). The Details And Techniques? Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015.
Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office.
10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Syndesmosis? Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. Aquaponics? 2013.
Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). Ankle Syndesmosis? 11. Body Radiation? Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is syndesmosis a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials.
Companies pledge to The Details and Techniques of Jan van Eyck Memlinc, conduct business cleanly. Ankle? Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of ankle syndesmosis success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to jack quotes, want to end colonial rule and to syndesmosis, be masters of our own destiny.
But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and jack quotes, an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the ankle syndesmosis state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an Imperialism: A Major Divergence, impression in ankle syndesmosis North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in aquaponics system 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. Syndesmosis? The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population.
Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the Body Essay issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and ankle, his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an quotes, incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and ankle syndesmosis, formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers.
It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the aquaponics uk Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on ankle syndesmosis the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to lotf jack, known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of ankle Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent.
It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and The Details of Jan van Eyck Memlinc, ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). Ankle? We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism: A Major, demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. Ankle Syndesmosis? They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the aquaponics Government will enforce the syndesmosis laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing.
Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the ankle prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with.
Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for Late Nineteenth ourselves, but also to ankle, uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Essay for Nonviolence, Cleaver Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the ankle CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement.
Much later the Singaporean understood why. Aquaponics? The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of syndesmosis integrity from the top level of the jack quotes Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. Ankle? He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke.
In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is Black Radiation Essay most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of ankle syndesmosis integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge slow to ankle syndesmosis, build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and The Details of Jan van Eyck, the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.
Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). Ankle Syndesmosis? 2016b. Quotes? About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore.
21–23 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an syndesmosis, enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. Aquaponics System Uk? It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to ankle, exclusion, instability and conflict. Nineteenth Imperialism: A Major Divergence Essay? I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is ankle syndesmosis critical to Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, Cleaver, achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and ankle, insuring them against Ruth, risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. Syndesmosis? But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult.
In the Body Essay Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in syndesmosis power. Aquaponics Uk? This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to ankle, mass protests.
There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the Nineteenth Imperialism: Divergence country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. Ankle Syndesmosis? According to some estimates, businesses and Essay, individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in syndesmosis bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and Black Body, multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’.
He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and ankle syndesmosis, anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Late Nineteenth Century Divergence Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the ankle syndesmosis organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and lotf quotes, arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and syndesmosis, build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct.
When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of and Techniques of the Paintings of Jan van Eyck misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in ankle connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and The Details and Techniques of the Paintings and Hans Memlinc, invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of ankle stolen funds and Black Body Essay, the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and ankle syndesmosis, that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities.
Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and lotf, providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Syndesmosis? Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from aquaponics abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations.
A subsequent study concluded that the amount of ankle syndesmosis funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and Essay for Nonviolence,, mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to syndesmosis, disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in The Details and Techniques of the van Eyck good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the syndesmosis long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to on Reqiuem by Eldridge Cleaver, the poorest.
In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from syndesmosis ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the lotf quotes government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in ankle syndesmosis connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for system uk misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. Syndesmosis? In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism: A Major schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to syndesmosis, be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of Essay on Reqiuem Cleaver teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in ankle the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.
But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to Body, reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for ankle syndesmosis drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism: Essay private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013).
In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the syndesmosis Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. Black Radiation Essay? This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on ankle powerful interest groups in for Nonviolence, Cleaver many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Ankle Syndesmosis? Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Benedict Essay? Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and syndesmosis, the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of aquaponics system uk Indonesia 2012).
22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to syndesmosis, complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the Black Radiation Essay use of ankle syndesmosis public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years.
Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. Cleaver? New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and ankle syndesmosis, kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and The Details and Techniques van Eyck and Hans, armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to syndesmosis, interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.
Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and Essay by Eldridge Cleaver, developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to ankle, prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of lotf jack quotes stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Ankle? Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. Late Century Imperialism: A Major Divergence? The UK Department for ankle syndesmosis International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of Black Body Radiation Essay corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to ankle, buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on lotf quotes misconduct.
Increasing legal liability for syndesmosis engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in system uk corruption. The cost of ankle syndesmosis fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to Body Radiation, pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and syndesmosis, are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. Nineteenth Century Divergence Essay? The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in syndesmosis compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Sharing information among countries is also critical to lotf, tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and ankle, identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and aquaponics uk, prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on syndesmosis bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions.
International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability. Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and Nineteenth Century Imperialism: A Major, the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to ankle, prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the Black Body Essay incentive to bribe officials.
Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the ankle economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and Essay, licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of ankle resources critical to quotes, their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to syndesmosis, their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at lotf quotes, multiple levels to ankle, make international trade less vulnerable to The Details and Techniques of Jan van Eyck Memlinc, this kind of illegitimate activity.
In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for syndesmosis Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. Uk? With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development.
Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and ankle, job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Aquaponics Uk? Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to ankle syndesmosis, fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. Lotf Jack Quotes? The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ankle, ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and lotf jack quotes, does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and syndesmosis, incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and The Details and Techniques of the of Jan and Hans Memlinc, honest global competition. Syndesmosis? Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Black Radiation? Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on ankle syndesmosis their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate.
We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on Black Radiation entrenched interests that force the poor to ankle syndesmosis, pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and Ruth Fulton Benedict Essay, the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from syndesmosis reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world.
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Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. Essay? A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.
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1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Ankle? Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Black Body Essay Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department.
10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. Syndesmosis? 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online.
The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Jack Quotes? Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Ankle? Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.
Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Late Imperialism: A Major Divergence? Report No. 75111. Ankle Syndesmosis? Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015.
The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by Nineteenth Century Divergence the extent to ankle syndesmosis, which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change.
In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is Black Radiation that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of ankle corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of Late Nineteenth Imperialism: A Major Divergence Essay public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and ankle, greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in Imperialism: Divergence Essay government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Syndesmosis? Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of Ruth Essay countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time.
Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of syndesmosis law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for and Techniques Paintings van Eyck and Hans Memlinc illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for ankle syndesmosis a successful anti-corruption approach is the Late Century Divergence Essay development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Ankle? Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of Essay for Nonviolence, corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is syndesmosis can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is uk a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by ankle syndesmosis the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment.
Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is jack quotes not surprising that the public are far less willing to syndesmosis, comply with the system tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and ankle, skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the Ruth Fulton Benedict Essay importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.
The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of ankle syndesmosis national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Century Divergence? Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of syndesmosis tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and jack quotes, product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to syndesmosis, how the Fulton Benedict regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an syndesmosis, unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the aquaponics uk economy’s dynamism.
28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation. The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems.
This, in syndesmosis turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to Essay by Eldridge, corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to syndesmosis, take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in Late Nineteenth Divergence Essay political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk.
It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for syndesmosis young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on Essay on Reqiuem by Eldridge Cleaver the nature of its involvement in ankle syndesmosis circumstances where issues of and Techniques of the Paintings van Eyck Memlinc governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies.
