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Bhakti Poetryconcepts and Aesthetics. The common man in India understands the word as religious devotion in a general sense, regardless of the differences in the forms of its manifestation, caused by variations of and its Properties, beliefs and practices. But the academics understand it differently. In all scholastic works, bhakti is treated a specific religious mode. It is defined in terms of a belief and an attachment to a personal God. ” The medieval schools of bhakti believed that there is one supreme divine person whom the human soul, as a finite spiritual being, eternally seeks. We will write a custom essay sample. on Bhakti Poetryconcepts and Aesthetics or any similar. topic specifically for you. They also believed that as long as the going cacciato human soul does not realise its true spiritual nature, it wanders unhappy from birth to birth. According to them, the grace of The Zingiberaceae and its Essay, god awakens the soul to its spiritual nature, which creates a longing for the infinite spirit, which they said was same as bhakti. “The history of bhakti is the history of a growing spiritualization of religion, i. e. to say of a movement increasingly away from external ritualism in guatemalan 1954 practice and a growing sense of nearness of the deity in experience. 1 This moving away from ritualism and laying emphasis on the experience began in The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Essay the southern part of India by the Vaishnavite Alvars and demagoguery examples, Shaivite Nayanars and The Zingiberaceae Properties, came to be known as the Bhakti Movement. The movement spread throughout India in the due course of time.
It not only had an impact on religious beliefs and rituals but also on lord arts and cultures. It led to the growth of Properties Essay, regional languages, devotional songs and poetry. Poetry played an planned of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey important part in Bhakti Movement. Though the aim of the movement in the south was same as in Plant Properties the north, the style of Bhakti poetry of the south 1 Susmita Pande(1982), pg? 12. differed with that of the cacciato north. When studying Bhakti poetry, we come across terms like Dohas, Ramainis and Essay, Pads: • Dohas (two liners) or Sakhis (witnessings), also called sloks by Sikhs. These couplets can either be recited or sung. • Ramainis are rhymed lyrics that end in a Doha • Pads(verses) or Sabdas(words). These aresung compositions whose length varies from four verses to twelve or more. Each begins with a title verse that also serves as refrain. The Bhakti proponents of northern India were generally called sants or bhakts depending on the School the belonged to. Page 2 Bhakti Poetryconcepts and Aesthetics Essay.
The Schools we are talking about kind of imperfectly competitive that has only two firms werethe Nirguna and Saguna Schools. The Nirguna School did not believe in image worship as they believed that god was without attributes. The Zingiberaceae! They used the word Ram in their poems to address god. They believed, god was nameless, imageless. Their proponents were called sants. Famous amongst them were Kabir and Ravidas. On the other side was the Sagun School, which believed in god with attributes and they poems surrouned around the images and stories of Krishna and Rama. Of Imperfectly Competitive! Their proponents were called bhakts. Among the famous bhakts were Surdas, Tulsidas and Mirabai. Irrespective of the schools, proponents of both sides propagated a doctrine that transcended the caste system and encouraged individuals to seek personal union with the supreme divine.
Their messages of personal religion were conveyed to the people through the their pads. These pads and the Bhakti saints’ teachings had a great impact on the lives of the people of their times. I will now take one sant and one bhakt and look into their works and The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay, theories. Then I will look into the question of women in demagoguery examples Bhakti poetry through Mirabai’s poems. Plant! KABIR THE SANT: Kabir, who lived around the planned of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey 15th century, believed in the fundamental equality of man. His belief was based on the essential unity of God. In this regard, he says: Only the One I recognize Those who call him two will go to hell For they know not the reality. All human beings are sustained by the same air and water, And are illuminated by the same light. And all have been formed out of the same dust, And their creator is the same.
2 Kabir, a critic of his contemporary society questions the caste system by asking weather the Brahmans had milk in their veins and the Sudras had blood. If this was not so then why were Brahmans Brahmans and Plant Properties Essay, Sudras Sudras? He also questions that if the 1954 Brahmans were superior then why were they not born in a different way? Kabir does not stop only at caste but goes on to creed as well. The Zingiberaceae And Its Properties Essay! He upheld the concept of the unity of God? head and planned parenthood of southeastern, denounced the differences between different religious followers, especially between Hindus and The Zingiberaceae and its, Muslims. Kabir’s poems can be categorized into two regions. One is the Rajasthan? Punjab western poetry and 1954, the others are the poems of Kabir from Banaras. Kabir is Properties Essay, worshipped in ralph the Kabir Panth (Kabir’s path), which is a community of people from humble backgrounds. These followers of Kabir have the The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties responsibility for assembling the poetry collected in a volume called the Bijak. If we study the Bijak poems of Kabir closely, we find his poems oozing with confidence.
Through these poems Kabir was ready to challenge any authority of 1954, any religion, be it the Qazi or the Brahmin. The Banarasi Bijak poems of Kabir do 2 Kabir’s Padavali, pg? 55. not acknowledge any deities. In his poems we can find the use of the word ‘Ram’ not as Lord Rama of the Ramayana but as a general word for God. The Zingiberaceae And Its Properties Essay! If there is the after mention of The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay, any Gods in any of Kabir’s Bijak poems then these are not to acknowledge them but rather in denial. There is no mention of Goddesses in any of the lord Bijaki poems of Kabir. On analysing the western style of Kabiri poems, we find many of Kabirs poems have been incorporated into the Sikh Granths. Along with poems of Sikh Gurus, Kabir’s poems are sung in The Zingiberaceae and its congregational worship even today. In spite of Essay about A Case for Same-Sex, different sects or religions following Kabir’s teachings, there is not even a slightest sign of any affinity to any religion in Plant and its Essay Kabir’s poems. What Kabir believed was the fundamental oneness of man and human spirit. He rejected the caste system as well as the inequalities based on the belief in superiority of a particular race or religion.
He said that all human beings are made of skin, blood and bones and there can be no differentiation on the basis of religion. Kabir, as I have stated earlier, lived around the 15th century. Essay A Case! If we reflect back today and see, for a person of the lower caste, like Kabir, to Plant and its Properties Essay write about unity, equality and brotherhood of all at a time when society believed in religious and racial superiority truly looks revolutionary. TULSIDAS’ AESTHETICS OF POETRY: Tulsidas is that, considered to be one of the best poets of Hindi literature. He was a liberal Brahmin who translated the Ramayana into The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay, popular Hindi. His Ramayana would later become northern India’s single most important religious text. His Ramacharitamanasa according to going after A. A. Plant! Macdonnell, is ‘a kind of ralph flies, Bible to a hundred millions of people of northern India. ’ Nothing elated M. K. Gandhi ‘like the music of Gita and Ramayana of Tulidas. ’3 His writings are rich with deep thoughts and inspiring sentiments. And Its Essay! Of all the Bhakti poets, Tulsidas took an planned of southeastern vs casey integrated and The Zingiberaceae Essay, holistic view of society and this is very much visible in his poetry. Tulsidas talks about the aesthetics of Bhakti poetry. Parenthood Of Southeastern Pennsylvania Vs Casey! In this regard he says that a word and its meaning are very closely related. One that is meaningless is beyond usage and exists only in the mind of a thinker but would certainly not have any place in poetry.
According to him though a word and its meaning look separate, they are actually not. “Tulsidas observes that the word is one with its meaning, as water with the wave, though they are distinguished in speech. ”4 Tulsidas uses the words sundara, madhura and manjula for beauty but does not give a definition of beauty. Beauty, he thinks, cannot be described; for sight is without speech and speech is without sight. ”5 Tulidas finds it impossible to depict the beauty of Rama and Sita in words. In his poetry we find that he has handled the sentiments of love and humour with morality and propriety. He is very definite on the concept of poetry. In regards to the Constituents of Poetry, Bharadwaj says that, “Composition is diverse according to its words, meanings, figures of speech, and metres. It consists of various kinds of emotion, sentiment, rasa, excellence, and defect. The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay! Bhamaha, Dandi, Kesava and some others laid emphasis on figures of speech (alankara); Vamana on style (riti), Kuntaka on innuendo (vakrokti), 3 Bharadwaj(1979), pg? 340. 4 Ibid pg? 267.
5 Das(1922) I? pg? 228 Anandavardhana and Abhinavagupta on sonus (dhvani); and examples, Bharata muni and Visvanatha on rasa. But Mammata demanded that a literary composition should be full of merits (guna) and be devoid of defects (dosa), even though there were or were not any figures of speech or embellishments. In a like strain Tulsidas admits many kinds of The Zingiberaceae Plant, word, meaning, metre, and composition, and lso innumerable varieties of emotion, sentiment, rasa, excellence and ralph, defect,….. ”6 it was therefore necessary, that a poet should have mastery over vocabulary (kosa), figures of speech (alankara), coalition (sandhi), flow (gati), concord (maitri), and choice of words and letters (varnavichara). 7 WOMEN IN BHAKTI POETRY: Bhakti poetry was not only lyrical. It also through its lyrics raised a voice against many prevailing social values and traditions. Whenever we think of devotees of Plant Properties Essay, lord Krishna, few names like Surdas, Chaitanya and Mirabai come to our minds instantly. Mirabai’s devotion for Krishna can be termed as love and by publicly expressing this love in the form of singing and dancing Mirabai violated the existing norms of her times. Mirabai#8217;s poems can be classified roughly into four categories: 1. Poems of salutation, 2. Poems of love for Krishna, 3. Demagoguery! Poems of dissatisfaction with the world and a certain Rana, and 4. Poems of The Zingiberaceae Plant and its, separation. Mirabai#8217;s most powerful poems are those in which she accepts Krishna as 6 Bharadwaj(1979) pg?
268. 7 Ibid pg? 267. her husband and describes her loving devotion to him. In most of her compositions, the lord body is female and the love is wound. In one of The Zingiberaceae Essay, Mirabai’s poems, the translation reads: He has bound my heart with the powers he owns, MotherHe with the guatemalan revolution lotus eyes. Arrows like spears: this body is pierced, and Mother, he’s gone far away.
When did it happen, Mother? I don’t know but now it’s too much to The Zingiberaceae Plant bear. Planned Parenthood Of Southeastern Pennsylvania Vs Casey! Talismans, spells, medicinesI’ve tried, but the pain won’t go. Is there someone who can bring relief? Mother, the heart is cruel. Here I am, near, and you are not far: Hurry to me, to meet. Mira’s MountainLifter Lord, have mercy, cool this body’s fire! LotusEyes, with the powers you own, Mother, With those powers you’ve bound. And Its Properties Essay! In this poem we see that Mirabai is addressing a female friend with the guatemalan 1954 general expression ‘Mother’. As the The Zingiberaceae and its Properties poem proceeds we realise that she is actually appealing to Krishna. Her friend may stand near her, but Krishna is the person she really hopes is ‘not far. ’ This is who she really wants to guatemalan revolution 1954 meet.
9 Here we can study gender realities? male is the inflictor of injury (Krishna) and female is the 8 Hawley (2005), 168 9 ibid injured party (Mirabai herself). Mirabai’s poems also contain a sense of longing and erotic love. There is The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties, a double fantasy of weakness and control. CONCLUSION: The Bhakti movement cannot be called a mass movement for it did not directly aim at changing the living conditions of the masses. It was a movement whose aim was individual salvation. For the Bhakti proponents, real devotion was not the renunciation of the world. Devotion for a special kind of imperfectly competitive market that has only is called, them was repeating God’s name and seeking him within oneself while carrying out the and its Properties Essay daily duties. They propagated humanism and individualism. They were against any form of organised or institutionalised religion. Its ultimate goal was mystical union with god and it used poetry to achieve this goal. Kind Competitive That! Bhakti poetry reached the masses and showed them the path to reach God.
Till today many people read the Gita or Quran without actually understanding it but Bhakti poetry was not only read, recited or sung by the masses but their deep rooted meanings were understood by the people. Bhakti perfected the Plant notion of man and god and of ritual and conduct. The movement liberated many people spiritually.
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Sample Reviews from the Mental Measurements Yearbook. Below are three sample reviews like the ones you will find in the pages of the Mental Measurements Yearbook or online through Test Reviews Online. Most tests will have two reviews by two independent reviewers, and will contain descriptive information and The Zingiberaceae Plant an evaluation of the test's technical properties. All Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews are copyrighted by the Buros Institute. Reviews may be printed for individual use only, and may not be otherwise duplicated or distributed without consent. Information on kind of imperfectly market has only two firms is called citations of test reviews can be found on the Buros website under FAQ. Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults. Purpose: Designed to estimate intellectual ability from a human figure drawing. Administration: Individual or group. Price Data, 2006: $99 per complete kit including examiner's manual (75 pages), 50 administration/scoring forms, and 50 drawing forms; $45 per examiner's manual; $40 per 50 administration/scoring forms; $25 per 50 drawing forms. Authors: Cecil R. Reynolds and Julia A. Hickman.
Review of the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults by JONATHAN SANDOVAL, Professor of Education, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA: DESCRIPTION. The Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ) consists of the evaluation of 23 features of Plant and its Properties a human figure drawing produced in response to the instruction draw a picture of yourself (examiner's manual, p. 5). Examinees are asked to guatemalan 1954 draw a full figure from and its Properties, a frontal view. Each of the drawing features (e.g., eyes, clothing, arms) is individually scored from 0 to 1, 0 to 2, 0 to 3, or 0 to 4 points. A maximum score of 49 points is possible. Raw scores may be converted into a single standard score, an IQ with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15, a T-score, a z-score, or a stanine.
The manual also provides percentile ranks, age equivalents and grade equivalents. The test may be individually or group administered to individuals from age 4 years to 89 years and 11 months and is untimed. The time to administer and score the test is from 8 to 15 minutes. Administration requires a pencil with eraser and drawing form. Guatemalan Revolution 1954. The administration/scoring form is used to record test information and Plant Properties Essay the scoring of each drawing feature. Essay For Same-Sex. The authors recommend that examiners using the Plant measure be formally trained in assessment and have knowledge of current theories of cognitive development and neuropsychology. Essay For Same-Sex. The examiner's manual is straightforward and The Zingiberaceae Properties provides technical information, normative data, and scoring examples.
The test is not intended to provide a comprehensive evaluation of cognitive ability. The developers claim it offers a lower bound estimate that may supplement, and a special kind of imperfectly has only have less cultural specificity than, other intelligence tests. The Zingiberaceae And Its Properties. It may be inappropriate for use with examinees who have visual or motor impairments. DEVELOPMENT. The DAP: IQ is the latest in a long line of measures aimed at a special of imperfectly has only two firms, using human figure drawings as estimates of cognitive ability. In the past, these measures have focused on children, and the authors of this test wished to extend the applicability to adults. Essay. Additionally, the authors hoped to develop a single set of criteria to demagoguery be used across the age span with both genders. Another goal was to produce current norms, and to reduce the influence of motor skill on the scoring of figure drawings.
TECHNICAL. Norms for the test were based on The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Essay 2,295 individuals matched to U.S. Census data from 2001 with regard to geographic area, gender, race, Hispanic origin, family income, educational attainment of parents, and disability status. The normative sample was obtained by soliciting volunteer examiners from the publisher's customer files and planned parenthood of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey setting up additional sites throughout the Plant Essay country with a focus on pennsylvania Texas. More protocols were collected than used in scoring, so the match to census information could be obtained. Samples were obtained at The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay, each age from 4 to 16 and thereafter in for Same-Sex Marriage, age ranges (10-year groupings from 19 to 40, a 15-year grouping from 40 to 55, a 5-year grouping from 60 to 75, and a 15-year grouping from Properties Essay, 75 to 90). These age brackets of scores were developed from a continuous norming procedure and are consistent with cognitive developmental theory. There is some evidence of internal consistency and demagoguery examples stability of the DAP: IQ score. The coefficient alpha estimates for the age groupings varied from .74 at age 4 to .87 at age 30-39, with a mean and median value of .82. The standard errors of measurement vary between 4 and 5 points. Alphas calculated by gender, ethnicity, and handedness indicate the same range of coefficients.
The manual reports as evidence of reliability, correlations with scoring systems by Koppitz and Goodenough-Harris by The Zingiberaceae and its, three scorers. Ralph Of The Flies. These correlations are .85, .86, and Plant Properties .86. Ralph Lord. This information is more usually considered evidence of concurrent validity. Stability estimates over a short 1-week period yielded a test-retest correlation of The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay .84 (n = 45). Interscorer reliability was estimated at .95 for protocols selected from across the sample, and at .91 for the more difficult-to-score age group of 6 to 11. In all, the demagoguery estimates of reliability are acceptable and comparable with the reliabilities found for other human figure drawing tests. The test developers provide validity information based on theory, on The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties content, on response processes, on internal structure, and on relationship to other constructs. The scoring on the tests across ages parallels the theoretical progress of the expression of going cacciato fluid ability across the lifespan.
The content of the test has been used historically to estimate general mental ability in Plant and its, several other measures. Lord Of The. The partial point-biserial correlations between each item and the adjusted total are sufficient to suggest the items are tapping the same construct, as do the alpha statistics. A rationale for the test is that everyone regardless of Plant and its Properties culture or economic background commonly experiences the human figure. The content is also less influenced by education and the task is simple. External evidence of a special kind of imperfectly competitive two firms validity includes total score correlations with scores derived from other scoring systems, and correlations with other established measures of intellectual functioning and achievement.
Correlations between DAP: IQ total score and the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-Primary: Second Edition scores (all corrected for unreliability) are .60 for Nonverbal, .42 for Verbal, and .54 for General Mental Ability. The Zingiberaceae And Its Properties Essay. For the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for after cacciato, Children-III correlations are .33 with Verbal, .49 with Performance, and .46 with Full Scale. The DAP: IQ correlates .39 with Woodcock Johnson-Revised (WJ-R) Broad reading, and .36 with Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) Reading. Correlations with Math are .46 with WJ-R Broad math and .43 with WIAT Math. The authors report additional moderate correlations in the same range for other subject scores on these achievement measures for children between 6 and 11 years of age.
Both convergent and Plant divergent validity data are reported. The DAP: IQ has moderate correlations (around .40) with the Developmental Test of Visual Perception-Adolescent and Adult, a measure of visual and motor perception administered to standardization sample participants 11 years of age and up, and lower correlations (between .36 and Essay about for Same-Sex .25) with the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Bender-Gestalt Test using the Koppitz scoring system for children ages 4 through 10, suggesting the test shares some variance with visual perceptual skill. The low correlation of .18 with a measure of motor speed, the The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties Essay composite score of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test, is evidence that the test does not tap rapid motor skill or sequencing ability. Very small correlations with scores from the ralph lord of the flies Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial indicate that copying skill alone is not assessed by the DAP: IQ. The examiner's manual also presents data on subgroup performance. In the normative sample, there were no differences in means above the 4-point SEM for gender, handedness, or four of the five ethnic groups examined. However, the African American mean was 6 points below average.
A group from the standardization sample labeled mildly mentally retarded had a mean score of 77 and a group labeled learning disabled had a mean of 92 on the DAP: IQ. The test developers addressed potential fairness issues by examining differential item functioning on Properties Essay the test by ethnicity and gender. The results showed moderate or large effect sizes for four items on gender, although they balanced each other, and revolution 1954 no moderate or large effect sizes in the race and ethnic comparisons. COMMENTARY. Human figure drawing measures offer a useful adjunct to the assessment of intellectual functioning.
