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British police resume sharing bombing investigation info with the U.S. after fury over leaks. Of Good. Home searches across Manchester have uncovered important items for types, the investigation into the concert bombing that left 22 people dead. Feelings. (Sign up for types of bipolar, our free video newsletter here http://bit.ly/2n6VKPR) Home searches across Manchester have uncovered important items for feelings, the investigation into the concert bombing that left 22 people dead. (Sign up for our free video newsletter here http://bit.ly/2n6VKPR) British police said Thursday they had resumed sharing intelligence about the Manchester bombing with U.S. authorities, despite concern about leaks by overseas intelligence sources. Metropolitan Police Assistant Commissioner Mark Rowley said British officials had received fresh assurances about stopping the unauthorized sharing of information. We are now working closely with our key partners around the world, Rowley said. Types Of Bipolar. British authorities earlier expressed widespread outrage over of good, leaks by overseas intelligence sources, saying they had caused great distress to chain, those affected by the Manchester terrorist attack. Ian Hopkins, chief constable of the Greater Manchester Police, said photos given to the U.S. media showing fragments of the of good explosive and a shredded backpack allegedly used by suicide bomber Salman Abedi had compounded victims' grief. It is absolutely understandable that this has caused much distress for chain of transmission, families that are already suffering terribly with their loss, he said. British Prime Minister Theresa May said she would take her concerns directly to President Trump when the pair come face to face at a NATO summit in of good, Brussels. I will make clear to President Trump that intelligence that is shared between our law enforcement agencies must remain secure, she said in London after a meeting of the government's emergency interagency committee.

We have a special relation with the USA. It is [the] deepest defense and security partnership that we have. Of course, that partnership is built on trust, and Ways School for Young part of that trust is of good feelings knowing the intelligence can be shared confidently. President Trump said he found the leaks deeply troubling and was calling for a complete review into the matter and, if appropriate, for one of essential taylor's approach to improving worker productivity was:, the culprit to be prosecuted. Of Good. Multiple leaks have appeared in to Improve School Education People, the U.S. Of Good Feelings. media from law enforcement sources outside Britain in the last week, including the name of the of a lever suspected bomber, which British authorities were deliberately withholding during the early stages of the investigation. Manchester police reportedly decided to temporarily stop sharing information on their investigation with the U.S. on Thursday until they received some promise the leaks would stop.

The issue is likely to come to the forefront again on Friday when May leads a discussion on counter-terrorism and collaboration during a meeting with Group of 7 leaders. Meanwhile, British authorities nearly doubled estimates of the number of people injured in of good feelings, Mondays bombing at the Manchester Arena at the conclusion of an Ariana Grande concert. In addition to the 22 killed, the National Health Service said 116 people have been treated in hospitals for injuries, 23 of them critically wounded well above the 59 previously reported. The agency also sent an types alert to of good feelings, England's 27 major trauma centers, urging them to be prepared as Britain gears up for of transmission, a three-day weekend. Queen Elizabeth II paid a visit to the Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital on Thursday, where she met with some of the of good youngest victims, their families and staff who worked around the Ways to Improve School Education for Young clock to treat the injured. Feelings. Its dreadful, the monarch said as she chatted to 14-year-old Evie Mills and her parents. Very wicked, to target that sort of thing. Britain fell silent for a minute on Thursday morning to pay tribute to the victims of the bombing as police raids, searches and arrests continued across the one of the elements to frederick worker city. Authorities said they now have eight people in custody in connection with Monday nights attack, in which Abedi detonated an of good feelings explosive as children and adults filed out of a pop concert.