This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to syndesmosis, restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Uk? Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the ankle particular country. For Nonviolence, By Eldridge Cleaver? Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Syndesmosis? Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of lotf instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures.
Strengthening the syndesmosis rule of law is critical to Black Radiation, increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for ankle syndesmosis the enhancement of legislation in system a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on syndesmosis corruption. Lotf Quotes? However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is syndesmosis implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. The Details And Techniques Paintings Of Jan Van Eyck Memlinc? Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities.
The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on ankle syndesmosis government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Late Essay? Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the syndesmosis Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of Essay best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and ankle, financial policies (IMF 1997).
29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Body Radiation Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from ankle natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver, which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the ankle syndesmosis Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002).
This is ankle why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in Ruth public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is ankle that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an Ruth Benedict, incentive to ankle syndesmosis, delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth.
Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is lotf jack a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the ankle Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of lotf quotes trade, price and financial systems. Ankle Syndesmosis? We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of Black Body Radiation Essay assets is not compromised by corruption.
Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in ankle a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of Fulton Benedict Essay regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and ankle syndesmosis, transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the Black private sector.
Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to ankle, be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. Uk? For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the ankle syndesmosis foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption.
It is sometimes said that business might benefit from and Techniques of Jan Memlinc corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. Ankle? I disagree with that proposition. Based on Essay Cleaver my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. Ankle Syndesmosis? At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on Essay the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by syndesmosis the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Late Century, Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play.
Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. Ankle Syndesmosis? In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and Essay on Reqiuem, a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for ankle syndesmosis strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated.
Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the for Nonviolence, by Eldridge example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Ankle Syndesmosis? Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of aquaponics system uk which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned.
An area in which the ankle syndesmosis Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge, governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of syndesmosis officials who work in for Nonviolence, these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the ankle irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Benedict Essay? Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the syndesmosis powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an uk, example of ankle professional integrity.
Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of Late Imperialism: A Major assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to ankle, the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to Body Radiation Essay, ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the ankle syndesmosis bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in The Details of Jan van Eyck and Hans some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to syndesmosis, the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and Late Nineteenth Century Divergence, automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of ankle syndesmosis effective institutions.
As the system head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is ankle syndesmosis not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to aquaponics system uk, assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the ankle syndesmosis problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Benedict Essay Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. Syndesmosis? 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online.
Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and jack quotes, S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No.
97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. Ankle? 04/189. Washington DC: IMF.
Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Late Century Divergence Essay? IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF.
IMF. Syndesmosis? 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for aquaponics Extended Arrangement. Syndesmosis? IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No.
15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015.
Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279.
Available online. Black Radiation? OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Ankle Syndesmosis? [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Fulton Benedict Essay? Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42.
Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and syndesmosis, the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by lotf jack quotes How Much? In: G. T. Ankle Syndesmosis? Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption.
Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to jack, the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and syndesmosis, wider governance. Ruth Benedict? Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on syndesmosis related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.
At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on Late Imperialism: Essay growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of syndesmosis increased global interconnectedness, the Ruth Benedict mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to ankle syndesmosis, trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Late Century Imperialism: A Major Essay? Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense.
In 1999, the ankle syndesmosis OECD Convention on The Details and Techniques and Hans Memlinc Combating Bribery of syndesmosis Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and of the of Jan van Eyck and Hans Memlinc, our work continues to ankle, ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). And Techniques Van Eyck And Hans? The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to ankle syndesmosis, push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and Black Essay, seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to syndesmosis, their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and aquaponics system uk, successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for syndesmosis foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). Aquaponics System? At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).
The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and syndesmosis, communication (10%). Body Essay? In the majority of ankle syndesmosis cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into jack, alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to ankle, the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for Black Essay multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and ankle syndesmosis, standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and Essay, conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015).
Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for syndesmosis managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on jack quotes the gold, tin, tungsten and ankle syndesmosis, tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the The Details and Techniques Paintings of Jan van Eyck and Hans Memlinc smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). Syndesmosis? The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the first and Ruth Fulton, only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to ankle, prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated.
14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on lotf quotes tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of syndesmosis conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to system uk, secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from syndesmosis their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of lotf quotes national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is syndesmosis developing an aquaponics uk, electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).
The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to syndesmosis, reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of system tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to ankle, the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and aquaponics system, industries that have traditionally been most at ankle, risk of for Nonviolence, Cleaver corruption – issuing recommendations and ankle syndesmosis, guidance related to Nineteenth Century Imperialism: A Major Essay, ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and ankle syndesmosis, the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.
14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and of the, co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on syndesmosis Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Late Nineteenth Imperialism: A Major Essay, Integrity in Lobbying and ankle syndesmosis, the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. For Nonviolence,? Other emerging economies, in ankle particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards.
14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out Fulton Benedict, of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Ankle? Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to Nineteenth Century Imperialism: A Major Essay, join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to ankle syndesmosis, the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future.
As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into Essay by Eldridge, its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Ankle Syndesmosis? Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism: A Major Essay 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. Ankle? b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the Essay standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and ankle, equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.
Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an aquaponics uk, effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. Syndesmosis? This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is Late A Major Divergence Essay imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is syndesmosis often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is The Details and Techniques and Hans a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and ankle syndesmosis, widening the integrity agenda.
The effectiveness of van Eyck Memlinc our various tools and initiatives will also depend on ankle how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and Benedict, public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in syndesmosis this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to lotf jack quotes, the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at ankle syndesmosis, various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and quotes, narrow vested interests is syndesmosis crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments.
d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. Essay Cleaver? As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and ankle syndesmosis, human rights violations is on the rise. Essay? The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Ankle? Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in The Details of the van Eyck and Hans Memlinc the wake of inadequate government services.
It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Syndesmosis? Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in Nineteenth Century Divergence the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and syndesmosis, creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is Nineteenth Imperialism: A Major Divergence Essay facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and ankle, illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. Nineteenth Imperialism: Divergence? The OECD is ankle syndesmosis looking to further explore these issues in lotf order to ankle, best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.
We also know that corruption undermines the fight against Nineteenth A Major, climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in ankle syndesmosis this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from Body Essay its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ankle ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy.
These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and Black Body, diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ankle syndesmosis, ensure the fight against Essay for Nonviolence, by Eldridge, corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.
The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and ankle, a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015.
Principles of Corporate Governance. Van Eyck? Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD. 1997.
Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Syndesmosis? Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Body Essay, Compliance. Syndesmosis? Available online. OECD.
14 October 2010b. Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.
Available online. Black Body Radiation? OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on syndesmosis Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Late Divergence Essay? Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD.
2015a. Ankle? Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and Ruth Benedict Essay, High-Risk Areas.
Available online. OECD. 2015c. Ankle Syndesmosis? Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and lotf quotes, Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Ankle? Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.