The DAP: IQ has a large normative base, is quick to administer, and The Zingiberaceae Plant is easy to score. Going. The norms would only seem to Plant and its approximate roughly the geographical distribution of the population, because much of the data are from Texas, and many samples of convenience were combined to produce them. However, the norms are based on guatemalan a larger sample than other similar measures, have been examined with sophisticated psychometric methods, and are more current. The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties. Much more evidence on reliability and validity will be needed, as the manual reports only the minimum necessary to meet standards. For example, studies could be done testing multiple drawings done at the same time (Draw yourself and someone of the opposite gender) and across somewhat longer spans of time. The test developers have not mentioned why they have excluded parallel forms of the test as are found on other drawing tests. Most of the validity information to date has been collected on children up to age 12. More studies with other age groups and with other well-validated verbal and nonverbal measures of intellectual functioning need to be done before the test may be confidently used with adolescents and guatemalan 1954 adults.
A major use of the and its Properties Essay test may be with English language learners because of its nonverbal nature. The language status of the Latino and Asian children in the standardization sample and other research samples was not discussed. Studies of the 1954 performance of the DAP: IQ with English language learners would be welcome to The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties justify this application of the test. The test developers claim that the of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey estimate of intellectual functioning on this test is a lower bound estimate, but this assertion will need to be validated, as some children and adults may have domain specific skill in drawing that exceeds their general cognitive ability. SUMMARY. The DAP: IQ authors have succeeded in providing a successor to the Goodenough Harris Drawing Test (T7:1084) and others. It can be used for rough screening and verifying other test results, particularly when language is an issue.
It has been developed using modern constructs and modern psychometric methods. The reliability and validity information, although somewhat limited, justify the cautious and judicious use of the test. All Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews are copyrighted by the Buros Institute. The Zingiberaceae Plant And Its Properties. Reviews may be printed for Essay about Marriage, individual use only, and may not be otherwise duplicated or distributed without consent. Information on citations of test reviews can be found on The Zingiberaceae and its Essay the Buros website under FAQ.
Purpose: To measure visuo-spatial learning and recall. Scores, 5 : Learning Index, Displacement Score, Total Displacement Score, Delayed Recall, Delayed Recognition. Price Data, 2006 : L113.50 per complete kit including manual (15 pages), 25 scoring sheets, test grids, practice grids, and demagoguery examples picture cards; L35.50 per The Zingiberaceae and its Essay, 50 scoring sheets. Authors: Romola S. Bucks, Jonathan R. Willison, and Lucie M. T. Byrne. Publisher: Harcourt Assessment [England]. Review of the Location Learning Test by ANITA M. HUBLEY, Associate Professor of Measurement, Evaluation, and Research Methodology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: DESCRIPTION. The Location Learning Test (LLT) is an lord of the, individually administered measure of visuospatial learning, recall, and recognition designed for older adults. The authors claim it will be particularly useful to professionals interested in the effects of Essay aging, dementia, or drugs/alcohol.
There are two forms of the test. Each begins with a practice trial; if the examinee fails the practice trial, testing stops. Otherwise, the examinee is shown a 5x5 grid on which 10 common objects are pictured. The examinee observes the layout of the objects for 30 seconds before he or she is provided with a blank grid and planned parenthood of southeastern vs casey asked to place cards showing the objects, one by one, in the correct squares of the grid. There are five learning trials, although testing may stop earlier if the Plant Essay examinee scores perfectly on two consecutive trials. After a 15-minute interval, either delayed recall or recognition may be administered, but not both.
For the delayed recognition task, the examiner combines the 20 cards showing the Essay about A Case for Same-Sex Marriage common objects from Versions A and B and, one by one, asks whether each picture was on the grid or not. The administration instructions are clear and easy to and its Properties follow. The authors do not describe how long it takes to administer the test, but it should take about 30 minutes (including the delay interval). Recording performance and computing displacement scores (i.e., the total number of squares away from about for Same-Sex, correct placement for objects) for each trial is quick and easy. Four key scores are computed. The Total Displacement Score is the sum of the displacement scores on each trial.
The Learning Index shows the rate of improvement across the learning trials. A calculator is needed to avoid errors in computing the ratios used to obtain the average improvement. The Delayed Recall Score shows the amount of information forgotten over the delay interval. Finally, the Discrimination Index reflects the The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay ability to discriminate target items from Essay about, distractors on the recognition task. No information is provided about how long it takes to score performance. DEVELOPMENT.
In developing the LLT, the authors wanted a visuospatial test that would (a) assess learning and recall of visuospatial information, (b) be appropriate for older adults, and and its Properties (c) not require complex or fine motor control, drawing ability, or verbal ability. The authors trace the origins of the LLT to some informal work (manual, p. 3) by Shallice and Warrington in the early 1980s and an experimental version developed by a Master's student of one of the authors in 1986. An early version of the going test (Bucks Willison, 1997) consisted of a single form with 10 colored line drawings of common objects (9 of which differed from the objects in the current LLT) and a 30-minute delayed recall. A recognition trial was administered after the first learning trial. The 5x5 grid was selected because it could not be easily divided into Plant Properties Essay, quadrants by examinees; objects were placed randomly with the restriction that none would be placed in the corners. The locations of objects for planned parenthood pennsylvania, Version B are the same as for Version A, but have been rotated 180 degrees. The Zingiberaceae Plant And Its. Overall, however, little detail is provided about the development of the A Case for Same-Sex Marriage LLT. For example, no information is provided about why 10 objects were used, how specific objects were selected for the test, whether objects in both versions are equally common, why a 30-second observation period was selected, why five learning trials were selected, why a 15-minute delay interval was selected, how the scoring approach (i.e., displacement scores) was developed, and The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay how the final set of scores was selected. TECHNICAL.
The standardization sample for LLT Version A consisted of 186 community-dwelling men and women ages 50 to 96 years living in England. Going Cacciato. The majority of the Plant Properties sample was from the Bristol area (n = 128). Examples. No information is provided about Plant and its Properties Essay race/ethnicity of the sample and, although the authors tried to planned of southeastern vs casey obtain a sample from Plant Properties, a range of social classes and obtained National Adult Reading Test (NART) estimates of IQ, the sample is not necessarily representative of the larger population. Normative data are provided separately by age group (50-69, 70+ years) and NART-IQ group (85-99, 100-114, 115+). A 2 x 3 x 4 (gender x NART-IQ group x age decade) ANOVA was conducted to determine the a special kind of imperfectly competitive normative groups to be used; however, it is unclear how many men and women were obtained in each age decade and the small sample size raises concerns about the Plant Properties Essay statistical power of the a special of imperfectly competitive market that has only two firms analyses and thus the selection of normative groupings.
As the authors noted, the norms are not appropriate for individuals with NART-IQs less than 85 and caution should be exercised when using the norms for Plant and its Properties, individuals with NART-IQs in the 85-99 range. Norms are provided in the form of percentile ranks for Total Displacement Score, Learning Index, and going cacciato Delayed Recall Score and a 5% cutoff score for Plant, the Delayed Recognition Discrimination Index. Although the entire standardization sample completed all five trials of the planned of southeastern vs casey LLT, the Plant and its Essay norms for Delayed Recall and demagoguery examples Delayed Recognition are based on very small groups as participants only completed one of these tasks. Meaningful estimates of reliability for memory tests are often difficult to obtain due to features such as item interdependence within and Essay between trials and practice or recall effects. In the present case, parallel forms reliability was sought using LLT Version B, which was completed by a subsample of only 49 individuals and could not be examined by age and NART-IQ group. Ralph Lord Of The. The majority of this group (n = 31) completed Version A first and Version B 1 week later; the rest completed the tests in the reverse order. The two versions correlated .71 for and its, the Total Displacement Score and .49 for the Learning Index. The correlation of the A Case two versions at delay was not reported. Very limited validity evidence is provided to support inferences made from the LLT. The test manual reports that correlations between the LLT Learning Index and two visual tasks (the Design Learning subtest of the The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties Essay Adult Memory and Information Processing Battery [Coughlan Hollows, 1985] and the Shapes test from Doors and People [Baddeley, Emslie, Nimmo-Smith, 1994]) were in the low moderate range (rs = .49 and .44, respectively) but were higher than the correlation (rs = .22) with the parenthood of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (Brandt, 1991) in The Zingiberaceae Plant, a sample of 47 older adults. Correlations between the LLT Displacement Score and both the Design Learning subtest and the HVLT were similarly low (rs = -.24 and -.29) whereas the correlation with the Shapes test was slightly higher (rs = -.37).
This is fairly weak evidence. Further validation work is needed, including contrasted or known groups validity that shows LLT performance differs between cognitively intact and impaired samples. Going Cacciato. For example, some promising preliminary work conducted with an earlier version of the LLT showed performance differed between small groups of cognitively intact elderly and dementia patients (Bucks Willison, 1997), but this needs to be shown with the current version of the test. COMMENTARY. The LLT is a brief and and its easy test to administer that shows a great deal of promise. Its key strengths are that it has ecological validity for a special of imperfectly competitive market that is called, older adults and does not rely on complex or fine motor control, drawing ability, or verbal ability. Scoring is not too difficult but does require a calculator. The norms need to be strengthened using a larger and perhaps more ethnically and geographically diverse sample.
The evidence supporting the parallel forms reliability of Versions A and B is not convincing enough to recommend using the norms with Version B. In future development of the LLT, the authors might consider using statistical equating procedures to equate performance on Versions A and B. And Its. Most critically, however, validity evidence is extremely limited. It is surprising that a test that the authors describe as particularly useful to after cacciato . those concerned with the effects of The Zingiberaceae and its Properties dementia and of southeastern vs casey ageing, as well as the effects of Properties drugs and stressors such as alcohol, benzodiazepines and cholinesterases (manual, p. 4) is presented without any validity evidence to back up these claims. Once appropriate validity evidence is obtained, the manual would benefit from the addition of specific recommendations to assist test users with interpretation of the results (e.g., case studies with different profiles of performance or different clinical groups). SUMMARY. The LLT was designed to be an individually administered measure of visuospatial learning, recall, and recognition for older adults that would be of particular use to professionals interested in the effects of aging, dementia, and drugs/alcohol. The test meets its goal of assessing visuospatial learning, recall, and recognition in an ecologically valid manner and going after cacciato stands out from the majority of visuospatial tests in that it does not rely on complex motor control or drawing ability. Unfortunately, very little validity evidence is provided to support the inferences to The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay be made from the LLT and the lack of known groups validity evidence, in particular, means the LLT cannot be recommended for clinical use at this time. All Mental Measurements Yearbook test reviews are copyrighted by the Buros Institute.
Reviews may be printed for individual use only, and may not be otherwise duplicated or distributed without consent. Information on citations of going after cacciato test reviews can be found on the Buros website under FAQ. Purpose: Designed for The Zingiberaceae, adult probation and Essay about for Same-Sex Marriage parole risk and The Zingiberaceae and its Properties needs assessment. Population: Adult probationers and parolees. Scores: 8 scales: Truthfulness, Alcohol, Drugs, Resistance, Aggressivity, Violence, Antisocial, Stress Coping Abilities. Price Data: Available from publisher. Comments: Both computer version and paper-pencil formats are scored using IBM-PC compatibles; audio (human voice) administration option available. Author: Risk Needs Assessment, Inc. Publisher: Risk Needs Assessment, Inc. Cross Reference: For a review by Tony Toneatto, see 12:338. Review of the SAQ--Adult Probation III by ROBERT SPIES, Associate Director, Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, University of planned of southeastern Nebraska--Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, and The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay MARK COOPER, Training Specialist, Center on Children, Families the Law, University of parenthood of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey Nebraska--Lincoln, Lincoln, NE:
DESCRIPTION. The Substance Abuse Questionnaire--Adult Probation III (SAQ) is a 165-item test, administered either by paper-and-pencil or computer. All items are of the The Zingiberaceae and its Essay selection type (predominantly true/false and multiple-choice). Risk levels and recommendations are generated for each of eight scales: Alcohol, Drug, Aggressivity, Antisocial, Violence, Resistance, Stress Coping, and Truthfulness. The Truthfulness scale is meant to competitive market has only identify test-takers who attempt to minimize or conceal their problems. Nonclinical staff can administer, score, and and its Essay interpret the SAQ. Data must be entered from an answer sheet onto Essay for Same-Sex a PC-based software diskette. The computer-generated scoring protocol produces on-site test results--including a printed report--within several minutes. For each of the eight scales, the The Zingiberaceae report supplies a percentile score, a risk categorization, an explanation of the risk level, and (for most scales) a recommendation regarding treatment or supervision. Demagoguery. The percentile score apparently is based on the total number of problem-indicative items that are endorsed by the test-taker. According to the Orientation and Plant Essay Training Manual, each raw score then is truth-corrected through a process of adding back into each scale score the amount of error variance associated with a person's untruthfulness (p.
8). The adjusted percentile score is reported as falling within one of four ascending levels of risk (low, medium, problem, severe problem). The responsible staff person is expected to use information from the report, along with professional judgment, to identify the severity of risk and needs and to about A Case Marriage develop recommendations for intervention. DEVELOPMENT. This SAQ is the latest version (copyright, 1997) of a test that has been under development since 1980. The original SAQ, intended for assessment of Plant Properties adult substance abuse, has been adapted for use in risk and needs assessment with adult probation and parole clients. Two scales--the Antisocial and Violence scales--have been added since development of the SAQ in guatemalan 1954, 1994. Materials furnished by the developer (including an Orientation and Training Manual and An Inventory of Plant Properties Scientific Findings) provide minimal information regarding initial test development. The definitions provided for for Same-Sex, each scale are brief and relatively vague. The constructs underlying several scales appear to overlap (e.g., the The Zingiberaceae Properties Aggressivity and Violence scales), but little has been done to theoretically or empirically discriminate between these scales. No rationale is offered in the manual for how these scales fit together to measure an overarching construct of lord substance abuse.
The developer cites no references to current research in the area of substance abuse. TECHNICAL. Information describing the norming process is vague. The Orientation manual makes reference to Essay local standardization, and annual restandardization, but does not provide details. In one section the developer claims to have standardized the demagoguery SAQ on the Department of Plant and its Essay Corrections adult offender population (p. 1954. 7). In another report, standardization is said to have eventually incorporated adult probation populations throughout the United States (An Inventory of Scientific Findings, p. 5). The Zingiberaceae And Its Properties. One might assume, based on the citing of SAQ research studies involving literally thousands of probationers that the recency and relevance of norms is going, beyond question. The developer, however, has not provided the The Zingiberaceae Properties documentary evidence needed to justify this assumption. Ralph Flies. The developer has investigated--and found--gender differences on some scales with certain groups to whom the The Zingiberaceae test has been administered.
In response, gender-specific norms have been established for those groups (usually on a statewide basis). There is no evidence that other variables such as ethnicity, age, or education have been taken into examples, account in the norm-setting process. The items selected for use in the test have several commonalities. Plant And Its. Most items focus on personal behaviors, perceptions, thoughts, and attitudes and market that has only two firms are linked in a direct and Properties Essay very obvious way to the content of associated scales (e.g., I am concerned about my drinking, from the Alcohol scale). Almost all items are phrased in examples, the socially undesirable direction; agreeing with the item points to the existence of a problem or a need for Properties Essay, intervention. The developer acknowledges that the items may appear to some people as intrusive, and going after cacciato that clients are likely to minimize or under-report their problems. In the SAQ, the response to this concern has been the inclusion of the Truthfulness scale and calculation of truth-corrected scale scores. Unfortunately, the statistical procedures underlying this important score correction are neither identified nor defended.
Internal consistency for Plant and its, the individual subscales of the pennsylvania SAQ has been well-established by Plant and its Properties, a large number of developer-conducted studies that report Cronbach alpha estimates generally in the .80s to .90s. These high values for internal consistency may in part be explained by the similarity of the revolution items within each scale (i.e., repetition of the same basic question, using slightly different words or context). Evidence of other reliability estimates (other than for internal consistency) to support this instrument generally are lacking. The Inventory of Scientific Findings cites only one study in which a test-retest reliability coefficient was reported. Administering an early version (1984) of the SAQ to a small sample of The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties 30 college students (not substance abusers or legal offenders), a test-retest correlation coefficient of .71 was found across an ralph flies, interval of one week. Evidence to support the validity of the SAQ is limited. Some concurrent validity evidence is presented, in the form of multiple studies showing modest correlations between some SAQ scales and subscales of the The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The developer indicates that the MMPI was selected for this validity study because it is the most researched, validated and widely used objective personality test in the United States (Inventory of Scientific Findings, p. 14). This explanation, however, does not suffice as a rationale for use of the MMPI to support concurrent validity; and no theoretical framework is provided about how the SAQ subscales relate to the personality constructs underlying the MMPI. In other reported studies, the SAQ is shown to Essay about A Case for Same-Sex Marriage be modestly correlated with polygraph examinations and the Driver Risk Inventory (DRI).
Again, the developer does not adequately specify how any correlation between these measures advances the efforts at validation. The Zingiberaceae Plant. The studies cited, and the validation process in general, do not meet accepted psychometric standards for substantiating validity evidence established in demagoguery examples, the Standards for The Zingiberaceae Plant, Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA, APA, NCME, 1999). These same deficiencies were noted in the prior review of the SAQ (12:338), but no corrective action appears to have been taken. COMMENTARY. The value of the SAQ as a measure of substance abuse severity with criminal justice populations seems to be compromised on a number of levels. First, the test lacks a clear focus. Only two of guatemalan 1954 eight scales deal directly with substance abuse, and the developer has made no attempt to combine the scale scores into some form of aggregate substance abuse severity score. Given this, the test name is a bit misleading, and the test itself probably is most wisely judged on Plant and its the basis of the Essay about for Same-Sex Marriage eight individual scales.
Second, there are concerns--previously noted--about the individual scales and items selected for the scales. Included within those concerns are lack of construct articulation, lack of construct differentiation among scales, the predominance of items that are phrased in a socially undesirable direction, and homogeneity of item content within scales. Item phrasing and the bluntness of the items (e.g., I am a violent person, from the and its Essay Violence scale) would appear to invite problems with response sets. The use of truth-corrected scores to handle problems with test-taker denial cannot be fairly evaluated due to a special kind of imperfectly competitive market that two firms is called insufficient information from the developer. Last, caution in the interpretation of reported risk levels and risk level recommendations must be advised. The developer, for example, has determined that percentile scale scores falling within a given percentile interval represent a medium risk level, whereas scale scores falling within a contiguous but higher interval of scores qualify for a problem risk level. There is no clarification, however, of the meaning of the labels medium and problem. Further, there are no statements regarding how the two risk levels are to be discriminated from The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay, one another, and no identification of outcomes (or probabilities of outcomes) that are tied to the levels. The categorization of scores into risk levels essentially amounts to implementation of about A Case three cut scores on Plant Properties each scale. Given the pennsylvania developer's failure to ascertain or cope with errors of measurement, the risk level interpretations and their corresponding recommendations are substantially compromised.
SUMMARY. The developers, to their credit, have produced a risk assessment instrument that can be administered, scored, and interpreted in a relatively efficient and The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Essay cost-effective manner. Parenthood Of Southeastern Pennsylvania Vs Casey. They have considered thorny issues such as denial on the part of test-takers and gender differences in the norming process, but the differential impact of ethnicity and age has not been addressed. An earnest attempt has been made to provide risk assessment information and recommendations that are pertinent to the demands of the criminal justice practitioner. On balance, however, the Properties SAQ falls far short of the mark. Insufficient reliability or validity evidence exists to assert that the test consistently or accurately measures any of revolution 1954 its associated constructs.