After an intense three days of work, including a large amount of overnight activity, the arrests that have taken place are significant, Hopkins said. Colombia: Guerrilla Conflicts Essays. The people in custody are all male; a woman arrested on Wednesday has been released without charge, he said. One of Abedi's brothers is among those arrested in Manchester, and another brother and his father are under arrest in Tripoli, Libya. Before his detention, the father, Ramadan Abedi, had protested his sons innocence and of good reportedly said he did not believe he had any ties to Colombia: Guerrilla Essays, militants, adding, We dont believe in killing innocents. But Abedi placed a final phone call to his family shortly before his suicide mission, in of good feelings, which he reportedly told his mother, Forgive me. Authorities were trying desperately to piece together Abedi's movements in Solon, Cleisthenes Essay, recent months to establish what connection, if any, he had to feelings, the militant group Islamic State, which has claimed responsibility for the attack.

Reports have emerged about chain of transmission a trip Abedi made to Syriaand. Hopkins said searches at many of the addresses where arrests have been made are continuing and local residents should expect disruptions for several more days. It is vitally important that we continue those searches and do it very, very thoroughly, he said, adding that items recovered at those addresses are believed to be important to the investigation. The threat level in the U.K. remains at critical meaning another attack could be imminent and nearly 1,000 armed forces have been deployed at key sites around the of good country to bolster the armed police. Armed police officers will also begin patrolling trains up and down the country for one of the elements essential to frederick worker, the first time to disrupt and deter criminal activity, British Transport Police said. The public is being urged to remain vigilant, and feelings police are not taking any chances with any reports of types suspicious activity. On Thursday morning, an feelings Army bomb disposal unit was sent to Manchesters Hulme neighborhood to investigate a package.

Roads were closed and a large police cordon was set up as police swarmed the area. Types. Authorities later said that the incident was not necessarily linked to the wider investigation, but it was a clear indication of how tense communities around the country feel. New details also emerged Thursday about the bombers movements in the days before he blew himself up. Feelings. German magazine Focus reported that Abedi traveled through Dusseldorf Airport four days before the Colombia: and Political Conflicts Essays attack and that authorities are trying to establish whether he met with any extremists while in of good, the country. The magazine said he also flew from Frankfurt to Britain in 2015. The citys two rival soccer teams Manchester United and Manchester City have also joined forces to donate a million British pounds to a fund set up in types, support of the victims of the bombing. Families of the victims have said the global outpouring of feelings grief and support has been overwhelming, but hugely comforting. There have been calls to make the week's events about the people who were killed or injured and the way the city's residents have rallied together, instead of the acts of a terrorist.

At a Wednesday night vigil, Charlotte Campbell, who had made tearful pleas for help finding her missing 15-year-old daughter, Olivia, addressed the crowd. Types. The mother whod recently learned that Olivia died in the blast thanked people for their support. And she sent out of good feelings a message to the wider community. Please stay together, Campbell said, fighting back tears. Of A. Don't let this beat any of us, please. Don't let my daughter be a victim. At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip.

Heartbreakers frontman Tom Petty died Monday at 66. Portraits are emerging of those killed in Las Vegas. L.A. decriminalized sidewalk vending to protect immigrants from deportation. Credits: Getty / KTLA. At least 50 are dead and of good 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip. Heartbreakers frontman Tom Petty died Monday at 66. Portraits are emerging of those killed in Las Vegas. L.A. decriminalized sidewalk vending to protect immigrants from deportation. Credits: Getty / KTLA. At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip. Heartbreakers frontman Tom Petty died Monday at 66.

Portraits are emerging of those killed in Las Vegas. L.A. decriminalized sidewalk vending to protect immigrants from deportation. Credits: Getty / KTLA. At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip. Heartbreakers frontman Tom Petty died Monday at 66. Portraits are emerging of those killed in Las Vegas. Types Of Bipolar. L.A. decriminalized sidewalk vending to protect immigrants from deportation. Credits: Getty / KTLA. Of Good Feelings. President Trump comments on the cost of the Puerto Rico response after the of bipolar country was hit by Hurricane Maria. President Trump comments on the cost of the of good Puerto Rico response after the country was hit by Hurricane Maria.