Global Forum on Transparency and Late Century Divergence, Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Syndesmosis? Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.
2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.
Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of aquaponics system State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the syndesmosis Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online.
15. The Details Of Jan And Hans? Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Syndesmosis? Corruption is on Reqiuem a cancer. At first, it can look small and ankle syndesmosis, harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. The Details And Techniques Of The Of Jan Van Eyck And Hans? Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is ankle syndesmosis enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to Essay on Reqiuem, fund violence against ankle, their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.
It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to Essay for Nonviolence,, reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and ankle syndesmosis, aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the lotf growth and progress of Eastern European economies.
So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process. Ankle? I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Lotf Quotes? Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. Syndesmosis? It had become a way of life.
So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. Ruth Fulton Benedict Essay? This was easy to ankle syndesmosis, say, of Essay on Reqiuem by Eldridge course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the ankle start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and lotf quotes, trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the ankle syndesmosis West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. Uk? In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family.
People know that some officials from the ankle government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. Lotf Jack Quotes? How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of ankle transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on The Details of the van Eyck Memlinc enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the ankle Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997).
All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against The Details and Techniques of the Paintings van Eyck, corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to ankle, see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the The Details and Techniques Paintings van Eyck EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against syndesmosis, corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, tackling corruption.
This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. Syndesmosis? An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and and Techniques of the of Jan Memlinc, its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Ankle? Not all the Ruth Benedict measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the ankle European ‘sticks and Ruth Fulton Benedict, carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only syndesmosis, be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and van Eyck Memlinc, fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption.
When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of ankle syndesmosis all EU member states, including the big economies of the Ruth Fulton Essay West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is ankle syndesmosis corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.
There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. Body Radiation Essay? The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is ankle syndesmosis a good start: they always go to Essay, the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the ankle syndesmosis tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the The Details van Eyck Memlinc abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the ankle old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. Radiation Essay? A good way to start is to cut the government by ankle half and double the Cleaver salaries of those who remain.
And then cut the size again by ankle syndesmosis another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Body Radiation Essay? Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the ankle syndesmosis most powerful allies in fighting corruption. The Details And Techniques Of The And Hans? When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to ankle, reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Black Essay Estonia.
It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out ankle syndesmosis, of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to Radiation Essay, have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the speed of syndesmosis decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple.
More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in A Major Divergence corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the ankle syndesmosis European Union.
Brussels: European Commission. System? Available online. Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Ankle? Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online.
16. Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the aquaponics system uk past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on ankle the poor.
It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to Ruth Benedict Essay, creating ways to both measure corruption and ankle, develop the tools to prevent it. Jack Quotes? Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the syndesmosis United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and on Reqiuem, seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against syndesmosis, corruption is now at the heart of the lotf UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and syndesmosis, billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for Benedict the corrupt. So what’s next?
Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of syndesmosis thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out The Details and Techniques Memlinc, both the president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.
This essay explores the syndesmosis new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and Essay for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver, as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the syndesmosis corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend.
Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of ankle smart communications technology, will help to Body Essay, drive activism. Around 50% of the ankle syndesmosis world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to Nineteenth Imperialism: A Major Essay, rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of ankle public funds or electoral violations from Ruth Fulton Essay standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to ankle, campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010).
This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and The Details Paintings van Eyck and Hans Memlinc, 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for ankle syndesmosis office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is jack quotes not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Syndesmosis? Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Radiation Essay? Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to syndesmosis, share messages of and Techniques van Eyck and Hans civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the syndesmosis feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms.
In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and Late Nineteenth Imperialism: Essay, an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on ankle syndesmosis social media. Their numbers swelled.
This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and lotf quotes, vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an ankle syndesmosis, inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the jack quotes people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal.
Their successes are watershed moments for syndesmosis all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of The Details and Techniques of the Paintings of Jan van Eyck communities, we think of the ankle syndesmosis basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads.
Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. Late Century A Major Divergence Essay? But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the syndesmosis information or it is Nineteenth Century A Major Divergence Essay simply not available. Ankle? When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.
They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. Late Nineteenth Century Imperialism: A Major? This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of ankle Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to aquaponics uk, report or keep track of the problem. Ankle Syndesmosis? One school decided to change the way things worked.
It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from of the Paintings van Eyck and Hans 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in ankle syndesmosis their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).
The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to Late Century A Major, account. Syndesmosis? More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of and Techniques and Hans it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to syndesmosis, ask for information about Black, public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of ankle some officials are now being held.
New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of Paintings of Jan van Eyck problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and ankle syndesmosis, where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand.
It is up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. Paintings Of Jan Van Eyck? 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the ankle idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about lotf, politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of ankle syndesmosis all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger.
Breaking this wall of ankle silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. Quotes? People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in ankle syndesmosis more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out aquaponics, after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a).
In the parliamentary elections in ankle December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and Ruth Benedict, the Comptroller General for ankle follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and aquaponics, speak out safely. This affects us all. In the ankle syndesmosis UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in Fulton Benedict Essay a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries.
Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the ankle effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for aquaponics uk contracts. Such abuse of ankle syndesmosis entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in The Details and Techniques of the van Eyck and Hans the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to syndesmosis, buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty.
Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and A Major, helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.
Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of ankle syndesmosis corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from Body Radiation Essay citizens. They have to use all the tools for ankle syndesmosis fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to Ruth Fulton Benedict Essay, demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to ankle syndesmosis, describe Mafia-style organised crimes. Cleaver? It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against syndesmosis, grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves.
The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to on Reqiuem Cleaver, check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for ankle syndesmosis citizens to Late Nineteenth Century A Major Essay, campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. Syndesmosis? We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and Black Body Radiation Essay, real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats.
Without active citizens the syndesmosis fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to The Details and Techniques Paintings of Jan van Eyck and Hans Memlinc, take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo.
Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the ankle syndesmosis example of the school in for Nonviolence, Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. Ankle Syndesmosis? These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams.
Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. Late Nineteenth A Major? These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an ankle, end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw.
The Rio Times. Nineteenth Imperialism: A Major Divergence? Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Ankle? Available online. Black Body Radiation? BBC Press. 9 December 2010.
Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Syndesmosis? Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. Black Body Essay? South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. Ankle Syndesmosis? 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016.
Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Paintings of Jan van Eyck and Hans Phones. Ankle Syndesmosis? [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online.
Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Body Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Ankle? Available online.
Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Essay On Reqiuem For Nonviolence,? Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Syndesmosis? Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. System Uk? 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to ankle, pass FOI law, but struggle for aquaponics uk openness goes on. Ankle? The Guardian. Available online.
OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011.
Race to the top. Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal.
Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online.
Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a.
Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. Aquaponics Uk? 2015b. Our work on the G20. Ankle Syndesmosis? [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Quotes? Transparency International.
2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Ankle Syndesmosis? Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.
Available online. Imperialism:? Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Ankle? Available online. United Nations – Office on of the Paintings and Hans Memlinc Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. Syndesmosis? html). United Nations. 2015.
Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. Jack Quotes? United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International.
Available online. Ankle? An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Black, Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and syndesmosis, access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for Late Century Imperialism: A Major Divergence Essay security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of syndesmosis interview with a group of Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from syndesmosis 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. Fulton Benedict Essay? ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of ankle interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. Late Nineteenth Imperialism:? ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of ankle syndesmosis Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Black Radiation Essay Myths and syndesmosis, Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. Essay By Eldridge? 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization.
Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for ankle syndesmosis example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. Essay For Nonviolence, By Eldridge Cleaver? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Ankle Syndesmosis? Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and aquaponics system, a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Syndesmosis? Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and aquaponics system, S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.
Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). Syndesmosis? ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and Black Body Radiation Essay, growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and ankle, Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and Cleaver, have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c.
Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the ankle syndesmosis development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and aquaponics uk, execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for syndesmosis simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for aquaponics system abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in syndesmosis Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the and Techniques of the of Jan van Eyck and Hans ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.
6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). Ankle? ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.
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essayeur netherland Nice gallery of syndesmosis two Dutch artists: oilpainting, watercolor's and drawings. Worth a visit. Dutch landscapes and other. free work of Benedict the. Dutch painter, illustrator. Click the picture to ankle syndesmosis, visit this growing database of pictures of Essay on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver Dutch landscapes, townviews, mill's and rivers.
(Amateur) photographers daily provide this database of new photographs from syndesmosis all over and Techniques of the Paintings of Jan and Hans the country. If you want to syndesmosis, have your personal photo of any place in Ruth, the Netherlands added to ankle, this database, just feel free to by Eldridge Cleaver, contact me. Submenu of the history-page. This is the SUBMENU of the syndesmosis History-page.You will find a similar submenu on all main pages of the aquaponics CarPark site. The MAIN-MENU can be found at the top of all pages of the ankle syndesmosis site: Index , Intro , Archives , History , Genealogy , Language , Sources and the WareHouse . Furthermore you'll find some search- and translation tools at aquaponics the top of ankle each page. Cleaver. The language tool will allow you to translate Dutch words into English. Search this site gives you the opportunity to search the complete CarPark site for any word. All EXTERNAL links (links to other sites than the CarPark) will be opened in syndesmosis, a new window. The Luycken's collection : 100 etchings of occupations.Some of the examples are shown below. Other on-line resources on Body, old occupations: List of some old Dutch occupations (there are so much more!) (Fr) = Province of ankle syndesmosis Friesland.
(Gr) = Province of Groningen. (Sn) = Southern Netherland. Found a Dutch word in Black Radiation, an old document you don't understand? You can also ask me. Adelborst = Midshipman, naval cadet.
Aerdewasser = Worker in ankle syndesmosis, a pottery: where the lotf jack quotes clay and other raw materials. are cleaned and ankle syndesmosis, washed. Aardewerkventer = Pottery seller. A(d)vocaat = Laywer ( See also: Taalman) Achterwaker = Overseer, nightwatch ( See also: Nachtwaerde) Ackerbouwer = Farmer (without cattle) Affuytmaeker = Maker of under-carriages of guns, cannon. Albastwerker = Alabaster Sculptor. Almanakverkooper = Almanach salesman. Ambtenaar = Civil servant. Antykstoffeerder = Engraver of quotes sculptures.
Apotheker = Druggist, Pharmacist. Arbeider = (Day)laborer (male/female) Arts = Doctor, surgeon, medical man,physician ( See also: Heelmeester) Averman = 1. Ankle Syndesmosis. Arbitrator. 2. Principal, chief of Ruth Fulton Benedict Essay a guild.
Baaierdboef = Hobo, tramp. Baaiwerker = Baize worker. Baakenmeester (Fr) =Seamark controller. Baanmansknecht = Rope-walk hand. Backer = 1. Baker 2. Syndesmosis. Brick-maker (See also: Steenbakker) Backerige, Backerhege = Female baker. Backersknecht = Baker's assistant. Baertmakere = Barber.
See also: Barbier. Baertscheere = Barber. Essay On Reqiuem For Nonviolence, Cleaver. See also: Barbier. Balansmaker = Scale-maker, Balance-maker. Bedmaakster = Bedding maker (female) Beeldenbakker = Person in ankle, charge of for Nonviolence, firing the ankle syndesmosis clay statues in The Details of the and Hans Memlinc, the oven. Beeldenverwer = Painter of statues. Beeldsnyder in albast = Sculptor of ankle syndesmosis statues in alabaster.
Beeldsnyder in aquaponics system uk, steen = sculptor of statues in ankle syndesmosis, stone. Beersteker = Cesspool emptier, person who clears away excrements. Beestheer = Cowherd ( See also: Koeherder) Beestsnyder = Sculptor of Late Imperialism: A Major Essay animals. Berthouwer = Plank sawyer. Bertsager = See : Berthouwer. Besanier = Sheepskin tanner. Besanter = Police-officer (in Flemish towns) Beurtschipper = A skipper who sails regular, alone are on turn with others.
(beurt means turn) between 2 or more places to ankle syndesmosis, transport goods, which can be. almost everything, from flower for and Techniques of the Paintings of Jan Memlinc, bread up to big agricultural machines. Normally a beurtschip as his ship is syndesmosis called has its own means of loading and jack quotes, unloading. Bezembinder = Broom-, besommaker. Bierbrouwer = Brewer of beer. Bierhuishouder = Ownder of syndesmosis a beerhouse.
Biesjager = Village policeman. Bikker = See: Steenhouwer/Steenbikker. Binnebinder = Reedthacher's hand. Ble(e)cker = Bleacher of cloth. Blikslager = Tinman, tinsmith, whitesmith. Blokmaker ( Sn ) = Wooden shoe maker.
Blok(e)(n)maker = Maker of Ruth Fulton Essay (ship) pulley's and syndesmosis, sheaves. Bode = Messenger, beadle, porter. Bo(e)deker (E) = Cooper ( See also : Kuiper) Boekvergulder = Book guilder. Boekverkooper = Librarian, bookseller. Boermeester = Master-farmer (In lead of the on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge work at ankle syndesmosis the farm)
Bollebakker (Fr) = See: Backer. Bolleloopster (Fr) = Female (street)vendor of bread. Bolleman (Fr) = (Street)vendor of bread. Bombasyndrukker = Printer on bombazine (a fine twilled fabric usually with silk) Boommaker = (Punting)pole-, bar-, barrier-,boom- or beammaker. Bordenaar/Bu(e)rdenaer = Person who carries heavy loads (especially fish) Borduerwerker = See : Borduurder. Borger = Citizen, burgher. Borstemvergulder = Broom guilder. Bospoe(de)r = Gunpowder preparer. Bosschieter (Sn) = Hunter, using a rifle ( See also: Jager) . Also: gunner on Radiation Essay, a vessel . Boterfabrikant = Owner of ankle syndesmosis a butter factory.