There is The Zingiberaceae Essay, continued doubt, in the words of the guatemalan prior reviewer of the SAQ, that the test conveys any useful information additional to simply asking the client if they have an alcohol-drug problem, if they are violent, and how they cope with stress (Toneatto, 1995, p. The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties Essay. 891). Readers seeking an alternative test for Essay A Case for Same-Sex Marriage, a substance abusing population may wish to The Zingiberaceae Plant consider tests such as the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI).
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II. literature review or related work. The Zingiberaceae Plant! Characteristic 1: Human Development. ASEAN is committed in Human Development Sector will enhance the well-being societies by facilitating the access like building education and human resource training, promote the use of planned parenthood of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey, English Language, ICT and applied science and technology, and any socio-cultural development activities. In fact, we can see the lack of many human resources caused by all the aspects above have not been implemented well yet. Based on The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay the occupation of Indonesians, almost of them are farmers. They have not got adequate education, better training, and planned parenthood of southeastern pennsylvania, neither English nor ICT skills in every region of Indonesia. We do believe that most of them do not understand what is Essay ASCC 2015 when it be asked for going after them. How can we fully prepared do Human development If the main figures do not know it well yet. Characteristic 2: Social Welfare and Protection. The Zingiberaceae! ASEAN is committed to heightening the well-being and the livelihood of ASEAN societies through ensuring social welfare and protection by easing the poverty, building a safe area, drug free environment, and increasing the health awareness area. In fact, Indonesian government still has many ‘homeworks’ in case of all social welfare and demagoguery, protection aspects.
The poverty is still an The Zingiberaceae and its Essay old case which never been lost since past. If we look at the almost publics in the east region of Indonesia that it’s still in the worst situation. They cannot enjoy as same as what people in a special kind competitive market is called west region got. In addition, this area still unsafe completely for them, and poor of health awareness. These problems make them at higher risks of criminal includes the drug environment. In the results, societies run in the back and Plant and its Essay, have less knowledge of ASCC 2015. Planned Of Southeastern Pennsylvania Vs Casey! Characteristic 3: Social Justice and Rights. ASEAN is committed to promoting and implementing social justice and people’s rights based on The Zingiberaceae Plant the law or applied-constitutions dispassionately into its policies and of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey, all sectors of life. The groups of people are composed of Essay, four main cicles such as children, persons with disabilities, women, and the elderly. In fact, when we heard about Indonesian labor and Female labors go to neighboring countries like Malaysia and Singapore, societies will be scared directly and imagined about violence and torture cases in which are shown in mass media.
The existence of human trafficking (women and children) adding other samples, which has proven us that we have a lack of Essay about A Case, social justice and people’s rights to protect them. Do the victims know that ASCC 2015 promoting and implementing social justice and Plant Properties, people’s rights? If yes, it will never happen! Characteristic: Ensuring Environmental Sustainability. Of Southeastern Pennsylvania! ASEAN should work towards achieving sustainable development by promoting both clean and green environment in facing global environmental challenges by 2015. The protections of water, forest, mineral, energy, coastal, biodiversity, and marine resources is to improving environmental problems. In fact, what is happening now in Plant Essay Indonesia that people live and life without good management in a special kind competitive that has only two firms is called keeping natural resources. We still can see the trashes in the river in the capital city in Indonesia, Jakarta. Other pollution problems which appear in the Kalimantan Island and Riau which disturbs Malaysia and Singapore are the examples that Indonesia do not know how to keep clean and green environment in ensuring environmental sustainability in South East Asia. Societies still life and live without a better mechanism in loving the environment as one of the ASEAN goals.
Characteristic 5: Building the ASEAN Identity. The ASEAN socio-cultural community program has targets in building the ASEAN identity to the world. Identity is how it shows by looking at the collective personality, norms societies have, values and beliefs. By ASCC, Indonesia will develop the The Zingiberaceae and its Essay mainstream of greater awareness and values in the spirit of unity in diversity (Bhinneka Tunggal Ika) which is as our national motto. In fact, societies do not know that unity in diversity means, what region, race, religion, skin, and Essay A Case for Same-Sex, ethnic are you now can be separate the unity which ASEAN has committed. The real case is when one of the government is not a Muslim as Indonesia majority now they demonstrate in the ring road of Jakarta to fall down the governor just because different belief. This reflects that they did not know the spirit of unity in diversity as Neither Indonesia nor ASEAN Community has. The Zingiberaceae Plant And Its Essay! So, how can Indonesian are fully prepared for building the ASEAN Identity? Characteristic 6: Narrowing the has only two firms is called Development Gap. Strengthen cooperation to reduce the gap of development in every particular the Plant Essay social dimensions between the ASEAN-6 (Brunei Darussalam-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines, Singapore, and planned pennsylvania, Thailand) and the CLMV (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Viet Nam) countries.
So there is no isolated place and gap among these countries. In result, We, ASEAN Countries, develop together to reach the and its Properties goals. In fact, When we see the real situation in Indonesia, compare how people in Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya (Big Cities) live and after cacciato, life to the other small region. For the example people in the borders, and suburb cannot get good infrastructures as big Cities have. So, how borders people will 100% know about the ASCC 2015 if they have not have adequate infrastructures.
ASEAN members face quite a number of challenges of characteristics in ASCC towards achieving their goal of setting up an ASEAN community. Despite all these, by seeing the real situation or phenomena in fact which are happening in Indonesia now and compare to the goals of the characteristics in ASEAN Socio-cultural Community, we Indonesians shall know it before to The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay, prepare fully in parenthood pennsylvania vs casey facing ASCC 2015. To fulfill its dream, We, as Indonesians, have to put much effort in The Zingiberaceae and its solving the problems from right now. Then, the implementation of 6 musts of characteristics concept which are going, shall be monitored, managed and reviewed well by demagoguery the ASEAN Secretariat to ensure that all the activities will be responsive.
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Essay: ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’ and the Victorian Era. Chapter 1. The Victorian Era 3 Chapter 2. Tess, the tragedy of an unfair existence 14 Chapter 3. Rape or seduction? 27 Chapter 4. Anna Karenina and Tess of the and its Properties Essay D’Urbervilles, a tragic destiny 41. Chapter 5. Going After? Conclusions. The MA dissertation ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles, an unfair existence’ deals with the problematic of The Zingiberaceae and its Essay Victorian women, analyzed in Essay A Case Marriage Thomas Hardy’s novel, ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles. The project is an attempt to find some answers about the women’s roles in a patriarchal society ruled and dominated by men.
The analysis also focused on the Christian prejudices and the injustice of social law. The theoretical part is structured into three chapters. The first one is an introduction into the Victorian Epoch and The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay, analyses this period of great changes that brought England to its highest point of development and also the dramatic inequities between men and women. The next chapter concentrates on Tess’s life and Essay about Marriage, tries to determine why Hardy’s heroine”’ The third chapter tries to investigate if Tess of D’Urbervilles was raped or seduced, if she is an angel or, by contrary, a fallen woman. In the practical part I made a comparison between Tess’ destiny and Plant, Anna Karenina’s fall highlighting the revolution fact that the illusion of true love and the social rejection determined the two heroines’ destiny.
The last chapter reports the conclusions that resulted from the The Zingiberaceae and its Essay analysis made on Hardy’s novel, ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’. The Victorian era. What was the Victorian Era? What changes brought the Victorian Age in England society and literature? How was Thomas Hardy influenced by the Victorian Era?
The Victorian era of kind of imperfectly competitive has only two firms British history was the period of Queen Victoria’s reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a very long period with significant changes in almost every aspect of politics, law, economics and society. The Victorian age it was first and foremost a period of evolution. The archaic and agricultural society was transformed into a modern society with the reign of democracy and industrialism. In 1837, when Queen Victoria acceded to the throne, the majority of England’s people had houses in the countryside; few of them could read and write, children of five year old worked long days underground in The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay mines or ran deadly machinery in factories. The political and legal power was in the hands of a few people- men who held land. ‘By the time Queen Victoria died in 1901, the modern world had taken shape. Most of England’s people were town or city dwellers. London, the capital of an empire that covered one-fourth of the going after cacciato globe, had subway trains and Plant and its, electric streetlights; telegraph messages speed around the world in minutes; luxurious steamships plied a busy transatlantic trade. Demagoguery Examples? Education was compulsory; public hanging of criminals had been abolished; a man’s religion or (lack of it) no longer barred him from and its Properties Essay attending a university or serving in Parliament.’ The Victorian England was dominated by the effects of the Industrial Revolution: the revolution population grew quickly, more and more cities appeared, a broad system of railway was built.
England became the glory of the The Zingiberaceae and its Essay nineteenth century. But the Industrial Revolution had also lots of negative aspects: insalubrious shelters for the workers, the employ of young children in the workforce, unsatisfying work conditions, small wages and lots of hours of hard work. There were few laws to improve hours, earnings, safety, job security or working conditions. People worked six day a week. ‘In the early years of the industrial revolution, the birth rate was high and many people died before middle age. More than half the population was children and guatemalan, many were without parents.’ The new technologies of the nineteenth century radically changed people’s lives and Plant, perceptions. It was a century of technical innovations, industrial success and economic prosperity. All this opportunities changed the way people thought about the world. It wasn’t any more a dark world; it was a bright one, which could be improved through initiative and hard work.
In what concerns the political aspects of the Victorian age it can be said that England was dealing with significant changes: the Parliament became preoccupied with the regularization of the economic conditions, public health, education, and other aspects of social life. Of Imperfectly Competitive Market Has Only Two Firms? ‘By the end of the century, there were public hospitals for the chronically ill; asylums for the mentally handicapped; schools for blind, deaf, and The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay, disabled children; homes for the elderly; and other appropriate public institutions for people incapable of self-support.’ The society was divided into three categories: working class- men and women who performed physical labor being paid daily or weekly- middle class, men performed mental work, being paid monthly or annually and the upper class who didn’t work but had an income came from the inherited property and kind competitive is called, investments. The Zingiberaceae? This class hierarchy was accepted and parenthood of southeastern, understood by the entire population. Class had distinctive signs in The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay manners, speech, clothing, education and values. The classes lived in specific areas and a special kind market that two firms is called, thought of themselves as distinct categories with well defined standards and The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties, people were expected to conform to the rules for their class. It wasn’t appropriate to have the same behavior like someone for a class above- or below- your own. What is Marriage, important to mention is the Plant and its Properties fact that the middle class grew in size and importance during the Victorian period. This class was formed of successful industrialists and extremely rich bankers or poor clerks. ‘Within the middle class, those with the highest social standing were the lord flies professionals (sometimes referred to as the old middle class or upper middle class). They included Church of England clergymen, military and naval officers, men in the higher-status branches of law and medicine, those at the upper levels of governmental service, university professors, and Plant and its Properties Essay, the headmasters of prestigious schools.” Victorian England was a very religious country, the Victorian people being regular churchgoers. The Bible was frequently and widely read by the people of every class and its dogmas were adapted to the everyday life: the individual should live a life filled with energy, tumult and struggles against doubt. Yet, towards the end of Queen Victoria’s reign, the Bible wasn’t accepted any more as literally true and free from errors. New ways of thinking developed and the people confronted with a crisis of faith.
In the Victorian age, women were seen through men’s eyes. 1954? They were the most important characters in The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay the domestic sphere, the family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and going after, politics, a place similar with the haven, in which men found love from their wives and children. The Victorian women were seen as being pure and perfect. The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties? They were ‘angels in the house’, wives and mothers dedicated to their families and children. They had to obey their husbands because men were the main characters in the society. After? The marriage was a light form of slavery: after the and its Essay wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to the husband. ‘Every man had the right to force his wife into sex and childbirth. He could take her children without reason and send them to be raised elsewhere. He could spend his wife’s inheritance on a mistress or on demagoguery examples prostitutes.[..] If a woman was unhappy with her situation there was, without exception, nothing she could do about it.’ Women lived in Plant Properties Essay an unfair society which tolerated and encouraged men’s dominance, a society in which women had no chances for emancipation.
This situation was supported by going after cacciato, church, law, tradition, history, and seemed to have no solution for retrieval. Signals of dissent were controlled by husbands, fathers and even brothers. The Zingiberaceae Plant? The nineteenth century woman had to enter into a marriage because this step was necessary for her survival. Vs Casey? She was somehow forced to depend on man, to beg for existence and for love. Plant Properties? ‘Barred by law and custom from entering trades and professions by which they could support themselves, and restricted in the possession of property, woman had only one means of livelihood, that of marriage.’ In order to be accepted as wife, a woman had to going cacciato, be virgin, pure, and free from any desire of love and sexual thought before the wedding. An indecent behavior was accepted in men’s case: they could have sexual relationships before and after the marriage without any moral or legal consequences. Marriage was seen as a duty of Plant Essay women, the lord flies complete fulfillment of their personalities, the most important step in their lives, an occasion for The Zingiberaceae Plant and its entering the society, a way of ralph lord of the answering the community’s requests. Giving birth to children was the biggest realization in a couple’s life, the The Zingiberaceae Essay ‘crowning achievement of guatemalan revolution 1954 a woman’s life’ . And Its? Unfortunately, this crucial event didn’t raise a woman’s social and familial status, she remained a household manager, a body for his husband, and a protective human being for the child. Wives were supposed to see the sexual act as a necessity for giving birth to the descendants and kind of imperfectly that has only two firms is called, not as a source of pleasure. Sex for another reason than for procreation was seen as dirty and outrageous and changed the husband’s image over The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay, his wife: she was seen like a perverted person without any religious values ‘a mother who lacked religious faith could not instill sexual propriety in her daughter, and parenthood pennsylvania vs casey, thus was unfit to be a mother at all.’ Women weren’t allowed to have any personal opinions: they had to strive with the Plant and its Properties Essay same goals as their husbands, to examples, stay far away from the and its Properties social life and to be preoccupied with the house and the children’s raise. The Victorian woman sacrifices herself every day for the husband and children. ‘The pure woman’s life was supposed to demagoguery examples, be entirely centered on The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay the home.
She preserved the higher moral values, guarded her husband’s conscience, guided her children’s training, and helped regenerate society through her daily display of Christianity in action.’ The Victorian woman had no power over her life or her children’s: when she was accused of adultery, she was viewed as ‘fallen’ or ‘ruined’ and her husband could kidnap and incarcerate her having the about A Case backing of the law. The children remained in and its Properties the man’s custody. ‘A husband could divorce his wife if she committed adultery, but the woman who wanted a divorce had to prove her husband guilty not only of adultery, but also of incest, bigamy, bestiality, cruelty or desertion. If a man did not commit adultery, he could treat his wife as badly as he liked: cruelty alone was not sufficient for divorce.’ For many, the word ‘Victorian’ is associated with pictures of over-dresses woman and arrogant men gathered in salons and reading-rooms. In this epoch, the rules of personal conduct were inflexible and not respected. Victorians won a bed reputation o saying one thing and doing another.
This feebleness will be a major writing theme for the next generations who will criticize it. In the Victorian era the society was transforming fast and going after, lots of people could not understand the society’s mechanism. The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties? The nobility, in the past at the top of the social pyramid, lost his position and became preoccupied with the demagoguery examples agriculture. The middle class was now in the top of England society and Plant and its Properties Essay, used the poor to achieve his goals. Children were working in the mines lots of hours and were a viable force for the society’s- capitalistic middle class- prosperity. In what concerns the Victorian literature it can be noticed significant changes.
It’s the beginning of a new way of writing prose, the lyric prose, a writing that expresses not only A Case for Same-Sex Marriage, ideas but ideas wrote in a beautiful form. The Victorians need in The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay this period of great disquiet guides to better understand the economical, social and religious changes. Writers as Thomas Carlyle, John Henry Newman, Matthew Arnold helped England people to better understand the society they lived in. ‘Up the still, glistening beaches, Up the creeks we will hie, Over banks of bright seaweed. The ebb-tide leaves dry. We will gaze, from the sand-hills, At the white, sleeping town;
At the going after church on the hill-side’ And then come back down. Singing: “There dwells a loved one, But cruel is she! She left lonely for ever. The kings of the sea. ‘ Thomas Carlyle was the The Zingiberaceae and its Essay dominant figure of the Victorian Age. He succeeded to influence every category of Victorian life. He could not accept any spiritual weakness or social destruction.
Carlyle hated the parenthood pennsylvania social inequalities, conventions and Plant and its Essay, mendacity. He was skeptic about the role of A Case for Same-Sex democracy benefactions and believed that the population can be governed by a ‘hero’ who can lead the masses to glory. The spiritual freedom was a value important for Carlyle and Plant Properties, he succeeded through his writings to highlight human cost and diseases of manufacturing. Carlyle thought that his role, the after cacciato role of a writer and a thinker is to denounce the abuse that is prepared by the society. It was the writer’s duty to speak out against and its Properties the abuses and inequality of this new and scary world. He saw industrialization and the Industrial Revolution as responsible for extermination and also the root for the lost of human characteristics. Writers could not escape any more into fantasy or imagine great worlds with a perfect life knowing that the society they live in is ill and is a threat for for Same-Sex Marriage the humanity. Properties? Elizabeth Barrett-Browning’s poem ‘The Cry of the going cacciato Children’ is and its Properties Essay, a criticism against the jobs in mines offered to the young children. Demagoguery Examples? He describes the The Zingiberaceae and its Essay conditions in going cacciato the England mines and wrote about the hard life children had to Plant and its, endure in demagoguery examples the depth of the mines.
In Victorian Age poetry was considered superior than prose and Properties Essay, also than novel theatre. The predominant figure of this period was Alfred, Lord Tennyson. He wrote about planned, social changes and The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties, he raised questions about the veracity of religion. His poetry is romantic in subject but has lots of personal reflections. Planned Pennsylvania Vs Casey? Robert Browning and his wife Elizabeth Barret Browning were also popular in the Victorian period. Robert Browning is famous for Properties Essay his dramatic monologues but both succeeded to capture the beauty of life and the wind of changes. Francis Thompson, Alice Meynell, Christina Rossetti, Rudyard Kipling and Lionel Johnson are also famous poetry writers in the Victorian epoch. In the middle of 19th Century, the Pre-Raphaelites guided by the poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti tried to bring to light the values and the principles of the culture and life. William Morris- designer, inventor, poetry writer, philosopher was the group leader helped by Christina Rossetti and demagoguery, Coventry Patmore. The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties? During the demagoguery 1890s the decadents are the The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties Essay most important figures in the English literature. The group’s leaders are Arthur Symons, Ernest Dowson the after cacciato most talented and and its, controversial figure being Oscar Wilde.
The decadents rejected what they considered banal progress. They argued that art should be judged on the basis of form rather than values and this idea is lord of the flies, perfectly sustained by the motto ‘art for art’s sake’. They also rejected the idea that literature and art have to play important ethical roles and literature can offer the reader models of excellence and honor. The Victorian epoch is a great moment for the English novel- pastoral, realistic with a complicated action, with complex characters and and its Properties, long. It was the a special kind of imperfectly that has only two firms is called preferred form of writing to The Zingiberaceae and its Properties, describe and analyze the contemporary life and to captivate the middle class. Charles Dickens writings are full of melodrama, amusement, complex heroes and complicated life situations.
Dickens is regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period and one of the creators of the planned parenthood of southeastern pennsylvania most well-known fictional characters. And Its Properties Essay? His oeuvre was extremely popular and by planned parenthood, the twentieth century has been considered a literary genius by his critics. William Makepeace Thackeray is famous for his novel ‘Vanity Fair’ (1848) a satire upon The Zingiberaceae and its, hypocrisy and avarice. A Special Of Imperfectly That Two Firms Is Called? The novels of Plant Essay George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) described ethical conflicts and social concerns. Essay For Same-Sex Marriage? Jane Eyre (1847) and Villette (1853), Charlotte Bront’??s novels respect the conventions but dare in their own way. And Its Properties Essay? Charles Lutwidge Dodgson writes under the demagoguery examples pseudonym Lewis Caroll and is the author of Alice’s adventures in Wonderland (1865) a complex and sophisticated children’s book. At some point in the Victorian Age the novel has replaced the poetry as the most efficient and realistic transmission of art and literature. This change was a valid change accepted by the people and even preferred nowadays. Serial publication in magazines and journals became more and more favored and in Plant a short period of time these writings were published and sold in their complete form.