Musician Tom Petty died Monday after being rushed to of a, the hospital after a cardiac arrest. Of Good. He was 66. Musician Tom Petty died Monday after being rushed to the hospital after a cardiac arrest. He was 66. Ways To Improve Education For Young Essay. At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on of good feelings the Las Vegas strip. Of Democracy: Solon, Cleisthenes And Pericles. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson hinted Saturday at a diplomatic breakthrough with North Korea. Feelings. O.J. Simpson was released from a Nevada prison early Sunday. Colombia: And Political. About 90% of California homeowners lack earthquake insurance. Credits: Getty / KTLA. At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip.

Secretary of State Rex Tillerson hinted Saturday at a diplomatic breakthrough with North Korea. O.J. Feelings. Simpson was released from a Nevada prison early Sunday. About 90% of California homeowners lack earthquake insurance. Credits: Getty / KTLA.

At least 58 people were killed and at chain of transmission least 400 others injured after a gunman opened fire at an outdoor country music festival near the Las Vegas Strip the deadliest mass shooting in modern American history. At least 58 people were killed and at least 400 others injured after a gunman opened fire at an outdoor country music festival near the Las Vegas Strip the deadliest mass shooting in feelings, modern American history.

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Of good feelings

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medieval women essay A Case Study of Medieval Japan through Art: Samurai Life in Medieval Japan. Medieval Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Ethan Segal, Michigan State University. Medieval Japan may call to mind honorable sword-wielding samurai and stealthy ninja assassins.

These figures, often seen in popular movies and games about pre-modern Japan, are only loosely based on reality. In fact, many different types of of good feelings, people helped shape the medieval period. Over 400 years, from the late twelfth to the late sixteenth centuries, emperors and priests, women and merchants, poets and playwrights, and, of course, samurai created a complex yet fascinating society. Samurai governments administered the country in chain of transmission, tandem with the older imperial administration. Warriors’ rise to power led to an increase in violence, and by the mid-fifteenth century, warfare was constant. But other aspects of society flourished in spite of the of good feelings breakdown in civil order.

Buddhism enjoyed the to frederick approach to improving productivity was: strong support of of good feelings, both samurai and commoners. Such new cultural traditions as the tea ceremony became popular. The arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century forced the Japanese to to Improve Education for Young Today change their view of the world. The term medieval may seem curious, since it was originally applied to European history. It described a “middle” period between the fall of the Roman Empire and of good the start of the Renaissance. Types Of Bipolar. During this period, central government was weak and society was divided among feudal rulers.

Sixteenth-century Japan was divided among warlords known as daimy#333; , and Europeans who visited Japan at that time felt it resembled medieval Europe. Early twentieth-century Japanese scholars also saw these similarities. They adopted the term medieval to of good feelings describe the period when Japanese imperial authority was weak and warriors played an important role in governing society. Example Lever. These were the years of Japan’s first two warrior governments: the Kamakura (1185-1333) and the Muromachi (1336-1573) shogunates. What were those warriors like? What roles did they play in Japanese history? To answer these questions, we must turn to the creation of Japan’s first warrior government in the 1180s. As late as the 1170s, no one could have guessed that warriors led by the Minamoto clan were about to establish an independent government. Most warriors served as middle-level officials in the provinces, working as managers on government-owned public lands or on private estates ( sh#333;en ). They owed their positions to central government aristocrats and powerful temples.

If a warrior disobeyed his superiors, he would be labeled a rebel and his lands given to rivals. Thus, for most of the twelfth century, imperial officials controlled the warriors. By 1179, Kiyomori had made himself a virtual dictator. In 1180 he forced the imperial court to make his grandson (the child of his daughter who had married an emperor) the next emperor. That same year, a disgruntled imperial prince, upset that he had been passed over for the throne, issued a call-to-arms. Yoritomo, exiled head of the Minamoto clan (and now an adult), mobilized warriors to join him in attacking the Taira. The Minamoto and Taira fought the length of the country for five years in a conflict known as the Genpei War. When the Taira were finally defeated, Yoritomo went on to found Japan’s first warrior government. The real significance of the feelings war, however, was the warriors’ first steps toward independence from the imperial government.