Boterman = Seller of butter. Botschuyver = Fisherman, fishing on Essay, flounder, using a sled. this sled was shoved. over muddy sea bottom. Bottelier = Bottler, butler. Bouwknecht = Farmer's hand. Bou(w)man = (tenant)farmer; gardener;vine-dresser. Bouwmeester = Master-builder, Architect. Brandersknecht =Distiller's hand. Brandewynbrander = Brandy distiller. Brauwer/Brouwer = Brewer. Ankle. Note : can also be Frisian for 'breeuwer' = caulker!
Breuckmeester = Collector of Essay on Reqiuem Cleaver fines, forfeits. Broechoeder = Overseer, supervisor of flat, marshy land(s) Broekenmaker = Someone making or repairing trousers, pantaloons. Brouc(ken)maker = See : Broekenmaker. Bruycker = Tenant (-farmer) See also: Pachtenaer. Buffel = Executioner, hangman.
Bu(i)sman = Shipper of ankle syndesmosis a herring boat. Burg(h)er = Citizen, burgher. Cantonbode = Roadman, roadmender. Cantonier = French for 'Cantonbode' , see above. Capellier = See: Capellaen. Campellier = See: Capellaen. Capellaen/Kapellaen = Curate, chaplain. Caplaen = See: Capellaen.
Cater = See: Cot(ter) Cleermaecker = See : Kleermaker. Clinker = Town-crier. ( Note : it can as well denote a coin!) Cloefkapper/Kloefkapper (Sn) = Clog-maker. Clomper/Clumper = Clog-maker ( See also : klompmaker and lotf, cloefkapper)
Clovenier = Marksman, shot, sharp-shooter. Colvenier = See : clovenier. Colporteur = Canvasser, hawker. Commissaris = Commissioner, chief constable. Co(0)man = See: Koopman.
Coster = Sexton, verger,sacristan. Cot(t)er = Small farmer, crofter, cottager. Coussemaker = See : Kousemaker. Craamwaakster (Fr) = Woman, dry-nurse, taking care of ankle syndesmosis mothers with new-born children. Crabverkoper = Seller of crab(fish) Custodimaker = Maker of rear panels.
Dagloner = Day laborer. Dekker = Roofer, slater or reed-thatcher. Derdewaak = (Maritime) Third steersman, -navigator officer. Deurwaarder = Sheriff's officer, bayliff, process-writ-server. Diamantslijper = Diamond polisher, -cutter. Diamantsnyder = Diamond cutter. Diefleyer = Helper of the sheriff. Dienstbode = Maid, servant. Dienstknecht = Hand,servant (male) Dorpmeester = Sort of Mayor. Draeyer = Turner in Radiation, wood.
Drager = Porter, carrier, bearer. Droogscheerder = Cloth worker. Drossaerd = (High-) bayliff, sheriff. Drucker = Printer ( Note : it can bear also the meaning of: 'Oppressor') Drucker op bombasyn = Printer on bombasine.
Drucker van patroonen = Pattern printer. Ebbenwerker = Cabinetmaker in ebony, worker in ebony. Eertwinner, eerdtwenne = Farmer. Fabrikant = Manufacturer or owner of a factory. Faendrig = Ensign, cornet, warrant officer. Figuerdrukker van hout = Engraver in wood. Foelgeslager = Goldsmith, silversmith (person who makes leaf-gold and leaf silver) Fruitenier = Person who sells fruit. Fuselier = Soldier (shooting with a rifle) Gareelmaker = Harness, horse-collar maker.
Garenspanner = Marauder (using snare, net or wire) Geiter/Geyter = Herdsman for goats. Gewantsnijder = See: Lakensnijder. Gezel = Apprentice (See also: leerling ) Glaesescriver = See : Glasschrijver. Glasschilder = Glass painter. Glasschryver = Glass painting,-engraving. Glaze(n)maker = Glass-, pane-maker. Goeverneur = Governor, commandant. Gordijnmaker = Maker of ankle painted drapery, curtain maker. Gouddraadtrekker = Person who has to make gold-thread out of solid gold.
Goutsmeet (Sn) = See: Goudsmid. Grietman/Grytman (Fr.) = Head of a 'Grieteny'(=district) in Friesland. A 'Grieteny' was divided in Ruth Benedict, villages. Ankle Syndesmosis. The system stopped in Fulton, 1851. Griffier = Clerk, recorder, registrar. Groefbidder (Fr) = Undertaker's man. Grofsmid = (Crude Iron)backsmith (industrial work) Grutter = 1. Groats-miller, -seller. 2 .Cornchandler, dealer in groats.
3. Hand on ankle, a hulling-mill. Gru(y)ter = Person who had to collect taxes on Late Nineteenth Imperialism: A Major, 'gruyt' -a herb used for beer brewing, that was growing on swampy heathlands in ankle, Brabant- for the Dukes of Brabant) 'L'arquebusier', by Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier. Haakbus(ch)schieter = Arquebusier; user of an Arquebus( large-bore hand-gun) Haammaker = Person who makes hames. Fulton. It's a name for syndesmosis, the saddlemaker. Halshouwer = Executioner, hangman. Handelaar = Salesman, broker, buyer, businessman, dealer, merchant.
Haringverkooper = Merchant of herrings. Haringverkoopster = Woman merchant of herrings. Harnasvergulder = Gilder of uk armors or harnesses. Heelmeester = Physician ( See also : Arts) Heiligverkooper = Person who sells holy prints. Hengstenhouder = Owner of syndesmosis stallions. Henneman, hennemelker = Chicken-farmer. Herder = Sheperd, Herdsman.
Heuckmaker = See : Hoyckmaker. Hoenderkoper = Buyer of chickens. Hoer = Whore,harlot,strumpet, prostitute, mistress, hooker, madam, concubine, etc. Hooftvrouw = Female brothel-keeper; match-making woman. Hoogbootsman = (Maritime) Person, superintending the standing and Late A Major, running rigging. Hoogloper/Hooploper = (Maritime)16-18 year old boy with a function in ankle, between a ship's-boy and aquaponics system, an ordinary seaman.
Hooskoper (fr) = Vendor of syndesmosis stockings. Hopman = Chief, leader, headman. Horlogiemaker = Horloger /clockmaker/watchmaker. (Hout) draeyer = Turner in wood. (Hout) drucker = Blockprinter. Houtenbeeldsnyder = Wooden statue sculptor. Houtenprinsnyder = Wood engraver. Houthakker = Wood-cutter, timber-cutter. Houtsnijder = Wood-carver, -sculptor. Hoyckmaker = Coatmaker, mantle maker. Huisschilder = House painter.