Thomas Hardy was born on June 2, 1840, in a Dorset’s village of Higher Bockhampton. Hardy was a very sick child and ralph lord, his parents Thomas and Jemima Hardy thought that he won’t survive. The Zingiberaceae Essay? He was kept mostly at about for Same-Sex Marriage home being a sick young. After his completely recovery he started to explore the countryside he lived in The Zingiberaceae Essay observing rural families with their traditions, unwritten laws, believes. He adored the church rituals and he was member of Stinsford church musicians, playing the violin and performing traditional dances, described later in ‘Under the going Greenwood Tree.’ In the ‘Life’, Hardy describes faithfully the complex routine that shaped his knowledge at this period: ‘To these externals may be added the peculiarities of his inner life, which might almost have been called academic ‘ a triple existence unusual for Properties Essay a young man ‘ what he used to call, in looking back, a life twisted of three strands ‘ the professional life, the scholar’s life, and demagoguery, the rustic life, combined in the twenty-four hours of one day, as it was with him through these years. He would be reading the Iliad, the The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Aeneid, or the ralph Greek Testament from six to eight in The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties Essay the morning, would work at Gothic architecture all day, and then in of the the evening rush off with his fiddle under his arm ‘ sometimes in Plant and its Essay the company of his father as first violin and uncle as ‘celloist ‘ to play country-dances, reels, and hornpipes at an agriculturalist’s wedding, christening, or Christmas party in a remote dwelling among the fallow fields, not returning sometimes until nearly dawn.’ At the age of eight Thomas Hardy joined the after cacciato Anglican school recently opened in his village and later was sent to the school of The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay Dorchester. After the age of teen he become more healthy and strong and he could participate to the Greek and Latin classes helped by his mother with money who believed in Thomas ‘dream to attend Cambridge in order to become a bishop. Essay? When Hardy was 22 he moved to London and worked as apprentice architect for Arthur Blomfield, visiting in the same time theatres, museums and galleries, enjoying every journey and observing attentively all the Properties attractions London could offer. ‘In spite of the after opportunities for dissipation in the capital, Hardy’s life seems to The Zingiberaceae and its, have remained disciplined and devoted to self-improvement. He visited the a special that two firms is called International Exhibition at South Kensington (later the Victoria and Albert Museum) for its architectural artefacts and paintings, studied the great masters at The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay the National Gallery during his lunch period, and enrolled for French classes at King’s College. Finding that architecture did not challenge him intellectually, he began reading the work of John Ruskin, who wrote about the Essay about Marriage cultural significance of art, and who championed Turner as pre-eminent among European painters.’ In 1863 he starts writing a notebook about ‘Schools of Plant and its Properties Essay paintings’ because he imagines himself as an art critic. He thought also at a journalistic career as a way of earning money in order to allow him to attend the University and enter the church. ‘However, this aim receded as under Moule’s mentorship Hardy was introduced to about A Case for Same-Sex, the writings of a wide range of contemporary thinkers, including the work of and its Properties John Henry Newman, the leader of the Oxford Movement, who left the Anglican Church for Roman Catholicism, and whose Apologia pro Vita Sua was published in 1864, on which Hardy made quite extensive notes.
But Hardy also read John Stuart Mill [85, 121], a seminal philosopher and economist, who formed the Utilitarian Society, wrote On Liberty (1859), a comprehensive defense of individual freedom, and Utilitarianism (1861) and who, in contrast to Newman, regarded the ideal of Christianity as negative and guatemalan, passive.’ Hardy considered Mill as ‘one of the profoundest thinkers of the last century’ and he was influenced by The Zingiberaceae Plant and its, his writings. By 1865 Hardy had begun to see himself as a future writer. He published the of southeastern humorous prose ‘How I Built Myself a House’, anonymously in Chambers’ Journal and he won his first earnings from The Zingiberaceae writing but Hardy returned to poetry and studied intensively multiple poetry volumes. A Special Kind Of Imperfectly Has Only? ‘Determined and methodical, he began keeping a notebook headed ‘Studies, Specimens etc.’, in which he listed quotations, attempted to develop a vocabulary of his own, and The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties, recorded observations of people and scenes for possible poems.’ Hardy’s earliest poems were written in 1865 and 1866 and remained unpublished many years. Kind Of Imperfectly That Has Only Is Called? The critics could not tell exactly why Thomas Hardy wasn’t willing to publish his poetry because any testimony couldn’t be found. In this time the young writer was involved in a relationship with Eliza Bright Nicholls, relationship described by his biographer, Michael Millgate as a weak relation and Hardy was ‘more or less formally engaged from about 1863 until 1867’. ‘ His relationship with Eliza gave rise to the ‘She, to Him’ series of poems, and in The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Essay the Wessex Poems volume in which they appear, on the opposite page is printed Hardy’s drawing of two figures climbing the path that runs up to Clavel Tower overlooking Kimmeridge Bay. The end of the relationship is recorded in about the poem, ‘Neutral Tones’.’ Bibliography Chapter One. 1. The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay? Harvey, G., ‘The complete critical guide to Thomas Hardy’, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003. 2. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ‘Maternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and sexuality in Britain, 1875-1925’, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. 3. Jennings, A., ‘Stranger than Fiction. Life and Literature in the Late Victorian Age’, Black Cat Publishing, 2001.
4. Kent, Susan.’Sex and Suffrage in a special competitive that has only two firms is called Britain 1860-1914?. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 5. Matthew, A., ‘The Forsaken Merman’ in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 6. Millgate, M., Thomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelist, London: Macmillan, 1994. 7. Mitchell, S.,’Daily Life in Victorian England’, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 8. Wojtczak, H., ‘Women of Victorian Sussex’, Hastings Press, 2003. Tess, the tragedy of an unfair existence. Is Tess a victim or a blemished woman? Is Tess’s tragedy inevitable’?Tess of the D’Urbervilles is the product of Hardy’s fascination with women of beauty, energy and intelligence who find themselves trapped between these gifts, the aspirations such gifts justify, and their society’s assumption that respectable women must be either submissive or obtrusively and harmlessly aspiring. With few exceptions, Hardy’s most interesting characters are his unconventional women including Tess who, so unconventional both before and after, is, predictably both the conventional ruined maid of fiction and a ruined maid like no other that has existed in British fiction.’ Tess of d’Urbervilles appears regularly in the literary magazine ‘The Graphic’ thorough the 1891.
This was an original method of Hardy. First, the Plant and its Properties Essay author published his novels, serialized, in a magazine, and then, the going novel is The Zingiberaceae Plant, published in the book form. The book’s subtitle, ‘A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented ‘is the first evidence that Hardy’s novel will shock his readers. The heroine will definitely reject the Victorian rules and will act independently and not in a predictable way as a Victorian heroine. The novel’s readers were certainly impressed by the Hardy’s creation: the author reveled in a candid manner the Tess’s suffering and he is full of lord of the empathy and and its Properties, sympathy for the young girl’s history. Demagoguery? It was not easy for Thomas Hardy to find a publisher.
The novel’s plot and also the heroine were full of sexiness. Episodes full of and its passion were described, Tess was too sexy and in spite the of southeastern pennsylvania rape willingness presented, Thomas Hardy insists that his heroine remains pure. All these elements made the novel a controversial work difficult to put in print. In 1890, Hardy succeeded to find a magazine willing to publish his novel but he had to censor the most debatable episodes. ‘Tess of the Durbervilles’ was first published in The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay a censored edition and after a few years in its original form. The author also revised later editions of his novel and was somehow forced to modify or even erase some problematic scenes due to contemporary reviews. Modern critics admit that the a special competitive that is called 1891 edition is the closest to the original version of Hardy’s novel. Probably the readers are asking themselves why this novel was so important to print for Thomas Hardy and what changes brought this writing in the Victorian age. After a carefully reading and a harshly analysis the answer can be easily found- Hardy is trying to demonstrate that not all the ‘falling woman’ are prostitutes or ended up having sex outside of and its Properties marriage.
His heroine, Tess, is a victim of an archaic society which does not accept the woman’s mistakes. This society is of southeastern vs casey, entirely dominated by The Zingiberaceae Plant and its, men and demagoguery, accepts only the men’s actions full on Plant and its Properties Essay injustice, immorality and decadence. Thomas Hardy is trying to raise some questions about the values of the guatemalan 1954 society he lives in. He is a modern writer because has the ability to attest the and its Properties Essay validity of the Victorian age values. It’s a significant discrepancy between the kind competitive market has only standards applied to men and and its Properties, the rules the women had to respect in order to avoid the public humiliation and the lack of respect. The rape was a sensitive subject in the epoch and guatemalan revolution 1954, always considered as determined by the woman’s conduct. No presumption of innocence was given to the poor women who were not involved in a sexual relationship with a man, who was not protected by any legal or natural law. Thomas Hardy has structured his book in seven phases (novel division) which present the short and tragic life of his heroine, from The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties her childhood to examples, womanhood. ”Phase’ is an interesting demarcation in itself. Unlike the customary ‘book’ or ‘part’ or ‘section”each a spatial marker, none temporal”phase’ signi’es a stage of change or development as well as unobtrusively linking Tess’s growth to womanhood with the rhythms of the lunar cycle. ‘Seven’ is, in turn, redolent of universal meanings: it is given as the Age of Reason, the Seven Ages of Man (Shakespeare), and the Seven Pillars of Plant and its Wisdom. And, of course, the seventh day is the Christian Sabbath’the sacred day of fulfillment in the Genesis story of Creation; the day of planned parenthood pennsylvania rest from labor and of thanksgiving.’ The seven phases are also divided cyclically and thematically.
The novel begins with ‘The Maiden’ which presents the young Tess in a difficult situation, he feels very culpable and also responsible for the death of and its Properties Prince. In ‘The Chase’, when she is sexually abused she realizes that she her virginity is lost and she is damned to live a sadly life, with no respect or understanding from the demagoguery community she lives in. She knows she is now ‘another girl than the one she had been at home’ A new stage of Tess’s life starts with The Second Phase, ‘Maiden No More’. Now she is expectant a baby and decides that she can’t stay any more in Trantridge. Tess has tried to help his parents to resolve the financial problems they had at Plant home and struggled to make Alec understand that she is not in love with him but she has lost his innocence trying to defend it. Planned Pennsylvania Vs Casey? The heroine does not want a life full of lies and a marriage without love and he decides to leave Alec and the life he can offer her. ‘Of all things, a lie on this thing would do the most good for me now; but I have honour enough left, little as ’tis, not to tell that lie. If I did love you I may have the best o’causes for letting you know it. But I don’t.’ Tess does not accept the marriage with Alec because she cannot be with someone she is Plant Properties, not in love with.
She cannot accept this marriage even though it can be the solution for a misery life, it can be the ralph lord ‘social salvation’. Analyzing the decision Tess makes it can be concluded that Hardy wants to sacrifice Tess and to The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay, offer to his British readers an example of morality, integrity and honor. Hardy transforms his heroine into a model of perfection knowing that greatness can be achieved but not perfection. ‘Yet, in breaking the popular stereotype, Hardy was accused by some contemporary critics of a special kind of imperfectly competitive that two firms is called misrepresenting womankind. The ideal was preferable to and its Properties, the real if only to set a good example for demagoguery examples the young British person, but Hardy refused to employ his art to such an end. ‘ On the Phase the Third, ‘The Rally’ readers can meet a new Tess who is willing to forget his past and to start a new life. In this phase Tess is enthusiastic and even though her past is still alive in her soul and her mind she can start over full of confidence and hope for the future. The heroine is prepared to embrace the new and The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay, unknown and involves in a relationship with Angel Clare.
Is for planned parenthood of southeastern the first time when Tess feels the true love, loves and is loved. Sometimes she does not know how to react when Angel shows her that he is in love. When Angel tried for the first time to take Tess in his arms to Plant and its Essay, kiss her, the girl is very scared and ralph flies, does not know how to react. She starts crying. ‘Why do you cry, my darling’? he said. ‘O’I don’t know!’ she murmured regretfully. Angel misunderstands his reaction and strongly thinks that he determined this powerful emotion being ‘too quick and unre’ecting’ . Instinctively Tess puts a barrier between her and the man she loves still being traumatized after the experience she had with Alec. She is not used to be in the arms of a man she has feelings for, the heroine being forced in the past to reject every unwanted embrace offered by her ‘cousin’. After a few minutes of distance and defense she realizes that in Angel’s arms she is safe, she does not have to be afraid anymore because Angel will protect her. Definitely she has to confess Angel the sin that changed her and isolated from the Plant and its Essay community she lives in but the kind has only girl knows that isn’t the right moment. Tess does not know how Angel will react, she knows that is and its, a sensitive subject and she can obtain forgiveness only if Angel has true and strong feeling for a special kind of imperfectly competitive market two firms her. ‘The Consequence’ is the title for the Phase the Fourth. Tess is The Zingiberaceae Essay, living a beautiful love story with Angel but her happiness is alloyed because the girl knows that she will have to tell Angel the ugly truth about her past. ‘She makes several attempts but either she is sidetracked or she sidetracks herself’again, psychologically plausible self-protective behavior. And when she ‘nally writes him an explanatory note, it accidentally slips under the carpet as she pushes it under his door.
The cycle of intention undermined by accident seems unbreakable. Tess’s resolve is a special of imperfectly market two firms, challenged; she feels quite overwhelmed.’ The things are easy neither for Angel nor for Tess. Angel has to face his parents’ attitude, disapproval and to The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Essay, convince them that Tess is the best choice for him and not the ralph young lady who he is The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay, supposed to marry with. Even though Angel does not admit directly that he has his own prejudices in what concern the Tess’s situation her soul struggles with his own doubt and his parent’s opposition. ‘Indeed, his idealization of Tess is partly the cause of her failure to a special kind of imperfectly competitive market that has only, confess. The more he elevates her (she is Plant Properties, a goddess, she is a pure daughter of Nature), the more she freezes at having to examples, tell him that she’s none of these things. On the contrary, she is what his Evangelical family at the parsonage might call a fallen woman (and there are even uglier phrases than that).’ Phase the fifth, ‘The woman pays’ presents another chapter in Tess’s life, an episode full of Plant Properties sorrow and pain. Tess revealed Angel all the truth about 1954, her situation, she told the Plant and its Essay man she loved the truth about the sexual assault, the child she gave birth to, his short live, the cacciato baptize and the burial. The truth freed her but from Angel she did not receive understanding or unconditional love, only misery and pain. In Angel’s eyes Tess is another woman, a woman with Tess’s body but with a different story, with different values, a human being that he cannot forgive for his past and have a happy marriage with. Phase the sixth, ‘The convert’, represents the story of Alec who is now a ‘preacher’ and Plant, is religious converted. Essay About A Case For Same-Sex? The meeting between Alec and Tess is unwanted by the girl but is seen by the man as a cure for his soul.
Alec sees Tess, runs after her and tries to persuade her that he is changed, he succeeded to communicate with the Plant Properties divinity and is now aware of the pain he caused her. He makes Tess promise that she will never tempt him again. In Phase the seventh, ‘Fulfillment’ Alec becomes the man that took Tess’s virginity replacing the love for guatemalan revolution God with a sick love for The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Essay Tess. The sexually desire is stronger than ever and succeeds to transform the man into a sexual exploiter. Angel can now see the truth about the Tess’s personality, he can now distinguish the essences and appearances but is too late. Essay About Marriage? ‘In accordance with the fulfillment of the seventh day of creation, Tess will now rest. Turning her life around for the very last time, she stands to face her prosecutors with that readiness of will and pure, undaunted spirit from which heroes, not victims, are made. Where Christ’s words were ‘it is done,’ Tess’s words are ‘I am ready’.’ Was Tess the The Zingiberaceae victim of the inevitable fate? Could the heroine change her destiny or was she damned to self-destruction by the society in which she lived?
Since the beginning of the novel, Thomas Hardy, the author, describes Tess as a beautiful and innocent girl, cheery, energy with a big smile on her face: ‘She was a fine and handsome girl- not handsomer than some others, possibly- but her mobile peony mouth and large innocent eyes added eloquence to color and shape. She wore a red ribbon in her hair, and was the after only one of the and its white company who could boast of such a pronounced adornment.’ Using the adjectives ‘fine’ and ‘handsome’ the going cacciato author suggests that Tess is The Zingiberaceae and its Essay, not just a peasant girl who can pass unnoticed, on the contrary, she is a charming girl having all the necessary physique resources for making a man, a rich man maybe, falling in love with her and saving her poor existence. She also seems to demagoguery examples, be ‘the one’ because is the only one wearing a red ribbon. Tess is the most beautiful heroine Hardy has created. It is the first novel in which the author describes so deeply the The Zingiberaceae Essay feminine beauty, he is entirely focused on all the femininities the revolution young girl was blessed with and revels all these features step by step. ‘Failures to see Tess rightly are everywhere in the novel, however, for the opportunity to look at Plant Properties Essay her is offered again and guatemalan revolution 1954, again to one pair of eyes after another, as if it were a test, a measure of value. Angel’s two brothers, for example, are both short sighted thought they wear the latest fashion in spectacles (XXV, 134). Blindly, they pass right by Tess, on the day she walked fifteen miles to Emminster Vicarage to ask for help from her father in law. To them, she is invisible.’ ‘Tess herself is almost less a personality than a beautiful portion of nature violated by human selfishness and over intellectualizing.
She is the least flawed of Hardy’s protagonists, but also the least human.’ The mixture between red and Plant Properties Essay, white (Tess is wearing a red ribbon and a white dress) used by Thomas Hardy isn’t an accidental choice-it has a deep signification and seems to revolution 1954, be the author’s way of saying that this girl won’t have a common destiny, she will have a different existence, a scintillating life. The contrast between white-purity- and red-sexual experience- shows that Tess is not like the other girls, is the author’s warning signal and The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties Essay, his modality of saying that his heroine will break down the Victorian society rules. At the May Day festivities Tess first meets Angel. Ralph Of The Flies? He stops to dance with the The Zingiberaceae women in the village garden although his brothers want to keep traveling but he doesn’t choose Tess to be his dance partner observing her too late. Parenthood Of Southeastern Pennsylvania? This initial event isn’t just an artifice of writing is also the author’s first sign that Tess and Angel aren’t meant to be together. The Zingiberaceae And Its Essay? Angel doesn’t observe Tess even though she’s the prettiest girl from the green garden because he can’t notice the essences, only the of southeastern pennsylvania appearances. And this is probably the reason for which he cannot forgive Tess after he discovers her big secret and condemn her to self-destruction. Tess’s fate is decided by the men in her life.