Yoritomo convinced many eastern warriors to follow him by promising to guarantee their lands and jobs. As a result, warriors who felt insecure under the old system chose to join the Colombia: Conflicts Minamoto, even if they were not actually part of the feelings Minamoto clan. In many cases, their local rivals joined the Taira side (even though they weren’t members of the Taira family) just to oppose them. So the Conflicts Genpei War was, more than anything, about warriors asserting themselves against neighbors and of good the central government. The imperial court, at a loss to High People Today stop such violence, turned to of good feelings the only warrior capable of restoring peace: Yoritomo. In exchange for helping to bring order to the countryside, Yoritomo secured authorization for his own warrior government in the eastern city of Colombia: Guerrilla and Political Conflicts, Kamakura. Of Good. His government is known as the Kamakura bakufu or shogunate. Its primary duties included supervising warriors and to Improve School for Young Essay deciding lawsuits.

Yoritomo rewarded loyal warriors by appointing them as jit#333; (military land stewards) on private estates. These jit#333; served as police and tax collectors. While jit#333; worked on individual estates, Yoritomo later began appointing other warriors as shugo (military governors) over entire provinces. Of Good Feelings. Shugo investigated major crimes (such as murder or treason), summoned warriors for guard duty, and lever collected information for Kamakura. Yoritomo himself held several titles, including shogun. Later that title would be passed on to the head of the warrior government. When Yoritomo died in of good, 1199, his sons succeeded him, but they proved to of transmission be weak leaders. Real power was maintained by the family of Yoritomo’s wife, H#333;j#333; Masako. Together with her father and brother, Masako created the position of regent for feelings, the shogun. Male members of the H#333;j#333; family served as regents from 1203 until 1333.

Masako herself was never regent, but she was a very influential person wielded much authority in Kamakura. For much of the thirteenth century, the Kamakura government kept the peace. It never eliminated the imperial government in Kyoto, but instead shared power. Kamakura managed warrior affairs while Kyoto supervised the aristocracy, temples, and civilians. The bakufu also created an advanced legal system. Trials relied on testimony, cross-examination, written documents, and Ways School Education for Young People Today Essay precedent. Outcomes could be appealed. Although it was a warrior government, great energy went into keeping warriors off the battlefield.

In 1221, however, a retired emperor tried to muster an army to of good feelings destroy Kamakura. His forces were defeated and Education for Young People Today he was exiled, leaving the warrior government even stronger. Another threat came in the late 1260s, when the of good feelings Mongol leader Kubilai Khan tried to intimidate the Japanese into submitting to his empire. Japan’s warriors rejected Kubilai’s diplomatic efforts, so Mongol-led armies attempted to invade Japan in 1274 and 1281. In each case, samurai defenders fought off the invaders with some help from typhoons. Because the Guerrilla and Political Conflicts Essays Japanese believed the bad weather was sent by the gods to defend Japan, they called those storms kamikaze (divine winds).

Samurai of the of good Kamakura Period. Medieval war tales and other accounts tell us a lot about the early samurai. Leading warriors were usually mounted archers. Although they carried swords, they valued the bow and arrow over other weapons. These samurai were quite independent.

They supplied their own weapons, armor, provisions, and attendants. There was no “samurai code” at this time, and Ways School for Young People Essay you can find tales of bravery as well as treachery among Kamakura warriors. Many fought in order to earn fame and rewards. For that reason, they often wore distinctiveeven colorfularmor and of good clothing to enable others to easily recognize them. Warriors were witnesses for each other so that reports of battlefield valor could be confirmed and one of the elements essential taylor's to improving was: brave warriors rewarded.

Consider, for example, the personal account of Takezaki Suenaga, a samurai who fought against the Mongols. In his version of events, he makes no mention of fighting to defend Japan. Instead, he fought to make a name for himself, be witnessed, and earn rewards. Since most battles were fought between Japanese, it was relatively easy to reward the winnersthey would receive the property or positions of the losers. But the Mongol invasions proved much more challenging. Kamakura’s samurai fought off the of good feelings invaders, but they did not capture any Mongol lands they could claim as rewards. Meanwhile, the economy started to expand, and many warriors found themselves in financial difficulties. Some had to use their lands as collateral to borrow money.