Huisverwer = See: Huisschilder. Huiswaerder = Person who takes care of on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge impounded household effects. Huucmaker = See : Hoyckmaker. Huyckevaester = Match-making woman. ( See also : Hooftvrouw) Huydekoper = Fell-monger, dealer of hides. Huyssier = Sheriff's officer, bailiff. Instrumentmaker = (Musical) instrument-maker. (Maritime) Jack of syndesmosis all trades.
Jongbootsgezel = (Maritime) 16-18 year old boy with a function in between a ship's-boy and Black Body, an ordinary seaman. Ankle. See also : Hoogloper. Justicier = Official, in uk, charge of jurisdiction. Kalanderaar = Calenderer. Person who makes cloth glossy by using a special sort. of mangle: a 'kalander' (= calender).
Kam(men)maker = Comb-maker (for textile industry) Kantwerkster = Female lace worker ( See also: Speldewerckster) Kapitein = 1 .Captain, Master. Ankle. 2 .Naval Captain. 3 .Infantry Captain.
Karreman = Cart-, van-driver. Kastelein = Innkeeper or bartender, publican. Kerkdienaer = Sexton, verger. Kerkenaer = See: Kerkdienaer. Kerkenarmenmeester = Overseer of the lotf quotes poor, deacon. Kerkercknape = See : Kerkerwarer. Kerkerhoeder = See : Kerkerwarer. Kerke(r)warer = Warder, prison-officer. Kerman (Sn/Limburg) = See: Karreman. Kermesmaker = Preparer of crimson. Kersedrager = Person who holds the syndesmosis wax candle during a church-service.
Ketelboeter/-bueter = Tinker (mostly repairing boilers) Ketelcnape = House-painters' hand. Ketellapper = See: ketelboeter. Keukenmeid = Cook's helper (female) Kiepkeerl (Gr)= Pedlar (often coming from Muensterland, Germany, to the Netherlands) Kieser = (Food) -inspector; critic, reviewer; elector.
Klapwaker = Night-watchman, indicating the lotf quotes time by beating on an obkject. Kleinlandman = Small-scale farmer. Klenker/Klinker = Town-crier ( Note : it can as well denote a coin!) Klepperman = Watch-man, using a rattle, town-crier. Klerk = Clerk, schoolmaster, registrar, secretary.
Kloefmaker = See: Klompmaker. Klompmaker = Maker of ankle wooden shoes ( See also: clomper and kloefkapper) Klovenier = See : clovenier. Kluynsteker = Digger of Ruth Fulton wet peat. Knecht = Assistant, apprentice, servant. Koeherder = Cowherd ( See also : Beestheer) Koehoeder = Cowherd( See also : Beestheer) Koehouder = Cattle farmer. Koekebacker = Confectioner, pastry-cook,baker. Koetsier = Coach-, Cab-man.
Koewachter = Cowherd ( See also: Beestheer, Koeherder) Kooltjer (Fr) = Grower of vegetables, especially cabbage and ankle syndesmosis, onions. Koopman = Salesman, merchant. Kopergieter = Copper-, brass-founder. Koperslager = Copper-smith, brazier. Korfmaker = Basket-, hampermaker ( See also: Corver) Kousemaker = Stocking-, hosemaker. Kramer, kremer = Pedlar, hawker, cheapjack, market-vendor. Kroeghouder = Owner of a bar or cafe. Kuiper = 1 . Cooper, bucket-maker.
2 . Herring-packer(in buckets). 3 . Lotf. In the ankle syndesmosis paper making -mostly in a papermill- the lotf jack quotes man who's helping, and ankle, standing. asides the big paper-tub. 4 . In Groningen coopermakers and cartwrights were working at quotes the same place and. owned by the same proprietor: in ankle, this case the 'kuiper' was called 'koeper' -Groningen. dialect- and Black Body Radiation, he could be making wheels, wagons and ankle, coaches as well. Lakenboeter = Person Who repairs cloth or clothes. Lakenkooplieden = Cloth-merchant, woollen draper. Lakensnijder - 1 .Cloth-, fabric-, clothes-cutter.
2 . bowle(s)-entrails cutter. Landarbeider = Agricultural laborer. Landbouwer = Farmer, agriculturalist ( See also: Landman) Landheer = Landowner, landlord. Landvrouw = Farmer's wife. Lantaarnmaker = Lantarn-, lamp-maker. Lantspassaat = Rank in between Corporal and Soldier. Ledezetter = Person setting bone-fractures.
Leerling = Apprentice, ( See also : Gezel) Leersnijder = Leatherworker, -cutter. Leertouwer = Currier, leatherdresser. Leestmaker = Maker of Essay lasts. Legger = 1. Bird catcher; 2. Person in ankle syndesmosis, charge with the Ruth Benedict maintenance of ankle a dike. Leggermaker = 1.Water- or wine cask/barrel maker; 2. Late Nineteenth Century Divergence. Writer of the ship's journal;
Leggewerker = Carpet maker. Letterzetter = Compositor, typesetter. Leurder = Hawker, street vendor. Leurster = Hawker, street vendor(female) Leyker (Fr) = Ditch-cleaner. Lidzetter = Person setting bone-fractures. Lijmsieder =Glue-maker (sieden = to syndesmosis, cook) Lijndraaier = See: Lijnslager.
Logementhouder = Hotel or lodging house operator. Lomberd/Lommerd = Usurer, pawnbroker. Ma(e)rte = (maid-) servant. Malienkoldermaker = Coat of Paintings and Hans Memlinc mail-maker. (-)manger = Merchant, dealer, trader, street-seller, vendor.(The word is ankle syndesmosis derived from.
the old saxon word 'mangon', meaning: to Ruth Fulton Benedict Essay, trade) Marketenter, marketenster = Sutler, respectively female sutler. Marktkoopvrouw = Female market-vendor. Marskramer = Pedlar, (travelling) hawker. Mattenmaker = Mat maker. Meedroger = Person in charge with preparing and ankle, drying of madder-root. (Madder -Rubica tinctorum- being a herb of which a red pigment was made. The province of Zeeland was an.
important provider of this pigment in aquaponics uk, the 16th century) Meerre (SN) = Official, in charge of ankle syndesmosis pegging/staking out aquaponics, landed properties; surveyor. Meier = (Tenant)farmer; sherriff, bailiff. ( Note : The Jewish name 'Meier' -given name. as well as surname- has nothing to ankle, do with this profession: it refers a historial event in Jeruzalem) Melckdierne = See: Melkslijtster. Melkslijtster = Female milk-retailer. Messenmaker = Knife -maker, -repairer. Metselaarster -Woman bricklayer. Milicien = Soldier ( See also: Soldaat ) Modderleiker (Fr) =Ditch-cleaner (modder = mud) Molenaersknecht = Miller's helper. Molenmeester = Mill superintendence; member of the Fulton Benedict Essay polder-board.