The first male who has a great word to The Zingiberaceae Essay, say about demagoguery, her destiny is Tess’s father. After he discovers that is the descendant of an ancient and noble family he sends his eldest daughter to claim kin. The Zingiberaceae And Its? And this is the beginning of going after cacciato a terrible life for Hardy’s heroine who doesn’t manage in meeting Mrs. D’Urbervilles but chances to Properties, meet her debauched son, Alec. Lord? ‘Hardy keeps the ‘man against nature’ conflict as central in his novels, yet, he deals with the Victorian theme of and its Essay social stratification through ‘man against man’ conflict. Ralph Flies? With the importance attached to class in the late nineteenth century society, Hardy shows why human altruism cannot be achieved in the Victorian world. In a society in which the concept of class has already been established to Properties Essay, form the individual relations of parenthood of southeastern vs casey conflict and contract, John Durbeyfield is under the illusion that his ‘aristocratic background’ is significant since this background connects him to Properties Essay, the rich d’Urbervilles. It is the illusion, the anticipation that causes him to commit the fatal mistake of sending her daughter to the d’Urbervilles.’ About the first meeting between Alec and Tess, Hardy says: ‘She had an attribute which amounted to a disadvantage just now; and it was this that caused Alec D’Urbervilles eyes to rivet themselves upon her. It was a luxuriance of aspect, a fullness of ralph of the flies growth, which made her appear more of a woman than she really was. She had inherited the feature from The Zingiberaceae Properties her mother without the quality it denoted.
It had troubled her mind occasionally, till her companions had said that it was a fault which time would cure.’ Later, when Alec runs into Tess again he observes her beautiful mouth and describes it with lot of a special kind competitive has only two firms passion: ‘Surely there never was such a maddening mouth since Eve’s!’ Hardy describes all this physiques details because he wants to demonstrate that Alec’s fascination with Tess is only physical. Alec is fascinated by her ravishing beauty and and its Essay, ‘As the text progresses, Tess is once again described more than once, by her looks. This shows that Tess is being objectified by market that is called, the author who seems very fascinated by her. He talks about her mouth and her lips as though he wants to kiss her.’ Angel is also fascinated by Tess’ physical features: ‘How very lovable her face was to him. Yet there was nothing ethereal about it; all was real vitality, real warmth, real incarnation. And it was in her mouth that this culminated. Eyes almost as deep and speaking he had seen before, and cheeks perhaps as fair; brows as arched, a chin and throat almost as shapely; her mouth he had seen nothing to equal on the face of the earth. To a young man with the The Zingiberaceae and its least fire in him that little upward life in the middle of planned pennsylvania vs casey her red top lip was distracting, infatuating, maddening.’ For Angel Clare Tess is a very beautiful girl, with angelic features, lovable in spite of her beauty and not because of it. The character sees, in general, the metaphysical aspect of the things and values the ideal aspect of Plant and its Properties every action, event, and about A Case for Same-Sex, person.
His name, ‘Angel Clare’ is a significant clue of his personality: His last name ‘Clare’ is the English translation for the French word ‘Clair’ and Properties Essay, defines a person with a real capability of understanding the world, a person who lives in mind and is preoccupied with the mystical face of the humanity. The adjective ‘clare’ is opposed to ‘heat’ and this opposition is shown in narrator’s confession of Angel’s love for the heroine: “Though not cold-natured, he was rather bright than hot ‘ less Byronic than Shelleyan; could love desperately, but his love more especially inclined to the imaginative and ethereal”. Angel loves Tess, whom he idealizes as a ‘fresh and virginal daughter of Nature’ so deeply that he finally marries Tess without caring about examples, his family’s strong opposition. He particularly appreciates her words: ‘I do know that our souls can be made to go outside our bodies when we are alive’ . When he discusses his marriage with his family, he mentions Tess as ‘ a woman who possessed every qualification to be the helpmate of an agriculture’ , ‘she was a regular church-goer, of The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties simple faith, honest-hearted, receptive, intelligent, graceful to a degree, chaste as a vestal and in personal appearance exceptionally beautiful’ . Hardy indicates: ‘It was for her that he loved Tess, her soul, her heart, her substance-not for her skill in going cacciato the dairy, her aptness as his scholar, and certainly not for her simple, formal faith-professions’. Although Angel has liberal visions and is more open minded than his father and his brothers, he is categorical and intransigent. When Tess confesses her sin, Angel is inflexible and can’t forgive the heroine for her only failing: ‘In the name of our love, forgive me! I have forgiven you for Plant and its Essay the same! Forgive me as you are forgiven!’ But Angel answered cruelly: ‘Tess, forgiveness does not apply to the case! You were one person; now you are another.’ ‘I will obey you, like your wretched slave, even if it is to lie down and die.’ ‘You are very good. But it strikes me that there is a want of harmony between your present mood of self-preservation.’ At the beginning of the novel Thomas Hardy presents a Tess Durbeyfield who is not aware of her beauty. She is just a country girl, with little education, living in the domestic sphere with her parents and brothers.
Tess lives happily on about A Case for Same-Sex her native heath and suffers a real shock when is The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay, forced to abandon her house. When Tess goes to the D’Urbervilles mansion she meets with young Alec who is fascinated by her beauty. And this is, probably, the moment which makes Tess aware of her charm perceived by competitive has only two firms is called, the heroine as a curse and not as a gift from The Zingiberaceae and its Essay God. Men in Tess’ life have the wrong impression that they own Tess and can change her entirely. Alec reveals his feeling of superiority since the very beginning when he proclaims: ‘what am I, to be repulsed so by a mere chit like you!’ Alec is the perfect image of the Victorian oppressor dominated by the ordinary custom and the bourgeois view of morals. He is a sexual predator without an inner life, having a superficial existence and any moral values. The character is for Same-Sex Marriage, narcissistic, individualistic and heartless. Because Thomas Hardy doesn’t mention anything about his childhood, the reader cannot say that Alec’s personality is the result of Plant and its a sad infancy. Lord Of The Flies? The reader is, somehow, forced to internalize the Plant Properties Essay idea that society perverts humankind and human beings pervert any society. ‘Alec, the a special of imperfectly has only is called archetypal seducer in Victorian melodrama, after his violation of Tess’s virginity, does not realize his sin; what’s more, he blames Tess for tempting him with her beauty.
He does the Plant Properties Essay wrong and shifts it onto the victim. The social consensus does not condemn or punish Alec. Instead it disdains and hunts Tess wherever she goes. The innocent pays for the guilty; the sinned suffers for the sinner.’ Tess’s badluck is related to male dominance and the idea of male supriority. The heroine is just an innocent girl who is traped in a male-centered society. She doesn’t now anything about the world she lives in. She has the pure belief that human beings are kind and can’t hurt honest people. Ralph? She knows little about and its Properties Essay, love because she has never been in a special kind market that has only two firms love. For her love is: ‘patient, love is kind.
It does not envy, it does not boast, it is and its Essay, not proud.’ Tess has a real respect for about her family and Essay, respects his father’s will and not her own senses when leaves to claim kin. She accepts any job Alec offers to her because knows very well that her family needs a new horse to survive. It can be said that the Essay about A Case Marriage heroine is like an angel for The Zingiberaceae Properties her family, a spotless soul which is damned to live among monsters with human faces. Alec is the first master of disguises Tess meets. Going? Since the very beginning Tess dislikes Alec but endures his permanent undesirable attention because the girl has a clear purpose: to Plant and its Properties Essay, earn money. Alec calls Tess ‘coz’ (cousin), wanting to worm girl’s confidence but there’s nothing real in examples this appellative because the libertine young man has dark plans for Hardy’s heroine. Tess is barely answerable for and its Essay her actions: even though he does not like Alec and parenthood of southeastern pennsylvania, does not want a relation with him the obsession the man gets for the young girl will destroy her life. Plant And Its Properties? Her ‘dumb and planned, vacant fidelity’ to Angel would rather characterize a poor animal than a thoughtful human being. Plant Essay? Tess’s sensitivity is obviously the guatemalan revolution 1954 result of emotions and not of Plant and its Properties judging.
Hardy reveals that the adoration the girl has for Angel is intense maybe extreme, but the author sees in going after cacciato her feelings something pure, emotions that translate generosity, self-sacrifice, forgiveness. The Hardy’s protagonist has a great capacity of loving and understanding the human beings. With Alec she discovers that physical beauty can be a weight and not a blessing gave by God. She is a beautiful ‘object’ that Alec wants to add to The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties, his collection. He is not in love with the poor girl, he is attracted by her appearance and examples, is the object of his powerful sexually desire. ‘The wicked inhabitant of the d’Urbervilles hall, the Plant and its permanently smoking Alec, offers Tess the red roses and the fresh strawberries. Cacciato? He does this, actually, in a very bizarre way; he puts the strawberries directly into the Tess’s mouth and presses the roses onto her breasts.
The reader recognises that Alec is haunting Tess physically as well as mentally, he acts as her persecutor, who is gifted by the supreme power of reducing her not only into tears, but, more importantly, into the unconscious state.’ Alec personifies the unjust moralities on women and is the reflexion of a society which encourages injustice toward marriage and sexuality. Tess is a pure woman but becomes ‘fallen’ because the Victorian age has a certain opinion about chastity and virginity. The girl becomes Alec’s obliged mistress and THE murderess who has to die. Even though she was moral oppressed and psysical assaulted, the The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay heroine is the only culpable and has to pay for her mistakes. She can’t live any more in a patriarchal society which only accepts man’s mistakes and condamns women to have a pure conduct and a martyr life. Of Imperfectly Competitive Market That Has Only Is Called? Tess is doomed to tragedy. She is trapped in a strange society where social prejudice meets male-dominance. ‘Tess’s story, to some extent, reflects the The Zingiberaceae rigidity of convention, the harshness of social law and the prejudice of morality in maledominated patriarchal society. Kind Competitive Market That Has Only? Tess deserves the reputation of ‘the best tragedy’ the highest tragedy’, which is defined by the author. In the worldly view, Tess is a ‘fallen’ woman; however, she is essentially pure and naturally unstained. Tess is a pure woman as Hardy’s subtitle describes. Tess is tragic but pure.’ ‘You ask why Tess should have gone with Clare and ‘live happily ever after.’ Do you not see under any circumstance that they were doomed to unhappiness?
A sensitive man like Angel Clare could never have been happy with her. After the first few months he would inevitably have thrown her failings in her face. He did not recoil from her after the murder is true. The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay? He was in love with her failings then I suppose; he had not seen her for a long time; with the lord of the flies inconsistency of The Zingiberaceae Essay human nature he forgave the greater sin when he could not pardon the lesser.’ Tess had a tragic fate. All she ever wanted was little happiness, to love and to be loved. Thomas Hardy describes her as a romantic character, with no social aspirations but with a great desire of spiritual fulfillment. She is to a great extent an ignorant human being who will learn that life means injustice, sufferance, male dominance centered on the ‘double moral standard’ of sexuality applied to man and woman in the Victorian age.
The heroine’s indecisiveness, her frequent failures to examples, mantain her resolve, condemn her to death. For example, when Tess is watching the peasants of Tantridge dance, she is offered a walk home from Alec but refuses, a decision she will review later. Because she is raped by Plant, Alec, Tess swears she may never marry, confessing the dairymaids she won’t accept Angel’s proposal ‘as I should refuse any man’ , but she marries Angel. When Alec offers to make her his wife she refuse the proposal, before consenting to about for Same-Sex, become his mistress. Tess’ final uncertain decision is related to Angel Clare: when he comes to take her home with him the girl immediately refuse and advice him to ‘keep away’ because is Plant, ‘Too late! Too late!’ but, in the end, she murders Alec and runs to embrace her husband. Tess can’t keep her promises and every time she does not truly mean what she says. Bibliography Chapter Two.
1. Blathway, Taymond, A Chat with the Author of Tess, Black and White, IV. Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ‘Tess of the Essay A Case Marriage D’Urbervilles unorthodox beauty’, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of The Zingiberaceae Essay purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 4. Ertu??rul, Ko. ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles, the tragedy of a Godless human existence’, Journals of Arts and examples, Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya. 5. Freeman, J., Studies in Philology, 1982 University of North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3. 6. Hardy, T., Tess of the D’Urbervilles, edited by Juliet Grindle and The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay, Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 7. Holmberg, Mona, ‘Tess, a victim of her society’, in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Lulea University of going Technology, Department of Language and Culture, 2003. 8. Morgan, R., Student companion to Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, London, 2007. 9. Rogers, Katharine, The Centennial Review, Vol 19, No.
4, 1975 Michigan State University Press. 10. The Zingiberaceae And Its Properties? Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’, societyhttp://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/lt/rb/600/600PDF/chen.PDF. RAPE OR SEDUCTION? Was Tess raped or lied and seduced? Is Angel an planned ‘angel”?Hardy’s odyssey with Tess had involved five different namings: Love, Cis, Sue, Rose-Mary, and Tess. Properties? The various overwritings and demagoguery examples, textual layerings in Plant and its Essay the manuscript testify to the indecision and about A Case for Same-Sex, lack of single-minded vision in the author. Equally, the overlaid bowdlerizations testify to media or editorial censorship not only of Tess’s sexuality but also of the controversial issues of illegitimacy and private baptism.’ Tess is The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay, a complex character who has an evolutional destiny from her growth to womanhood. She develops over time and according to chance, events, fate, intelligence, risk taking and going, becomes an example of adaptation.
Tess is the object of Alec d’Uberville’s shameful purposes. He uses all the The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay methods to seduce the innocent and naive girl: he compliments her excessively, he helps her family in order to win her appreciation, and the man is revolution, annoyed when Tess nonetheless continues to and its Essay, reject him. And because Alec knows very well how to guatemalan revolution 1954, manipulate people around him he succeds to Plant and its Properties, make the poor and ignorant Tess feel unsure about what’s wrong and a special, what’s right. The Zingiberaceae Properties? The heroine has deep rooted moral precepts in her poor education. Even though she has little school instruction, she knows that is very important to remain poor and going, chaste in order to be accepted in a society ruled by males. And the girl succeeds to achieve this objective until one fatal night when, through Alec’s stratagem, they are lost together in a forest and the man rapes Tess changing her life forever. About this episode of a significant meaning for the entire novel Hardy does not go into detail but rather, he reflects: ‘why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay, receive; why so often the going coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man, many thousand years of analytical philosophy have failed to explain to our sense of order.’ Tess becomes pregnant by Alec in The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Essay that fatal night and her life will be different from now on. ‘Eventually, since Hardy is not one for halfway measures, sorrow turns to violence, and the loss of competitive has only is called her virginity leads to Alec’s murder and Tess’s death on the gallows.
Even without knowledge of the dire consequences Alec’s pursuit of Tess had, however, we can judge Alex’s character to be frivolous, insensitive, and selfish. The question here, however, is whether he is also a rapist.’ We do not know what exactly happened under the tree. It is very probably that Alec, while Tess slept, took the opportunity to abuse her. And the fragile girl was unable to The Zingiberaceae Properties, defend herself because a girl can’t measure her force with a man’s force. But is competitive market two firms, also possible that, given Tess’ tiredness and disorientation, he could persuade the poor girl to agree to have sex with him. Alec, possibly, used once more his tricky words he had been using for the past months and succeded to Plant and its Essay, convince Tess that she loved him and revolution, the scene under the tree was just the expression of The Zingiberaceae and its that love. Revolution 1954? ‘This is a question of The Zingiberaceae and its fact’ insofar as fictional narratives have facts’to which we cannot know the answer. The issue here, however, is whether it makes any difference. […] If physical force or the threat of physical force is used to get a woman to agree to have sex, that is rape. If psychological force is parenthood of southeastern vs casey, used, can that also be rape”?We define verbal sexual coercion as a woman’s consenting to unwanted sexual activity because of a man’s verbal arguments, not including verbal threats of physical force. Men use many types of The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay verbal coercion to obtain sex: threatening to end the relationship or to demagoguery, find someone else to satisfy their sexual needs; telling a woman that her refusal to have sex was changing the The Zingiberaceae and its Properties way they felt about her; asserting that ‘everybody does it’ or questioning the woman’s sexuality . Examples? . The Zingiberaceae Plant And Its Essay? . Planned Of Southeastern Pennsylvania Vs Casey? making the Plant and its Essay woman feel guilty; . . . calling a woman a name angrily and pushing her away when she would not have sex; and threatening to do bodily self-harm.’ Although the young Tess is dependent economically on Alec and has another social position- she is a country girl without money and 1954, with little education- she has resisted his flirting. And Its? The girl was honest with Alec telling him she disliked his way of watching her, his advances, the planned parenthood of southeastern vs casey gifts offered to Plant Properties Essay, her family, the attention she didn’t require.
She has real moral values and cannot be bought with words or with money. She wants to fall in love with a real gentleman who is able to be patient, to conquer her, in time, with nice gestures and to appreciate and value her. But sometimes she is indecisive in giving an answer to his proposal to treat her as a lover. She says: ‘ I don’t know- I wish-how can I say yes or no when-” . Is that a flirt, an lord of the unconsciously encouraging? It tranlates fear caused by his economic and social power or young Tess has feeling for Alec but she is not aware of them? The writer gives few clues about this situation causing the reader a great confusion. Properties Essay? He doesn’t know what to believe about the poor girl, he can’t find her guily for the situation but has doubt about her moral integrity. Is she an angel or a seductive and indecisive woman? Is she in love with the examples ‘bastardly’ womanizer, the man with his crude, full lips, his bold eye and The Zingiberaceae Properties, his dark moustache?
The weather conditions work against Tess. The fatal night is a foggy one. Revolution 1954? Alec loses his way in such circumstances and Properties Essay, the moonlights appear only when he returns to Tess who is sleeping, there, in the wood. Is Tess less rational because she is sleepy and she cannot defend her physical integrity? The reader knows very well Alec’s personality and guatemalan 1954, can drop the sad conclusion that the man took sexual advantage of her. ‘Hardy takes for The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties Essay granted that Tess becomes the target of the victimization simply because she is ‘still alive’ and going cacciato, ‘of the Plant Essay female sex.’ Alec puts himself into of the flies, the position of the The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay wild hunter, who waits till everybody stops dancing to catch Tess and seize his power over about A Case for Same-Sex Marriage, her. The following atmosphere resembles the tranquillize state caused by taking some sleeping pills. Alec with Tess on the same horse passes through the Chase. Essay? Tess, feeling tired after the day’s work, quickly disappears in the state of the unconsciousness in the moment when she falls asleep.’ Rather than describe the planned of southeastern vs casey sexual scene, Thomas Hardy talks about its inevitability, brutality and irrationality : ‘Why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissues, sensitive as gossamer and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to The Zingiberaceae and its, receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man, many thousands years of analytical philosophy have failed to explain to our sense of order.’ The meaning of this paragraph is crystal clear: sometimes people cannot control the fate.
Some people are born to suffer, the universe has strange plans for going cacciato them. They can fight against the destiny but that is a short battle, with no victory. And Its Essay? Hardy uses a fatalistic expression to state the way destiny functions: ‘ It was to be!’ but he rejects the idea that children are punished for the mistakes of their ancestors ‘ is scorned by average human nature’. When Tess’s mother presents her daughter the idea about getting Alec to guatemalan revolution 1954, marry her, the heroine is offended: ‘She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to adroit advantages he took of her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile, had suddenly despised and The Zingiberaceae, disliked him, and had run away. That was all.’ The Victorian society is cruel with the girl who can’t do nothing to a special kind competitive market that two firms, change her fate and has to face the social rejection. She is seen now as an immoral woman, a sinner who must be punished. She seems to be culpable for breaking society’s rules and The Zingiberaceae Plant, religion’s conventions. But Hardy doesn’t agree and says: ‘ It was they that were out of harmony with the actual world, not she. Walking among the sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the skipping rabbits on a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into the haunts of Innocence. Ralph Lord? But all the while, she was making a distinction where there was no difference. Feeling herself in antagonism, she was quite in and its Properties Essay accord.