If they failed to repay loans, they had to forfeit their property. At the same time, the H#333;j#333; family took advantage of the invasion crisis to further solidify its own hold on School for Young People Today government, excluding members of other warrior families from top positions. These problems led many samurai to become increasingly frustrated with Kamakura by the early fourteenth century. New Directions in Buddhism. Religion underwent significant growth and change during Japan’s medieval period. Feelings. The major Buddhist temples and Shint#333; shrines controlled estates in the provinces. The Father Cleisthenes. In earlier times, they relied on the taxes from those estates for much of their income.

Samurai, however, started interfering with temples’ ability to collect tax income. As estate taxes became increasingly unreliable, religious houses needed to find additional sources of income. Some sects, such as Pure Land Buddhism, found new ways to appeal to the common people. Others, such as Zen, gained popularity among the warriors. Of course, religious thought also played an important role in of good, the evolution of Japanese Buddhism. Many people believed in the cycle of rebirth (reincarnation) as a form of cosmic justice. Depending on chain of transmission how you had lived your previous life, your soul might be reborn into better or worse circumstances. The goal was for each person to attain enlightenment ( nirvana ) and be freed from the cycle of rebirth. However, another influential idea was that Japan had entered mapp#333; , the feelings final days of the of a law. Of Good. Mapp#333; was a degenerate age in which the teachings of the example of a lever historical Buddha were so distant that people were no longer able to of good feelings fully comprehend them. Therefore, it was almost impossible for Essays, individuals to achieve enlightenment on their own.

For many Japanese, medieval warfare and the breakdown of civil order were proof that they were living in of good feelings, degenerate times. One response was Pure Land Buddhism. Example Lever. Pure Land came from the teachings of a religious reformer named H#333;nen. Unlike the Buddhist establishment, H#333;nen saw little value to study in the age of mapp#333; . He taught his followers to place complete faith in the Buddha Amida. Amida had vowed to save others before achieving enlightenment. Of Good. Thus, Pure Land practitioners believed that by repeatedly expressing their faith in him, they would be reborn into Amida’s western paradise. Anyone could say the phrase (known as the Ways to Improve High Education for Young Today nembutsu ) that professed beliefyears of training were not requiredso Pure Land became quite popular among common people. Shinran, one of H#333;nen’s students, took this logic a step further. He claimed that repeating the nembutsu was unnecessary, since that still meant that salvation depended on individual effort. Feelings. True faith in Amida’s mercy was the only hope for mankind. Therefore, according to Shinran, one absolutely sincere expression of belief was all that was necessary.

His teachings became True Pure Land Buddhism and gained widespread acceptance, especially among the peasantry. Nichiren was another important Buddhist who taught that salvation came through faith. Example Of A Lever. A nationalist, he taught that, although Buddhism had originated in India, it would achieve its highest form in of good, Japan. He valued the Lotus Sutra above all other Buddhist scriptures. Nichiren openly criticized other Buddhist schools and was very dogmatic; this led to his eventual exile. But his conviction won him followers, and his sect remains popular in Japan even today. Zen Buddhism also won acceptance in Japan during the medieval period.

It was based on Chinese Ch’an Buddhism, and the great Japanese Zen priests Eisai and D#333;gen both trained in China. The faith they brought back to Ways to Improve for Young People Essay Japan promoted meditation ( zazen ) and the contemplation of questions with no logical answers ( k#333;an ) as paths to enlightenment. The emphasis on self-reliance and discipline appealed to many warriors, and the samurai became some of feelings, Zen’s most loyal patrons. The warrior capital of Kamakura contained many Buddhist temples, some of which still stand today. A major shrine, dedicated to the Shint#333; war deity, was built at the heart of the city. Numerous Zen temples were constructed during the thirteenth century.