Molkenboer = Dairy farmer. Moller = See: Molenaer. Momber/Momboir (Sn) = Guardian. Mosselman = Mussel-fisher, -seller. Muntenaer = Person who actually mints the ankle coins. Munter = Mint-master (also: person who actually mints the coins) Muntmeester = Mint-master, moneyer. Mutsenmaakster = Maker of Ruth Benedict caps, bonnets.
Nachtwaerde = Night-watchman ( See also: Achterwaker) Nachtwerker = Person in ankle, charge with emptying the and Techniques van Eyck and Hans tuns, butts containing stools, during the night. Nappendraaier = Turner in wood, making dishes and drinking-cups. Nederbaliu = Bailiff of syndesmosis a lower rank. Olieslagersgast = Helper of an of the Paintings van Eyck oil-presser. Onderpander = Judicial officer of ankle a lower rank.
Onderrechter = Deputy judge. Ondervinder = Inspector, assayer; surveyor. Onderwijzer = Teacher. Aquaponics System. See: (School)meester. Opperclager =Plaintiff, presecutor. Organist, orgelaer, orgelist = Organ-player. Orgelmaker, orgenmaker = Organ maker. Orlogiemaker = Clock-, watch-maker. Oudecledercoper = Buyer of second hand clothes. Oudegrauwerker = Person who works with old fur. NB: The Dutch word 'over' can be found quite often as a prefix.
In case of the occupations. treated here, one can safely translate this with the ankle syndesmosis English equivalents: head, chief or principal. Example : schout = sherriff, over Fulton Benedict Essay schout = head, chief sherriff. Pamfletverkoper = Seller of pamphlets, lampoons. Panneboeter = Repairer of pans. Papier verkooper = Person who sells paper. Pappenheimer = Cesspool emptier.
Pargamentmaker/Pargameenmaker = See: Perkamentmaker. Parmentier/Parmantier/Permentier = Person who uses and works with fine fabrics, used for ankle syndesmosis, clothing. Particulier(e) = Self-employed person. Pasteibakker = Pastry chef. Paswerker = Precision metal worker. Pellewever = Weaver of on Reqiuem by Eldridge Cleaver fine cloth, like robes of state and table-cloth.
Pel(st)er = See: Pelsmaeker. Penverkooper = Feather merchant. Perkamentmaker = Parchment-, vellum-maker. Pickelaer = Stone-cutter ( See also: Steen-/Stenenbikker) Pijper = Piper, Fifer.
Plaatdrukker = (Copper)plate printer. Plaetdrukker = Printer of ankle syndesmosis line-engravings. Plaetsnyder = (Copper)plate cutter and coppersmith. Plaetsnyder in 't koper = Engraver in aquaponics system uk, copper. Plafondwerker = Maker of syndesmosis ceilings. Ploeger = Ploughman; farmer working with his own plough and Fulton, horses. Pluggemaker = Bung-, peg maker. Plumecoper = Merchant in down, fluff. Plumer = Blanket-, pillow stitcher. Poete = whore, prostitute. Polderwerker = Worker in a polder.
Poorter = Citizen, Burgher. Popmaker = Doll maker. Poppenstoffeerder -Doll painter, doll decorator. Popverkooper = Doll merchant. Pottebakker = Potter, ceramist, faience potter. Potverkooper = Pottery merchant. Potverkoopster = Woman pottery merchant. Predikant -Dominee, clergyman.
2 . Ankle. Functionary charged with printing stamps on Black Radiation, cloth. 3 . Painter or draughtsman. Printsnyder = Engraver, cutter. Printverkooper = Someone who sells etchings. Provest/profest/provoost/proofst/profst/proost = Provost (in it's several meanings) Pravest/praest (E) = See: Provest. Putier = 1. Ankle Syndesmosis. Ponce, bully, pimp. 3 . Night-reveller, hooligan. Putter = See: Pottebakker ( Note : also a person who draws water) Putiererse = Female whorehouse-keeper. Putierinne = Whore, light-o'-love, wanton, woman of easy virtue.
Quartiermeester = 1. Uk. Person in charge with the supervision, control over ankle a certain area. 2. Ruth Benedict. Officer on a ship in charge with the watch. Raemscherer = Person who shears cloth. Redenaer (Sn) = Estate steward. Reepslager = Rope-maker of flat,woven rope. Reetrecker = Surveyor, building inspector. Riemmaker = Person who makes, repairs streps and gurdles of leather.
Riemslager = See: Riemmaker. Riemsnider =See: Riemmaker. Ringelmaker = Person who makes (metal) rings. Rostuuscher = Horse-dealer, -coper. Ruilebuiter = Palaverer, person selling all kinds of syndesmosis things (sometimes using a vessel) Rustiekwerker = Person who uses natural, rustic wood to on Reqiuem for Nonviolence, by Eldridge Cleaver, make f.i. Ankle. walking sticks, wooden bridge or garden furniture. Ruiter / Ruyter = Horseman, rider, trooper.
Ruwaard = Governor (of a country); garrison commander; overseer, super-intendent. Sadelaer (Sn) = See : Zadelmaker. Sandvoe(r)der = Boatman of a ship transporting sand. Scharensliep = Scissors-, knife grinder. Scheepmaker = Shipwright,-builder, or shipwright-hand. Scheerder = 1.Cloth-shearer. 2.Barber. Schepen = Sheriff, magistrate, alderman. Schepscheerre, schepscherer = Cloth-shearer who was weaving the lotf quotes cloth for ankle syndesmosis, the tailor. Scherer, scheer(der), sche(e)rre = 1. The Details And Techniques Van Eyck And Hans Memlinc. barber; 2. (sheep) shearer; 3. cloth-shearer. Scheriaer, scherier = See : Scherer.
Schieman = (Maritime) Person in charge of the care for the fore-mast. Schilder = Painter; House painter. Syndesmosis. In the early middle ages also the name of a person who made shields. Schilder op doek = Painter on Black Body, canvas. Schilderyverkooper = Merchant of paintings.
Schipper = Skipper, master: most important person aboard. The general manager. Schippersknecht = Skipper's assistant. Schoenmaker =Shoemaker, cobbler. Schoesetter,-sitter, -sutter (Sn) = See: Schoenmaker. Scholt(e) = 1. Syndesmosis. (government official, representative of the Count, Duke or Bisshop; 2. a landlord, or important farmer with much political influence . See also: Schout.
Schoolmeester = Schoolmaster, teacher. Schout = Bayliff, sheriff. Schouwkleedmaker = Maker of mantel pieces. Schrader (Fr.) = See: Kleermaker. Schreu(de)r (Fr.) = See: Kleermaker. Can also mean: person who lops trees. Schrijfster = Female author, clark or secretary. Schrijnmaker = Joiner, Cabinet-maker. Schrijver = Writer, clerck, secretary. Schrijnemaecker (Sn) = See: Schrijnmaker.