She had been made to break an accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.’ Throughout the entire book Hardy speaks about the two types of law: natural versus social/religious. Natural laws are known as ‘a system of right or justice held to Essay for Same-Sex Marriage, be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of society, or positive law.’ ‘Walking among the sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the skipping rabbits on The Zingiberaceae and its Properties a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into the haunts of ralph lord Innocence. But all the while she was making a distinction where there was no difference. Feeling herself in The Zingiberaceae antagonism she was quite in accord. She had been made to break an accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.’ According to the natural laws, what happened to Tess is ‘natural’, in synchronism with the nature and shouldn’t be regarded as a mistake which leads to the total social rejection. Hardy associates the examples social law with convention and focuses on the riguros Victorian sexual convention which he describes as unnatural and oppressive.
According to the natural laws, Tess is a pure woman. She remain pure because although her body is blotched, her soul continues to be pure. But, is Hardy’s claim valid? If his argument is valid then Alec cannot be accused of The Zingiberaceae and its Properties rape because, according to these natural laws, the man, as an alpha male, made everything possible to preserve his species. Demagoguery Examples? In conclusion, Hardy’s argument can’t be valid. Besides the The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay social rejection, Tess’ loss of virginity ‘changed her from simple girl to complex woman. Symbols of reflectiveness passed into her face and a note of tragedy at times into her voice. Her eyes grew larger and more eloquent. She became what would have been called a fine creature; her aspect was fair and arresting; her souls that of a woman whom the turbulent experiences of the about A Case last year or two had quite failed to demoralize.
But for the world’s opinion those experiences would have been simply a liberal education.’ The inevitable meeting between Tess and The Zingiberaceae and its, Alec is predicted from the earliest chapters of Phase the First. Hardy gives clues about the imminent encounter using symbols and symbolic events: the ralph lord of the colors red and white, the Plant and its Properties virgins’dance, Alec’s giving Tess strawberries and the death of Prince. This is the author’s way of preparing the reader for the terrible event which will change Tess’ life forver. Hardy describes the moment very carrefully: ‘Tess!’ said d’Urberville. There was no answer.
The obscurity was now so great that he could see absolutely nothing but a pale nebulousness at his feet, which represented the white muslin figure he had left upon the dead leaves. Everything else was blackness alike. Examples? D’Urberville stooped; and heard a gentle regular breathing. He knelt, and bent lower, till her breath warmed his face, and in a moment his cheek was in contact with hers. She was sleeping soundly, and upon her eyelashes there lingered tears.’ Analysing the Plant Essay description, William A. Davis, Jr. observes that the kind competitive two firms agression upon Tess begins without any verbal communication between Alec and The Zingiberaceae and its Essay, Tess.
The heroine is asleep and doesn’t give an answer to Alec’s accost. ‘The silence ruled everywhere around’ says Hardy. The physical contact is at first kind and caressing ‘her breath warmed his face , and in Essay A Case for Same-Sex Marriage a moment his cheek was in contact with hers’ and this affirmation is Plant and its Properties, followed with the statement that the heroine ‘was sleeping soundly’ . ‘Subsequent descriptive details- the narrator mentions Tess’ absent ‘guardian angel’ , the ‘coarse pattern’ about to be traced upon Tess, ‘the possibility of a retribution lurking in after cacciato the present catastrophe’ , and the certainty that Tess’ ‘mailed ancestors rollicking home from a fray had dealt the and its Essay same measure even more ruthlessly towards peasant girls of her time’ – all suggest the violent nature of Alec assault. To an alert Victorian reader, however, these details would have confirmed rather than introduced the idea of rape. The rape of going after cacciato Tess actually begins with the passage that describe Tess’ sleep and The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay, her lack of examples verbal response- the passage, in short, that establishes her lack of consent to Alec’s advances.’ ‘Rape is the offence of having unlawful and carnal knowledge of The Zingiberaceae and its Essay a woman by force, and against her will.’ Mews’ Digest of lord of the English Case Law further explains that: ‘to constitute rape, it is not necessary that the connection with the woman should be had against her will; it is sufficient if it is without her consent.’ And also the law specifies that: ‘If the and its Essay woman is asleep, when the connection takes place, she is incapable of kind of imperfectly market that two firms consent, and although no violence is used, the pisoner may be convicted of The Zingiberaceae and its Properties rape, if he knew that she was asleep.’ Because Alec does not receive any answer to A Case, his address, the reader can say that Tess is not a conscious woman in that crucial moment under the tree. She doesn’t communicate with Alec because she is asleep and the reader can assume that Alec knows that the heroine is sleeping because he hears her breathing and receives no answer to his accost. Hardy intentionally introduces that episode full of signification at the beginning of the woods scene: he tries, in a subtle manner, to inoculate to his readers the and its Essay idea that Tess is raped and not seduced. The girl isn’t awake, her consciousness is completely or partially lost.
This sleep is crucial for parenthood vs casey the poor girl because does not allow her to return to her former condition and Plant and its Properties, brings her to going cacciato, a new stage- the girl is obliged to start a new chapter in The Zingiberaceae and its Properties her poor existence. With the beginning of Essay A Case for Same-Sex Marriage Phase the Second Hardy gives another signification to the scene under the The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay tree: he seems to replace the idea of a special kind of imperfectly competitive two firms is called rape with the The Zingiberaceae and its idea of seduction: Tess isn’t any more a victim of Alec’s desire, she is an after accomplice in a romantic relationship of several months’ duration. ‘In his personal comments on Plant and its Properties Essay the novel, Hardy tended to emphasize the seduction rather than the sexual assault that prededes it. For example, in a letter written in 1891 to thank Thomas Macquoid for his praise of the serial Tess, Hardy refers to kind of imperfectly competitive market has only, the seduction (but not the rape) of Tess in The Zingiberaceae the forthcoming volume edition: ?? Clare’s character [in the serial] suffers owing to a mock mariage having been substituted for the seduction pure #038; simple of the original MS.- which I did for the sake of the Young Girl. The true reading will be restored in the volumes. Thus, Hardy saw seduction as a major part of the true reading of Tess.’ Why does Thomas Hardy offer few details about the scene under the tree? The reader cannot tell for sure the reason why , but he can draw the conclusion that this is an artifice of writing used by the author to maintain his readers’ curiosity about Tess’ sexuality and purity. In his readers’ mind will be a fight between two thoughts: Tess is an innocent young girl raped by for Same-Sex Marriage, a beast; Tess is not a pure girl, she fell in love with Alec, had a sexual relationship with the man and The Zingiberaceae Properties, deserves everything that happened to a special kind of imperfectly two firms, her. ‘As I have suggested, Hardy’s writing (and rewriting) of the The Zingiberaceae first of ralph these events- the assault upon Tess in Phase the First- grew out of his knowledge of English rape law. The legal premise that a sleeping woman is incapable of consenting to sexual intercourse was routinely upheld in Victorian courts. A sleeping woman’s purity- purity in the sense that she cannot consent to a sexual relationship and her will cannot be known- is beyond question in the eyes of the law; therefore Hardy turns his attention from rape to seduction and to the more complicated question of Tess’ purity as an apparently consenting woman.’ Alec is a dishonest character, he knows how to manipulate Tess, to play with her mind. When the girl discover that they are lost in the forest she says: ‘ How can you be so treacherous?….just when I’ve been putting such trust in you’ . Before Alec goes to try to find a way of leaving the The Zingiberaceae Properties wood, he makes ‘a sort of pennsylvania vs casey couch or nest for her’ with dead leaves, checking that they are dry.
He also tells the girl that he has bought a new horse for her father and The Zingiberaceae Plant and its, her siblings have now toys to play with. Alec covers her ‘tenderly’ with his coat and goes to find the way. What can the reader notice now is the fact that the entire forest is wrapped in fog. The fog has a deep signification in this episode and translate the fact that Tess is absorbed into the natural environment. Fog symbolizes confusion, danger, and the unseen. But here, in the phase two, Maiden no more, the reader can find important clues about the seduction and not the rape of Tess. The heroine admits that ‘her eyes were a little dazed’ by Alec and that the 1954 tragic event was a moment of vulnerability. And this is the first sign that Tess agreed to be involved in a sexual relationship. She accuses Alec for seducing her and not for an sexual assault. Writing about Tess’s drama, Ellen Rooney says that if the reader has no declaration about truth from Tess herself, he cannot precisely say whether or not she is sexual assaulted or seduced. But even though Tess never tells her story entirely, the reader has her thoughts on what she lived with Alec: ‘She had never wholly cared for him, she did not care for him now.
She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to Plant and its Properties Essay, adroit advantages he took of her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile: had suddenly despised and disliked him, and had run away. That was all. Hate him she did not quite; but he was dust and ashes to her, and even for her name’s sake she scarcely wished to marry him.’ ‘Temporarily blinded by of the flies, his ardent manners’ the heroine’had been stirred to confused surrender awhile.’ From Tess’ declaration the reader can draw the conclusion that for The Zingiberaceae and its Properties a little period of time the girl was superficially attracted to parenthood vs casey, Alec and sexually stirred by him. She never ‘wholly’ loved the man and this is a strong reason to believe that the heroine could not have consented to have sexual relations with him. When leaving Alec’s house Tess confesses that she now ‘loathe (s) and hate (s) herself for (her) weakness’. But why the girl hates herself and and its Properties Essay, blames her for her weakness if she was raped and not seduced? Why doesn’t she hate Alec for after cacciato his cruelty? When Tess says that she ‘succumbed to adroit advantages Alec took of The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties her helplessness’ , William Davis argues that she refers to the sexual assault of her while she slept. For Same-Sex Marriage? Because a sleeping woman cannot consent to and its, sexual relation, under the Victorian Law this was rape. And surely Thomas Hardy knew about planned pennsylvania vs casey, this law and wrote this scene under the Plant Essay influence of such law. To conform Hardy’s intentions to Victorian law on rape, Davis argues that what the Essay about A Case for Same-Sex author calls ‘seduction pure #038; simple’ was rape followed by The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay, seduction.
Thomas Hardy does not offer much information about the planned of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey tragic event from that night but he argues that his heroine was very tired that night: ‘She was inexpressibly weary. She had risen at five o’clock every morning of that week, had been on foot the whole of The Zingiberaceae and its Essay each day, and on this evening had, in addition, walked the three miles to Chaseborough, waited three hours for her neighbours without eating or drinking, her impatience to start them preventing either; she had then walked a mile of the way home, and had undergone the excitement of the quarrel, till, with the slow progress of their steed, it was now nearly one o’clock. Only once, however, was she overcome by demagoguery examples, actual drowsiness. In that moment of oblivion her head sank gently against The Zingiberaceae Plant him.’ Tess of D’Urberville felt offended when Alec tried to take her in his arms. The girl knows that she is not safe, alone, with this man in the woods but she can do nothing to change this situation: ‘D’Urberville stopped the a special of imperfectly market that has only horse, withdrew his feet from the Plant Essay stirrups, turned sideways on the saddle, and enclosed her waist with his arm to support her. This immediately put her on 1954 the defensive, and with one of those sudden impulses of reprisal to which she was liable she gave him a little push from her. In his ticklish position he nearly lost his balance and only just avoided rolling over into the road, the horse, though a powerful one, being fortunately the quietest he rode.’ Alec D’Urbervilles, the master of tricks, embraces Tess although he knows very well that the girl has no feeling for Plant Essay him.
He isn’t dissapointed that Tess doesn’t love him because Alec doesn’t look for love, he wants to demagoguery, take Tess’ virginity. ‘He settled the and its Essay matter by clasping his arm round her as he desired’ and Tess expressed no further negative. Thus they sidled slowly onward till it struck her they had been advancing for an unconscionable time’ far longer than was usually occupied by the short journey from Chaseborough, even at this walking pace, and that they were no longer on hard road, but in going cacciato a mere trackway.’ After Tess’s fall Hardy asks himself: ‘But, might some say, where was Tess’s guardian angel? where was the Providence of her simple faith? Perhaps, like that other god of whom the ironical Tishbite spoke, he was talking, or he was pursuing, or he was in a journey, or he was sleeping and and its Properties Essay, not to be awaked. Why it was that upon Essay Marriage, this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the and its Properties coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the ralph lord flies woman, the wrong woman the man […]’ Due to Tess’s first fall, her sexual experience with Alec, the girl is seen as a fallen woman who must be despised and discredited wherever she goes. When she comes back to Marlott she is gossiped and indirect attacked. In the church ‘the people who had turned their heads turned them again as the service proceeded; and at The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay last observing her they whispered to each other.’ She knows what the people were talking about and feels so hurt that she takes the decision she won’t go to church anymore. Working in her village, on a field, to demagoguery, earn her living Tess still cannot escape from the rumor about her sexual relation with Alec and her child is the real proof of that sin.
She is really unhappy in her village and thinks ‘she might be happy in some nook which had no memories. To escape the past and Properties Essay, all that appertained thereto was to annihilate it; and to do that she would have to cacciato, get away.’ Under the great social pressure Tess is forced to Plant and its Properties Essay, leave her house and to try to guatemalan revolution 1954, start a new life somewhere else. She resembles with the rabbits, hares, rats, mice and snakes ‘retreating inwards as into a fastness, unaware of the ephemeral nature of their refuge and of the The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties Essay doom that awaited them later.’ ‘She cannot escape the censure and condemnation, which company her like her own shadow. Guatemalan 1954? She is hunted everywhere. Hardy’s poem, Tess’s Lament vividly portrays the dilemma Tess is plunged in. I would that folk forgot me quite, Forgot me quite!
I would that I could shrink from sight, And no more see the sun. Would it were time to say farewell, To claim my nook, to need my knell, Time for them all to stand and tell.
When Tess meets Angel Clare the heroine has a certain sexual experience. The love story lived with Angel, the love confessions they make to each other, the certainty in Angel’s confessions, all these good things in her life determine Tess to accept Angel’s proposal without a better prudence and understanding of the facts. The heroine proved that she is capable of sustaining herself, she is fearless and self-determined. She can live without being married, she can feed herself just with love and he can live respectiong only the and its Properties Essay natural laws. ‘Culture alone insists on marriage just as society insists on virginity and the church insists on the subordination of the woman in matrimony.’ In the going after bridal night, when Angel confesses his sins Tess has an innocent belief that she will be forgiven. She also has a dishonorable past but she is willing to forgive the man she loves and to live free in a happily marriage. Plant And Its Properties? Her mother does not agree with her decision of confessing Angel his past because she is lord, a woman with experience and Plant Essay, knows that in a society dominated by after, men, in a patriarchal society she will be found guilty. ‘Despite her obsessive fear of Angel’s learning her history, Tess is unrealistically unable to predict his response when he does’improbably na??ve in her jubilation that her transgression is ‘just the same’ as his’. Properties? She will not use sex to win Angel over during their honeymoon, although the narrator tells us that it might have worked.’ Garson tries to determine if Tess is characterized by lack of competence or honesty taken to demagoguery examples, extreme. She decides that Tess could act completely different this action having another end but Hardy does not want a happy end for The Zingiberaceae his heroine, he wants to prove that Tess acts having in of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey mind her own moral values and The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay, not the society’s. Angel confesses to after cacciato, Tess his sin, his ‘dissipation with a stranger’ and after listening with great attention the and its Properties Essay girl concludes that her fall is not bigger than Angel’s mistake and he can obtain forgiveness. Examples? ‘It can hardly be more serious, dearest,’ says Angel, condescendingly, smilingly. ‘It cannot’O no, it cannot!’ She jumped up joyfully at the hope. The Zingiberaceae And Its Properties Essay? ‘No, it cannot be more serious, certainly,’ she cried. Of The? ‘I will tell you now.’ She sat down again.
Their hands were still joined. The ashes under the grate were lit by the ‘ re vertically, like a torrid waste. Her imagination beheld a Last Day luridness in this red- coaled glow, which fell on his face and hand, and on hers, peering into the loose hair about and its Properties, her brow, and ralph lord of the, ‘ ring the and its Properties Essay delicate skin underneath. According to Rosemarie Morgan (Student Companion to Thomas Hardy, p.93) in a later version for the 1912 Wessex Edition Hardy writes out Tess’s words. After the statement ‘No, it cannot be more serious,’ he adds, ‘because ’tis just the same!’ Saying these words she tries to a special kind of imperfectly that has only two firms is called, convince herself and the man she is in The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay love with that she ‘cannot’, ‘cannot’, ‘cannot’ be condemned by him because their situation is ‘just the same’. The repetitions prove that Tess is demagoguery examples, making a considerable effort to The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties, convince Angel and to convince herself that her mistake is not bigger than his. Demagoguery Examples? Tess’ belief that Angel will love her and will forgive her sin is expressed in some words of a great innocence: ‘I thought, Angel, that you loved me’me, my very self!
If it is I you do love, O how can it be that you look and speak so? It frightens me! Having begun to love you, I love you forever’in all changes, in all disgraces, because you are yourself. I ask no more. Then how can you, O my own husband, stop loving me’? Angel has annihilated the image of woman he was in The Zingiberaceae Plant and its love with- ”the woman I have been loving is not you’ . Tess is scared and terrified; ‘Terror was upon her white face’ and her full and beautiful mouth that once charmed Angel and reminded him of of the ‘roses filled with snow’ is cursed ‘a round little hole’ ‘Angel, to a far greater extent than Tess, is formed and shaped by his past. She, with her rebounding spirits, vibrant sexuality and The Zingiberaceae and its, self-determination, had created herself anew, had risen above her past where Angel is still victim of his. Significantly, the of the fallen woman is rendered dumb, mute, and prone, not by the seducer but by the lawful husband.’ Thomas Hardy’s heroine is not killed by Plant, her past but by the man she is married to. Guatemalan Revolution? Even though her sin is still alive in her soul, Tess succeeded to forgive herself and to start a new life far away from the The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties man who raped her and away from the family that did not succeed to understand her sorrow and to cure her wounds.
In a men’s world, Tess is just a victim who cannot live in a lie and decides to tell all the truth to the man who convinced her to marry him and who will kill her soul slowly and gently. The heroine is punished because she is a woman in a men’s society and is married to a man caught in Victorian conventions. How can she be a real human being if the ralph lord of the flies men’s world decides to reduce her to an object”?Thus humanity is male and The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Essay, man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him; she is not regarded as an autonomous being’.she is simply what man decrees’.she is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her. She is the incidental, the unessential as opposed to the essential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute- she is the Other.’ Bibliography Chapter Three.
1. Conly, Sarah, ‘Seduction, rape and coercition’, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of Chicago Press. 2. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of about A Case purity in and its Properties Essay Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 3. Davis, W., Thomas Hardy and guatemalan revolution, the law, Legal Presences in Hardy’s Life and Fiction, Rosemont publishing and and printing corp, 2003. 4. Plant Properties? Garson, M., Hardy’s Fables of guatemalan 1954 Integrity: Woman, Body, Text, Oxford University Press, 1991. 5. Hardy, T., Tess of the D’Urbervilles, edited by The Zingiberaceae Essay, Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by going, Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 6. The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay? Hardy, T., ‘Letter to Thomas Macquoid ‘, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of 1954 Thomas Hardy, ed.
Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246). 7. Properties Essay? Morgan, R., Women and Sexuality in the novels of Thomas Hardy, Routledge London and New York, 2006. 8. Morgan, R., Student companion to Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2007. 9. Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ‘Nonviolent sexual coercition’, in guatemalan revolution Acquaintance rape, the and its Properties hidden crime’, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 10. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, trans.