Schrobbelaer = Woolcarder, -comber. Schroor (Fr) = See: Kleermaker. Schuiteboer = Boatman for inland navigation. Schuitemaker = Boat-builder or -hand. Schuitevaarder = Bargeman, bargemaster. Schutter = Marksman, shot. Seconde meester = (Maritime) person in charge of and Techniques van Eyck and Hans Memlinc medical care, assistan of the syndesmosis surgeon. Seper = Soap-boiler, -maker ( See also: Zeepzieder/ Ziepseerder)
Selversmet (Sn) = See: Zilversmid. Setmeyer (Fr) = Tenant-farmer without a tenancy agreement. Sjouwer(man) = Porter, dockworker, load carrier. Skuteboer (Fr) = See: Schuiteboer. Slachter = Butcher, one who slaughters animals. Slatter (Fr) = Ditch-cleaner. Smid = Blacksmith (Internationally the most frequently appearing name!) Smidsknecht = Smith's assistant. Snijder = Tailor ( See also: Kleermaker, Kleersnijder ) Snoeier = Pruner, trimmer. Soldaet = Soldier ( See also: Milicien) Speelman = Musician, singer, reciter.
Speldewerckster = Female lace worker ( See also: Kantwerkster) Spiegelmaker = Mirror maker. Spiegelstoffeerder = Mirror illuminator. Spiegelvergulder = Mirror gilder. Spinder/Spinner = Spinner of wool, fax, etc. Spinster -Female spinner of wool. Staefmaker = Maker of Essay for Nonviolence, rods.
Steen-/Stenenbakker = Brick -maker. Steen-/Stenenbikker = Brick-, Stonebreaker ( See also: Pickelaer) Steenhouwer = Stonemason, stonecutter. Stocker = Executioner; constable. Stocmaker = Maker of sticks, canes. Stocmeester = Warder, jailer. Stocwaerder = See : Stocmeester. Stoel(en)maker = Chair maker. Stoelschilder = Chair illuminator. Stoelvergulder = Chair gilder.
Stofdrukker = Person who prints on ankle, fabric. Stoffeerder = 1 .Upholsterer (for instance of Late Nineteenth Imperialism: Divergence Essay furniture). 2 .Person who does the ankle syndesmosis staffage in a (landscape) painting. 3 . Lotf Jack. Decorator of objects. Stokman = Warder, jailor, (prison)-officer. Stoopgieter = Tinsmith, pewterer. Stoopmaker = See : Stoopgieter.
Straetmaker/-meker = Road-maker, paver. Suikerbakker -Baker of sweets. Suikervergulder -Cake decorator. Suikerwerker = Maker of confectionaries, candymaker. Sutter (Sn/Brabant) = See: Shoemaker.
Suytelaer (Fr) = Peddler selling goods door to door. Swertvager (Sn) = See: Zwaardveger. Sylvester (Fr) = Locksman. Tafereelschilder = Person who paints on pannels. Tamboere,-bure = Drummer ( See also : Trommenslager) Tandentrekker = Teeth extractor (often travelling about. Tapster = Tavern keper, publican (female)
Tassenmaker = Bag-, pouch-maker. Teems(e)maker = Sieve-strainer maker. Tegelbakker (Sn Teegelbecker) = Tile-maker. Telloorschilder = Plate Painter (Soupe-, Dinner Plate.. ) Tingieter = Tinman,tinsmith, pewterer, Tollenaar = Toll-collector, -keeper (at the town-gate) Torftonster = Woman who puts the peat in baskets.
Touwslager = Rope maker ( See also: Reepslager) Treckwerker = Weaving-mill worker; pulling up the ankle warp or chain-threads in Black Body Essay, a large loom. Trippenmaker = Person who makes sandals with wooden sole. Trommenslager = Drummer ( See also : Tamboere) Trompena(e)r(e)/Trumpenaer = Trumpeter (trumpet or trombone) Trompetslare/Trompettenblaser/Trompetter = See : Trompena(e)r(e)/Trumpenaer. Tuinier = Gardener ( See also: Hovenier) Turfmaker = Maker of syndesmosis peat bricks used for fuel in factory or home.
Vaendrager(e)/Vane(n)drager, -dreger = Standard-, ensign-bearer; company seargent-major, colour-sergeant /Cornet, ensign. Benedict Essay. ( See also : Vaandrig) Vachtploter = Person, who's picking the wool of the sheep. Veehouder = Cattle farmer. Veldwerker = Fieldhand, laborer. Venter = Hawker, huckster, street-trader, pedlar. Verfverkooper = Color-pigments merchant. Verlichter = Miniature illuminator or-painter. Vernismaker = Varnish maker. Verpleger/Verpleegster = Nurse (male, female) Versebalie = (Maritime) person in ankle syndesmosis, charge of The Details and Techniques Paintings Memlinc buying fresh greens and meat.
Verwer = Dyer of textiles. Vetkoper = Buyer of fat. Vettewarier = Person who sells fatty goods. Vinkelaar = Birdcatcher, fowler. Vischkooper = Person who sells/buys fish. Vissersknecht = Fisherman's assistant. Visverkoopster = Female fish-seller. Vlasbaas = Flax foreman.
Vlasverkooper = Person who sells flax. Vlees(ch)houwer = Butcher ( See also: Slachter/Slager) Voerman = Driver, waggoner, carrier. Voogd = Guardian, governor. Vouwster = Textile folder. Vrachtrijder = Lorrydriver, carrier. Vrymeulenaar = Free miller. Uitraepster = Female sorter (coal, potatoes etc) Wagenmaker = Cartwright, wagonmaker, coach-builder.
Wandtsnijder = See: Lakensnijder. Wantscheer, -scherer = Cloth-dresser. Wannemaker = Maker of big, flat baskets, used to ankle syndesmosis, sift grain from chaff. Wapensteensnyder = Precious stones seal-engraver. Warmoezenier = Greengrocer.
Person who grows and/or sells vegetables (originally: cabbage plants and Body Radiation Essay, leafy vegatables) Waschmoeder = Woman in charge of washing cloth, (bed) clothes. Weiman/Weyman/Wijman = Hunter, Huntsman ( See also: Jager/ Bosschieter) Werkman = Laborer (male) Werkvrouw = Laborer (female)
Wever = Weaver (French: Tisserand) Wildschut = Hunter, huntsman. Witter = White-maker, bleacher. Wynroeyer = Wine gauger. Wynverlater = Person who poors the wine from ankle syndesmosis one container into the other to filter the Ruth Fulton Benedict wine of sediment. Yker/IJker = Inspector of weights and measurers. Ysersnyder, IJzersnijder = Coin-engraver.
Zeeldraayer = Rope maker. Zeeman = Seaman, sailor, mariner. Zeemtouwer = A shammymaker, person who makes wash-leather. Zeepzieder = Soap-boiler, -maker ( See also: Seper/Ziepseerder) Zegelsteker = Seal engraver. Zeper = See: Zeepzieder.
Ziekentrooster = Visitor of the sick. Zilverdraadtrekker = Person who has to make silver-thread out of solid silver.