H. N. A Special Kind Of Imperfectly Competitive? Parshley, New York, 1953, p. xiv. 11. Plant And Its Properties Essay? Zhen, C., ‘Tess in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’. Anna Karenina and Tess of D’Urberville- a tragic destiny. Anna Karenina is a novel wrote by the russian writer Lev Tolstoy, published in serial installments from 1873 to cacciato, 1877. Essay? Since the novel’s publication, Anna Karenina has been seen as ‘every man’s tragedy’ or considered as a Bovarian banality by any masculinist critical view. Iuri Lotman, said: ‘ The plot of Anna Karenina reflects, on the one hand a certain narrow object- the demagoguery examples life of the heroine…..We can regard the life of the heroine as a reflection of the life of any woman belonging to a certain epoch and a certain social milieu, any woman, any person. Otherwise, the tragic vicissitudes of her life would only be of local interest.’ Lotman’s affirmation translates once again the The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay idea that men’s problems are more important than the women’s problems. It’s not quite important that a woman is not happy in her marriage, that she does not feel love and affection for the men she lives with, because the most important problems in going any society are men’s problems: war, government, etc Once again, also in Anna Karenina as in Tess of D’Urbervilles it can be seen the preoccupation for a society which is dominated by men, is a patriarchal epoch concerned exclusively with men’s situations.
The question regarding the women’s position in society was initially formulated in the Victorian England and later this preoccupation could be also found among the Russian elite after the translation of Mill’s oeuvre, ‘The subjection of women’ in The Zingiberaceae and its Essay 1869. The beginning of the nineteenth century did not come with major ideas about women’s condition and life, but it can be seen as a start of reconsidering the role of women in a society governed by after cacciato, men and which needs a change. Russian woman’s emancipation had been initially treated in literature- the The Zingiberaceae Plant and its novels of Ivan Turgenev, the oeuvres of Alexander Druzhinin’s ‘Polinka Saks’ (1847), or the Nikolai Nekrasov’s play, ‘Sasha’. Early Russian writings concerning the idea of oppressed women were influenced by the novels of George Sand, whose feminine characters suffer because cannot be free in choosing the man they want to love and to be happy with. Anna Karenina is a very beautiful, noble, married woman from St. Of Southeastern Pennsylvania? Petersburg who lives a life full of and its Essay bitterness because she is married with a man she does not love and she is in love with a young officer. This passion, these strong feelings will be the reason for his exile from the society she belongs to planned parenthood vs casey, and will bring her death.
Even though Tess of The Zingiberaceae and its Properties D’Urbervilles is not a rich woman, on the contrary, is a very poor girl with a family that will sign her death conviction- she is sent to claim kin and she is not advised that out there is a big world and she has to be very careful because men might want to harm her and to take advantages of her- the both heroines are guided by the same noble feeling and have the genuine belief that a woman can be happy only through love, loving and be loved. The both characters are very beautiful women- Tess is poor but beautiful, she does not have an elitist education but she cannot be seen as a simple peasant girl; Anna Arkadyevna Karenina is a model of beauty and perfection. He has a selective education, she is very intelligent, a big reader of English novels and that two firms is called, she also writes books for children. Plant Essay? Anna is very elegant and parenthood, is considered a perfect woman who can make any man fall in The Zingiberaceae Plant love with her. Her life with a cold and a special market two firms is called, passionless government official taught her to play the role of The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties cultivated, noble, perfect wife. She is also a good hostess and planned parenthood pennsylvania, plays all these roles with style and refinement. The tragedy of beautiful women comes from the fact that they are considered as a trophy every respectable man must obtain.
And if the woman is married then the battle will be more powerful: the competitor will try to conquer someone’s ‘good’ in The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay order to guatemalan 1954, prove to Plant Properties Essay, himself that he has the real qualities to win, he is better than the husband and he can really understand the heroine’s needs for love and of the, support. Anna is not a simple aristocratic woman who plays the role of the perfect and happy wife who is still in love with her husband, is only preoccupied with the raise of her children and obeys entirely her husband because he is always right. And Its? Anna has an ardent spirit and is determinate to live her life on flies her own terms. The Zingiberaceae Plant And Its Properties Essay? ‘All the girls in the world were divided into two classes: one class included all the girls in the world except her, and they had all the usual human feelings and guatemalan revolution, were very ordinary girls; while the other class ‘ herself alone- had no weaknesses and Plant and its Properties Essay, was superior to all humanity.’ Tolstoy writes ‘Anna Karenina’ in order to explain the great changes occurring in the Russian society during the late nineteenth century. The novel presents a battle between the old patriarchal values which characterize the old society, the aristocracy and planned parenthood pennsylvania, the new, modern values, the West values. The landowning aristocracy believe in traditions like servitude, and The Zingiberaceae and its Properties, autocratic government, while the Essay A Case Marriage West brings values like technology, democracy, rationalism. This major theme can be seen in the difficulty Levin has with his workers when he tries to introduce a new way of farming. His peasants refuse to implement the new technology having the strong belief that the traditional Russian way of farming should not be changed. ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles’ presents the changes brought in the nineteenth century in the Victorian Age, also the importance of social class in England and in the same time the complication of The Zingiberaceae Plant defining class in the Victorian England.
A proof for this affirmation is offered by the fact that Durbeyfields are no longer considered in the Victorian Age as a dominant symbol as it would have been in the Middle Ages. Alec’s father, Simon Stokes was able to that has only, use his money and to buy a very important, aristocratic name, being another proof that in the Victorian period money are more important than the origin and family history. In the both novels, ‘Anna Karenina’ and ‘Tess of D’Urbervilles the changes brought in the society are presented by the main heroines. Alexei Karenin, the government official with a weak personality is playing the role of an educated and sophisticated man who is capable to forgive his wife for The Zingiberaceae her infidelity and to offer her the chance at a respectful life despite her adventure with the young officer. What Karenin does not understand is the power of demagoguery examples love that can make people to choose the complicated way and Plant Properties Essay, not the simple and known path. Anna Karenina, like Tess, is kind competitive market that two firms, not just a simple woman, who can leave in conventionalism, she has another perception of live and The Zingiberaceae Plant, she wants to love, to be appreciated as a special woman and not just as wife and mother.
She craves for a life of ardent emotion and noble passions. Karenin’s entire life is characterized by formalism, he knows which his duties are and he respects the professional obligations of his function. Alexei is a very good government official because this role defines him and in fact is the examples ratio of Properties Essay his life- a life without grand passion and excitement. Anna and Karenin have a marriage of convenience. There’s a big age gap between the two characters and revolution 1954, also different ways of living and seeing the life and life’s values. Anna craves for sentimental devotion and sincerity while Alexei is happy with the monotonous work and Plant Essay, family life. ‘All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is guatemalan revolution, unhappy in Plant and its Essay its own way’ is the first line of the parenthood of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey Tolstoy’s novel and reveals the fact that the novel is concerned with the happiness, is The Zingiberaceae Essay, a declaration for the need of happiness. Cacciato? Is it Anna Karenina happy? Why did the heroine immediately fall in love with Vronsky and renounced to her comfortable and respectful life? Why is Plant Essay, a mother ready to sacrifice her child for a man? These are the questions Tolstoy tries to answer and his explanation is that women are capable of great and powerful feelings. They can live in misery but a domestic one, not a sentimental failure; they can have a conventional marriage but will always crave for the real love and for fervent feelings and when they will meet the love they will be capable of leaving everything for that noble feeling.
Anna Karenina has an unhappy marriage, her husband does not appreciate her as a woman, he can only see the mother Anna and the wife Anna but not the woman Anna who needs love, appreciation, adventure and cacciato, emotion. Anna is ready to defend her love for Vronsky, she can accept the social rejection, the fact that she will never be respected and she will be seen as a sinful women. But that’s the The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay essence: a woman, who has the courage to love and to openly live with a man that is not her husband, is not captive in market that is called a formal arrangement that could have offered her protection and could have been the institutionalization of a lie is what defines a heroine. Tess of D’Urberville is not an unfaithful married woman, she is just an innocent peasant girl who is convinced that two people that are meant to be together will meet and will live a beautiful love story like in the novels she used to read. She is not a sinful woman because is The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay, not her choice to be raped but is a special market has only two firms, considered by the Victorian society as a decadent human being and convicted to Plant and its Properties Essay, the social rejection. ‘Anna, Eustacia, [Vye], Tess [Durbeyfield] or Sue [Bridehead] – what was there in their position that was necessarily tragic? Necessarily painful it was, but they were not at war with God, only with Society. Demagoguery Examples? Yet they were all cowed by the mere judgement of man upon them and all the while by their own souls they were right. And the judgement of Plant and its Properties Essay men killed them, not the judgement of their own souls or the planned parenthood pennsylvania judgement of Properties Ethernal God. Lev Tolstoy chose to analyze the “woman question” enclosed in a comparison: He puts in opposition Anna’s search for sense in life with that of Levin, the Tolstoy’s other main character. Of The Flies? And Tolstoy chose to do something scandalous for his epoch: He converted Anna in an unfaithful woman- a sensitive character. Anna wasn’t miserable because she disobeyed her unbearable, suffocating husband and had to be punished; she was unhappy because she didn’t find, in Properties Tolstoy’s opinion, meaningful love and the life’s signification.
Tolstoy’s belief that true love and happiness could be accomplished only through a love marriage means represents the going heroine’s drama. Anna finds for a short period of time happiness outside marriage, in Vronsky’s arms but her lack of autonomy and The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay, social rejection brought by a forbidden relationship causes her sorrow. Tolstoy puts in opposition Anna’s story with the story of Levin, an open-minded man who succeeded in his search for meaning in life by choosing a marriage partner he considered his equal rather than his inferior. Tolstoy also presents the going after cacciato hypocrisy that characterizes the nineteenth society, the fact that men could cheat his partners without punishment whereas women could not. He also highlights the idea that lots of woman had relationships outside the marriage including discreet women who blames Anna for her actions similar to their own.
The Victorian controversy of grand importance in ‘Tess of D’Urberville’ is also ‘the Woman question’ or how woman should be seen and what roles they should play in The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties society. Many writers thought that woman should stay at home and work in the house, being unable to learn and to ralph lord of the, work for the society. Essay? The Victorian women were meant to be ‘an angel in the house’ and also for their husbands and nothing more. If the woman lost her virginity and parenthood of southeastern pennsylvania, honour, before marriage, she was convicted to live a life full of shame and The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties Essay, sorrow. If the husband was unfaithful, the society won’t blame him for the sexual behaviour. R.G. Christian says: ‘It was people not God who threw Anna under the train’ highlighting the power of the society which can determine the destiny of a human being. Vladimir Nabokov, in his work on Essay about A Case Russian literature, characterized Anna as ‘a young, handsome, and fundamentally good woman, and a fundamentally doomed woman.’ Nabokov also protects her role as a foreigner of the society she lives in: ‘[Anna] is a woman with a full, compact, important moral nature: everything about her character is significant and Plant Essay, striking, and this applied as well to a special of imperfectly, her love.
She cannot limit herself as another character in the book, Princess Betsy, does, to an undercover affair. The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties Essay? Her truthful and passionate nature makes disguise and secrecy impossible.’ Tolstoy makes Anna almost completely a human being of passion and then allows that passion to demagoguery, kill her. After the The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay heroine meets Vronsky, all of going her actions are concerned with keeping a loving relationship with him. Anna is also ready to The Zingiberaceae and its Essay, renounce to her existence in order to feel and to enjoy the full love. Essay A Case For Same-Sex Marriage? Her passion for Vronsky causes a separation between herself and Kitty and also between herself and the domestic sphere.
After the social rejection also the position of and its Properties mother is soon denied her, and demagoguery examples, later she is Plant Properties Essay, not enough concerned in of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey developing a relationship with her daughter and make this relationship essential part of her life. The Zingiberaceae And Its? Even her outfits limit the character. She wears only black clothing expressing the revolution fact that she is in a profound grief and she seems convicted to die for The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties the fact that she was capable to planned parenthood vs casey, renounce to her family for living the love story of The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay her life. Tess of D’Urberville is not a rich, aristocratic girl, on a special of imperfectly market that two firms the contrary, she is put under immense pressure by her family to improve their economic position and reputation. She grows in a small village being protected from the influence of an aristocratic society with decadent values. Plant Properties Essay? She is a genuine young girl who wants to have a happy marriage, to guatemalan revolution, love and to be loved. She is not interested in Plant and its having a certain social position because she believes in love as a way of being happy. But the society is cruel with the Thomas Hardy’s heroine and signs her conviction to dead. Even though she cannot be found guilty because she did not consciously commit a mistake she is blamed by a superficial society which cannot see under the about Marriage appearances. Anna Karenina is found guilty because she had the courage to admit that her marriage is a formal one and The Zingiberaceae Plant and its, she is not happy.
She discovers another Anna when she is with Vronsky and she is very happy. Her guilty is planned parenthood, that she refuses to live a love story outside her marriage in a society in which the relationships outside a marriage are accepted and formal alliances are protected. Tess of D’Urberville was found guilty because her family couldn’t protect and The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay, defend herself against a world dominated by men and kind of imperfectly market two firms is called, she had the courage to The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties, tell Angel that she was raped and ralph lord of the, he had a little baby. She did not want to marry with Alec, to have a formal marriage because the hypocrisy dominated in the Victorian society did not affect her perception about Plant Essay, does a marriage mean. Vronsky is a good looking character, rich, and also a charming man who is as willing as Anna is to renounce to his social status and Essay for Same-Sex Marriage, professional position for Plant and its Properties finding the real love.
His involvement in a special kind of imperfectly has only his hospital-building project shows a carrying person who wants to protect the weak people. But the Tolstoy’s work also shows a Vronsky with defects and blames. The Zingiberaceae Plant And Its Properties? His strange hair, his mistake in calculating the lord of the flies horse race, his ambitions of military fame these entire characteristics make a Vronsky human and not a romantic character. Anna finds Alexei an exceptional man who could make her very happy and could offer her a completely rescue and a burial into a seductive passion. Plant Essay? The heroine is very disappointed when she discovers that Vronsky’s passion is limited and he is of the flies, just another man and not THE man. The Tolstoy’s choice to give Vronsky the same name as his husband’s suggests that Anna is doomed to repeat the failure of The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay her first relationship. ‘Anna had been preparing herself for examples this meeting, had thought what she would say to him, but she did not succeed in saying anything of it; his passion mastered her. She tried to Plant and its, calm him, to calm herself, but it was too late. Guatemalan Revolution 1954? His feeling infected her. Her lips trembled so that for a long while she could say nothing.’ Vronsky’s commitment to Anna seems to decrease in later chapters of Tolstoy’s novel but the reader cannot be convinced that this is the Plant Properties true situation because he finds out about this wane of demagoguery examples devotion from Anna’s confessions which betrays the fear that the The Zingiberaceae and its Properties man she loves and for whom she has sacrificed her marriage and her social position, becoming a mistress, is not any more in love with the heroine. The events related to this episode seem to indicate that Vronsky’s love hasn’t faded: he takes Anna to his country home which is luxurious, elegant, he stays with the heroine and refuses to visit his old friends and even mother, he is Essay, still fascinated by her beauty and personality. Plant Properties? He occasionally misses the old fame and military glory especially when he meets his old comrades but he does not blame Anna for this situation.
Vronsky accepts Anna’s paranoia and her whims but for Tolstoy’s main character these proves are not enough, are just signs of duty and not actions indicating true love. The reader cannot decide is a special kind of imperfectly market two firms is called, right in The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay this situation because Vronsky’s thoughts are not exposed. A Special Of Imperfectly Has Only Two Firms? Angel Clare is The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay, Tess’ Vronsky, the man full of passion who can kidnap the heroine’s present and can project a whole new world outside the mediocrity of an irrational and hypocritical society. When Tess first meets Angel she realizes that she definitely has seen him before, at Essay about A Case for Same-Sex Marriage the May-dance and he did not choose Tess to be his dance partner. But because the destiny wants to Plant and its Essay, bring together Tess and Angel and also to determine, Tess’ dead conviction, they meet again at the dairy.
The love the both characters feel for each other is parenthood pennsylvania, genuine, pure, without being jealous or proud. ‘It was then, as has been said, that she impressed him most deeply. She was no longer the milkmaid, but a visionary essence of woman- a whole sex condensed into one physical form. He called her Artemis, Demeter, and other fanciful names half teasingly, which she did not like because she did not understand them. ‘Call me Tess’, she would say askance; and he did. In this quote from the novel the reader can clearly see that Angel is in love with the image of a perfect woman and not exclusively with Tess herself. The Zingiberaceae Plant And Its Properties? She is compared with the Greek goddesses and that means that she has to be the ideal of feminine beauty and for Same-Sex, perfection in order to be loved by The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties, Angel. And Tess is Essay A Case for Same-Sex, not a goddess, she’s a simply peasant young girl who just wants to love and to and its Properties, be loved. In the critical essay ‘Why women are oppressed’ Anna Jonasdottir says: ‘Man is willing to accept woman as an ralph of the equal, as a man in skirt, as an angel, a devil, a baby-face, a machine, an and its Essay instrument, a bosom, a womb, a pair of legs, a servant, an encyclopaedia, an ideal or an obscenity; the only thing he won’t accept her as is A Case for Same-Sex, a human being, a real human being of the and its Properties Essay real sex.’ Angel seems to be a character that wants to be surrounded by angels and can’t accept that human beings have a past, made mistakes, he cannot forgive and forget even though he asks for forgiveness. He is an example of lord of the flies a fallen angel who couldn’t remain pure and Essay, also failed in being a good Christian by confessing Tess his sin.
His mistake is also Tess’s mistake but the influence of the Victorian society does not allow him to see clearly and to a special kind market that, only after the longue journey he realizes that ‘the beauty or ugliness of Plant and its Properties a character lay not only in its achievements, but in its aims and impulses; its true story lay, not among things done, but among thinks willed.’ Tess of D’Urbervilles and Anna share also another pattern-fog, haziness, mystery. When Tess of D’Urbervilles is lord flies, raped, the scene is surrounded by mist and Plant Properties, the reader does not exactly knows what to think about this situation: ‘She was silent, and the horse ambled along for a consider- able distance, till a faint luminous fog, which had hung in the hollows all the evening, became general and enveloped them. It seemed to hold the moonlight in suspension, rendering it more pervasive than in clear air. Whether on this account, or from absent-mindedness, or from sleepiness, she did not perceive that they had long ago passed the point at which the lane to Trantridge branched from the highway, and that her conductor had not taken the Trantridge track.’ Anna herself speaks of a certain haze which in associating it with the purity of first love: “I remember that blue haze, like the haze on the mountains in Switzerland. That haze which envelops everything at that blissful time when childhood is just coming to an end and its huge merry circle narrows to a path which one treads gaily yet with dread into life’s corridor” . . . Guatemalan? Kitty smiled … “How did she go through it? How I should like to and its, know the whole romance of her life!” she thought, recalling the unromantic exterior of Anna’s husband.’ The patter appears again when Kitty realizes the visible sympathy between Anna and Vronsky at for Same-Sex the ball and “a mist spread(s) over her soul” Anna and Tess are two heroines who have lots o resemblances but also dissimilarities.
Tess of D’Urbervilles is an innocent peasant girl who takes care of The Zingiberaceae and its Essay her family being fascinated with the novels she reads. She is not selfish, she does not to marry with an going after aristocratic men and to be part of the aristocratic society. Anna is also intelligent, cultivated, simple, honest, and a devoted mother. But the The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay relationship with Vronsky changes her completely. Tess’s downfall is caused by her lack of education in what concern such a complicated subject for the society she lives in- sexual relationships and demagoguery, it can be said that her trust in men is determined by reading romantic novels and identifying with their heroines in a specifically sensual and innocent way. Anna, on contrary, is unable to Plant and its, read her novel on her train ride home after flirting with Vronsky. “She was too eager to live herself.
If she read how the heroine of the novel nursed a sick man, she wanted to be moving about a sickroom with noiseless tread herself”. When she discovers, it is to kind of imperfectly market two firms, make an instinctual moral perception: ‘The hero of the novel had nearly attained his Englishman’s idea of The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay happiness … and Anna was wishing she could go to the estate with him, when she suddenly felt that he must be feeling ashamed and of the, that she was ashamed for the same reason.’ Anna Karenina and Tess D’Urbervilles are honorable women. Even though Anna has a sexual relationship outside her marriage she does not accept Karenin’s proposal when he decides that they can stay into The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay, a formal marriage and forget Anna’s infidelity. The heroine is not ashamed that she has a relationship with Vronsky because this relationship represents her entire life-love, fantasy, eternity, nobles. ‘Alexey Alexandrovitch! What is going cacciato, it you want of me”?I want you not to meet that man here, and to conduct yourself so that neither the world nor the servants can reproach you…not to see him. That’s not much, I think. And in The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay return you will enjoy all the privileges of a faithful wife without fulfilling her duties. That’s all I have to say to you. Now it’s time for me to go. I’m not dining at planned parenthood pennsylvania vs casey home.’ He got up and Plant Properties, moved towards the door. Anna got up too.
Bowing in silence, he let her pass before him.’ Tess of guatemalan D’Urbervilles also refuses Alec’s proposal to be his mistress because she cannot have a relationship with a man she is Plant and its Essay, not in love with, a man who harmed her. ‘Very well,’ he said, laughing; ‘I am sorry to wound you. Essay Marriage? I did wrong’I admit it.’ He dropped into some little bitterness as he continued: ‘Only you needn’t be so everlastingly flinging it in Properties my face. I am ready to pay to the uttermost farthing. You know you need not work in the fields or the going after cacciato dairies again. You know you may clothe yourself with the best, instead of in the bald plain way you have lately affected, as if you couldn’t get a ribbon more than you earn.’ ‘I have said I will not take anything more from you, and I will not’I cannot! I SHOULD be your creature to go on Plant Properties Essay doing that, and I won’t.’
Bibliography Chapter four. 1. Hardy, T., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 2. Jonasdotti, A., ‘Why women are oppressed’, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994. 3. Lotman, Iuri, ‘The structure of the artistic text’, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977. 4. Mandelker, A., ‘Framing Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question, and the Victorian novel’, The theory and interpretation of narrative series, Ohio State University Press, 1993. 5. Nabocov, V. ‘Lectures on Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981.
6. R.G. Christian, ‘Tolstoy: An Introduction’, Cambridge 1969. 7. Tolstoy, L. ‘Anna Karenina’, translated by Louise Shanks #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. In the Victorian age, women were seen through men’s eyes. They were the most important characters in the domestic sphere, the family life being more than sufficient for Essay about A Case for Same-Sex their emotional achievement. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and politics, a place similar with the haven, in which men found love from their wives and children. The Victorian women were seen as being pure and perfect. They were ‘angels in the house’, wives and mothers dedicated to their families and children. They had to obey their husbands because men were the main characters in the society. The marriage was a light form of The Zingiberaceae and its Essay slavery: after the wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to the husband. 1. Blathway, Taymond, ‘A Chat with the 1954 Author of Tess, Black and White, IV’.
Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles unorthodox beauty’, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Conly, Sarah, ‘Seduction, rape and coercition’, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of Chicago Press. 4. Danielova, M., ‘The concept of purity in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 5. Davis, W., ‘Thomas Hardy and the law’, Legal Presences in Hardy’s Life and Fiction, Rosemont publishing and and printing corp, 2003. 6. Ertu??rul, Ko. ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles, the tragedy of a Godless human existence’, Journals of Arts and Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya.
7. Freeman, J., ‘Studies in Philology’, 1982 University of The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3. 8. Garson, M., Hardy’s Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text’, Oxford University Press, 1991. 9. Hardy, T., ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 10. Hardy, T., ‘Letter to Thomas Macquoid ‘, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of Thomas Hardy, ed. Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246). 11. Ralph Lord Flies? Harvey, G., ‘The complete critical guide to Thomas Hardy’, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003. 12. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ‘Maternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and sexuality in Britain, 1875-1925’, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997.
13. Holmberg, Mona, ‘Tess, a victim of her society’, in Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles’, Lulea University of and its Properties Essay Technology, Department of demagoguery examples Language and The Zingiberaceae Properties, Culture, 2003. 14. Jennings, A., ‘Stranger than Fiction. Life and Literature in the Late Victorian Age’, Black Cat Publishing, 2001. 15. Jonasdotti, A., ‘Why women are oppressed’, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994.
16. Kent, Susan.’Sex and Suffrage in planned of southeastern Britain 1860-1914?. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 17. Properties? Lotman, I. ‘The structure of the artistic text’, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977. 18.
Mandelker, A., ‘Framing Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question and the Victorian novel’The theory and interpretation of of imperfectly market two firms narrative series, Ohio, State University Press, 1993. 19. Matthew, A., ‘The Forsaken Merman’ in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 20. Millgate, M., ‘Thomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelist’, London: Macmillan, 1994.
21. Mitchell, S.,’Daily Life in Victorian England’, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 22. Morgan, R., ‘Women and Sexuality in the novels of Thomas Hardy,’ Routledge London and New York, 2006. 23. Morgan, R., ‘Student companion to Thomas Hardy’, Greenwood Press, London, 2007. 24. Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ‘Nonviolent sexual coercition’, in Acquaintance rape, the hidden crime’, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 25. The Zingiberaceae Plant? Nabokov, V. ‘Lectures on Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981. 26.
R. G. Guatemalan? Christian, ‘Tolstoy: An Introduction’, Cambridge, 1969. 27. Essay? Rogers, Katharine, ‘The Centennial Review’, Vol 19, No. 4, 1975 Michigan State University Press. 28. Simone de Beauvoir, ‘The Second Sex,’ trans.
H. N. Parshley, New York, 1953. 29. Tolstoy, L. ‘Anna Karenina’, translation by Louise Shanks Maude #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. 30. Zhen, C., ‘Tess in guatemalan 1954 Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal society’, societyhttp://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/lt/rb/600/600PDF/chen.PDf. 31. Wojtczak, H., ‘Women of Victorian Sussex’, Hastings Press, 2003. Search our thousands of essays:
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Free German Essays on Properties Essay, Family: Meine Familie. Did your German teacher tell you to write about planned parenthood of southeastern pennsylvania vs casey your family, but you have just no idea how to Plant and its Essay, do that? Well, you are lucky because you have me! I am a German native and happy to help you. I have written some example essays about families for you.
I have seen many children at school struggling to writing in proper German. Here is your chance to make it better and to impress your teacher. Wether you need to about for Same-Sex, copy some sentences or use my examples as an inspiration, it is your choice. The examples that I show you below are structured like this: First, you find an Plant and its, example of a short essay in Essay about for Same-Sex, German. It shows you how you can describe your own family.
Since every family is different, I wrote some more examples for you to and its Properties, chose from. After the German part follows a part in italics where I tell you in English what the German text is examples, about. And Its Properties Essay. After the examples of short essays, you will find a list of German key words and conjugated verbs that I provided for going after you so that you do not have to look it up a dictionary. My aim is to provide a time effective aid for your German homework. Any questions about the texts? Just ask! And please excuse any mistakes in my English, as I am still learning too.
Do you live with your Mum, Dad, and Plant and its Properties Essay with your brother or sister? Then use this text to describe your family in examples, your German essay: Wir sind eine ganz normale Familie. Ich wohne zusammen mit meinen Eltern, meiner kleinen Schwester Lisa und unserer Katze Mick. Meine Gro?eltern wohnen im gleichen Dorf wie wir.
Oma Francis arbeitet noch. Sie ist Krankenschwester. And Its. Die Anderen sind schon in Rente. Oma Lydia nimmt sich viel Zeit fur mich und geht haufig mit mir Kleider oder Schuhe kaufen. Of The Flies. Leider will meine kleine Schwester dann auch immer mit. Mein Vater arbeitet bei einer Bank und fahrt am Wochenende gern mit seinem Motorrad. The Zingiberaceae. Das findet meine Mutter nicht so gut, da sie meint, dass Motorradfahren so gefahrlich ist. Sie sagt, dass ich und meine Schwester auf keinen Fall mitfahren durfen. Mein Vater versteht das nicht, aber er will sich auch nicht streiten. Nachstes Jahr wollen wir in ein gro?eres Haus ziehen, weil meine Eltern noch ein Baby bekommen.
Ich hoffe, dass wir nicht zu weit weg ziehen, da alle meine Freunde hier in der Nahe wohnen. Meine Tante Clara, die Schwester meiner Mutter, wohnt sogar genau gegenuber. Meine Cousine Barbara kommt deshalb haufig zu Besuch. Here is what the text is about (this is not a 1-to-1 translation!): We are a very normal family. I live with my parents, my little sister, and our cat Mick. Demagoguery Examples. My grandparents live in the same village where we live. Grandma Francis still works.
She is a nurse. The others are already retired. Grandma Lydia spends a lot of time with me, and we often go shopping together to look for clothes or shoes. The Zingiberaceae Plant And Its Properties. Unfortunately, my little sister wants to come with us as well. My father works in a bank and likes to planned parenthood, ride his motorbike on the weekend. My mother does not like that because she thinks it is and its Essay, very dangerous. Guatemalan Revolution 1954. She says we are never allowed to ride with him on the bike. My father doesn't understand why, but he doesn't want to argue with her. Next year, we are going to move into a bigger house because my parents will have another baby.
I hope we are not moving too far because all of my friends are here. My aunt Clara even lives opposite to us. Therefore, my cousin Barbara often visits us. If you have a big family, this example may help you with your German essay: Meine Familie ist sehr gro?. Ich habe zwei Schwestern, einen Bruder, drei Tanten, einen Onkel und sechs Cousins. Meine gro?e Schwester hat lange blonde Haare und hei?t Laura und eine kleine Schwester hei?t Miranda und ist dunkelhaarig. Properties. Mein Bruder hei?t Fred und tragt eine Brille.
Ich verstehe mich gut mit meiner kleinen Schwester und meinem Bruder. Mit meiner gro?en Schwester streite ich mich oft um den Computer. Mein Vater arbeitet zwar viel, aber am Wochenende hilft er uns immer bei den Hausaufgaben. Meine Mutter backt gerne Torten. Ihre Schokotorten mag ich besonders gerne. 1954. In den Ferien besuchen wir haufig meine Gro?eltern, da sie leider so weit entfernt wohnen. Meine anderen Gro?eltern, die Eltern meiner Mutter wohnen eine Stra?e weiter.
Das finde ich schon, da wir uns oft sehen konnen. The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay. Au?erdem haben sie eine su?e Perserkatze, mit der ich immer spiele. Wenn uns meine Cousins besuchen kommen, unternehmen wir meist etwas Besonderes. Letztes Wochenende waren wir alle zusammen im Zoo. Planned Of Southeastern Pennsylvania. Das war lustig, da mein Cousin Ben Angst vor Schlangen hatte. Ich mag meine Familie! My family is very big. I have got two sisters, one brother, three aunts, one uncle, and The Zingiberaceae six cousins. My older sister has long blond hair, and her name is cacciato, Laura. Essay. My little sister is called Miranda and kind market that has dark hair.
My brother's name is Fred and wears glasses. I get along well with my little sister and my brother. But I argue a lot with my older sister about the computer. Although my father works a lot, he always helps us with homework on the weekend. My mother likes to bake cakes. I especially like her chocolate cake. Essay. During the holidays, we often visit my grandparents because they live so far from 1954 us. My other grandparents, the parents of my mother, live on the street next to ours. The Zingiberaceae Plant And Its. I like that because that way we can see each other a lot.
In addition to demagoguery, that, they have a cute Persian cat I always play with. When my cousins visit us, we always do something special together. Last weekend, we went to the zoo together. The Zingiberaceae Plant And Its Essay. That was fun because my cousin Ben was afraid of the Essay A Case Marriage, snake. I like my family! If you are living with only one parent, check out this text: Meine Familie ist sehr klein. The Zingiberaceae Plant And Its. Ich lebe zusammen mit meiner Mutter und meinem Bruder. Tanten oder Onkel habe ich nicht. Meinen Vater sehe ich nur in after, den Sommerferien, da er weit weg wohnt. Plant Properties. Meine Oma wohnt gleich nebenan.
Sie kummert sich nachmittags um mich und meinen Bruder, wenn meine Mutter arbeiten muss. Meine Oma ist schon in Rente. About For Same-Sex. Sie hat fruher mal bei der Post gearbeitet. Mein Opa und meine anderen Gro?eltern sind leider schon gestorben. Mein Bruder hei?t Patrick und ist sehr gut in der Schule. Er ist sehr gro? und schlank und hat blonde Locken. Plant And Its. Meine Freundin findet ihn su?. Of Southeastern Vs Casey. Das verstehe ich gar nicht. Ich mag es aber nicht, wenn er laut Musik hort und es gerade meine Lieblingssendung im Fernsehen gibt. Dafur geht er immer mit unserem Hund Gassi, so dass ich das nicht tun muss. The Zingiberaceae And Its. Ich wunschte, ich hatte noch eine Schwester, die mir helfen konnte, meine Haare zu frisieren, oder mit der ich die Kleider tauschen konnte.
Ich hoffe nur, dass meine Mutter nicht noch mal heiratet. My family is very small. I live with my mother and my brother. I have no aunts or uncles. Kind Market Has Only Is Called. I only see my father during the summer holiday because he lives far away. My grandma lives next door. She looks after me and Plant and its my brother when my mother has to work. My grandma is already retired. She used to work at demagoguery examples, a post office. Plant And Its. My grandpa and guatemalan 1954 my other grandparents are already dead.
My brother's name is Patrick, and he is doing very well at Plant Properties Essay, school. He is very tall and slim, and has curly blond hair. My friend thinks he is revolution, cute. I cannot understand that at all. But I do not like it when he listens to loud music when my favorite tv show is on. The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties. On the other hand, he always walks the dog so that I don't need to do that.
I wish I had a sister who would help me style my hair or who I could swap clothes with. I do hope that my mother is demagoguery examples, not going to The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties, marry again. The Audio Version of the Essay A Small Family Ready made German essay examples on a character and appearance description to use straight away. Guidance of demagoguery examples how to structure your essay. With English translation. German Books for Children Can Help You to The Zingiberaceae Plant Essay, Achieve Your First Goals Easily. This is one of demagoguery examples my favorite books. If you like it yourself, why not try and read it in The Zingiberaceae Essay, German.
It is Essay A Case Marriage, not too long and The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties would be adequate for after cacciato intermediate learners. If you have your English version at and its Properties, home, you can also cross reference. Just read a paragraph in English, and demagoguery examples then the same in and its Properties Essay, German. Reading This Book Is a Must if You Want to guatemalan, Get to Know the German Culture. Janosch is an important part of The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties German literature and culture. Janosh books are written for lord children, but adults love them too. The stories teach children about friendship, values, dreams, and how colorful this world is. As a student of the Plant and its Properties, German language, you should start with literature like this.
It will not be too hard for you if you are not a complete beginner, and you will gain an understanding what shapes the of southeastern vs casey, understanding of The Zingiberaceae Plant and its a German child. Example Four: Living With Grandparents. Do you live with your grandparents? Then check out this example if it suits you: Ich wohne bei meinen Gro?eltern, da meine Eltern gestorben sind, als ich noch ein Baby war. Wir wohnen in einem gro?en Haus, und ich habe ein riesiges Zimmer mit meinem eigenen Balkon. Going. Im Sommer mache ich dort immer meine Hausaufgaben. Meine Gro?eltern sind ganz lieb zu mir. Mein Opa hilft mir immer, mein Fahrrad zu reparieren und meine Oma ladt meine Freunde oft zum Essen ein. Ich habe auch noch einen Onkel, der manchmal am Wochenende vorbeikommt und Architekt ist.
Momentan arbeitet er jedoch in Japan fur drei Monate. Wir passen solange auf seinen Hund auf, und er hat mir versprochen, mir eine Uberraschung aus Japan mitzubringen. Eine Frau hat mein Onkel nicht. Meine Oma sagt immer, er sei mit seiner Arbeit verheiratet. Dann gibt es noch Tante Miriam, die eigentlich keine richtige Tante ist, sondern die beste Freundin meiner Oma. Die beiden kennen sich aber schon so lange, dass sie inzwischen auch zur Familie gehort. Tante Miriam hat viele Enkelkinder und manchmal treffen wir uns alle zusammen im Park. Dann machen wir ein gro?es Picknick und haben ganz viel Spa?. And here is The Zingiberaceae Properties, what the text is about (Remember, this isn't a 1-to-1 translation!):
I live with my grandparents because my parents died when I was a baby. Going After. We live in a big house, and I have a huge room with my own balcony. In the The Zingiberaceae Plant and its Properties Essay, summertime, I do my homework there. My grandparents are very nice to a special kind of imperfectly competitive that has only, me. My grandpa always helps me repair my bike, and Essay my grandma often invites my friends for dinner. Guatemalan Revolution 1954. I also have an uncle who comes around for Plant and its the weekend from demagoguery time to time, and he is an architect. At the moment, he is working in Plant Properties, Japan for three months, and a special of imperfectly market that has only we are looking after his dog. The Zingiberaceae And Its Properties Essay. But he promised me to bring a surprise back from Japan.
My uncle has no wife. My grandma always says he is married to his job. Then there is going after cacciato, aunt Miriam who is not a real aunt actually but the Plant and its, best friend of my grandma. 1954. Since they have known each other for such a long time, she became a member of our family. Aunt Miriam has lots of grandchildren, and sometimes we all meet in the park. Then we have a great picnic and Plant and its Properties Essay much fun! My Audio Version of the Essay Living with Grandparents These Are the Keywords of All the German Essays Above. Writing about a special kind of imperfectly competitive that has only two firms is called you school is totally easy - with the help of The Zingiberaceae and its Properties Essay this hub.
Learn how to write about positives and negatives at your school in splendid German! FREE German essay on drugs - Drogen. In part 9 of vs casey my series of Plant Properties Essay German essays we talk about drug abuse, consequences and what your teacher wants you to write in your essay. Also covering cigarettes and alcohol. Free German Essay on Healthy Lifestyle: Gesunder Lebenstil.
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I'm gonna present this essay as it is in my exam. Thank you man .. u saved me. bongawonga 2 years ago from UK. Thank you neha kolhe! Which country are you from? thank you , was really helpful. Please can you write about a special competitive market two firms arguments in the family? sehr schön gemacht :) Sarthak Batham 3 years ago. it was awesome.i used your examples as inspiration.danke. bongawonga 4 years ago from UK.
Thank you ratnaveera for The Zingiberaceae Plant and its your lovely comment! My next hub will be about holidays and I promise to write about health issues after that. I am glad to help :) ratnaveera 4 years ago from Cumbum. All the revolution 1954, above four essays are simply superb! I hope this will help me a lot to improve my German writing. Thank you so much for adding English translation and meaning for important keywords. I am also interested on health and travel essays. The Zingiberaceae Properties Essay. If you write articles on those topics, it would be really helpful for demagoguery examples me.
Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. The Zingiberaceae Plant Properties. Other product and pennsylvania vs casey company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is Properties, a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and a special kind of imperfectly competitive Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and Plant advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and of southeastern pennsylvania others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and Plant and its Properties respective owners.