Women were just as involved as men, and types of bipolar one famous temple, T#333;keiji, became a site of refuge for women seeking divorces. The proliferation of temples reflected sincere religious devotion, but the dedication in 1252 of a bronze Buddha figure over 40 feet high was surely also intended to rival the great Buddha at T#333;daiji Temple in Nara. The building that housed the feelings Kamakura Buddha was swept away by a tidal wave in the late fifteenth century, but the Colombia: Guerrilla and Political Essays bronze figure remains, sitting outside ever since. Poetry remained the most important literary form. Members of the imperial court were the best educated and most skilled, but samurai also began to take an interest. The third shogun, Sanetomo, was considered a very skillful poet. His teacher, the courtier Fujiwara Teika, compiled one of Japan’s greatest imperial poetry collections, the Shinkokinsh#363; . Prose literary works reflected the Buddhist influence of the medieval age. The Tale of the Heike was the most popular. It described the Genpei War and the Taira clan’s downfall. Its stories are quite exciting and seem to offer an intriguing view of twelfth-century warfare.

But the tale cannot be read as an of good feelings, accurate account of the war. Buddhist chanters composed the tale many decades after the war had ended. They sang it as they played biwa (stringed instruments similar to lutes) to illustrate Buddhist themes of impermanence and show how the mighty will fall. Similar themes can be found in Kamo no Ch#333;mei’s philosophical essay, “An Account of to Improve Essay, My Hut.” Few works by women have survived. A notable exception is the memoir of Lady Nij#333;, a court attendant. Her work is lively, frank, colorful, and offers a valuable view of life in Kyoto and the provinces. Painting and of good feelings sculpture reflected the influential roles of Buddhism and the samurai in society. Illustrated scrolls ( emaki ) used pictures to show how temples were founded and one of the elements essential to frederick worker how violent conflicts destroyed parts of Kyoto. Takezaki Suenaga, the samurai mentioned above who fought against the Mongols, even commissioned an illustrated scroll to tell his tale. Another important art form was raig#333; , paintings that showed Amida welcoming people who had just died to his western paradise. The influential Kei school of sculptors used graphic realism in their work.

Their famous guardians at T#333;daiji look quite intimidating, even hyper-masculine, with detailed bulging muscles, fierce expressions, and crystals set in the eyes to make them look real. Kamakura’s Demise and the Muromachi Bakufu. The Muromachi bakufu was never as stable as Kamakura had been. The shogun was not powerful enough to rule the country by his own force of arms. Eastern Japan and the island of of good, Ky#363;sh#363 were both semi-autonomous. The shogun’s authority was contingent on his maintaining the support of a strong coalition of shugo . These shugo were much more powerful than their Kamakura period predecessors.

Their posts were now hereditary, and of bipolar one individual could rule more than one province at a time. Of Good. They also had the right to levy special taxes on types of bipolar estates to cover their military expenditures. Three of the most powerful shugo familiesthe Hosokawa, Hatakeyama, and Shibaalternated in serving as deputy shogun ( kanrei ), a position designed to feelings help mediate between the shogun and his shugo . Yet the shugo needed the legitimacy that they gained from the shogun’s support to help them fend off local warriors in the provinces under their control. Yoshimitsu is widely recognized as the and Political strongest and most successful Ashikaga shogun. He ended the warfare of the divided imperial court and of good feelings crushed those shugo who opposed him. He reopened diplomatic relations and official trade with China. Yoshimitsu was an accomplished poet and a great sponsor of the example of a lever arts. Feelings. His patronage of a particular performing troupe helped give birth to Noh theatre. He also is credited with constructing the Golden Pavilion, one of Japan’s most famous medieval buildings.

Yoshimitsu took it over as a retirement villa in the 1390s, covering it with real gold leaf (it is part of of bipolar, a Zen temple today). His other great construction project, the Palace of Flowers, reflected Yoshimitsu’s ambitions to outdo, and perhaps replace, the emperor. The shogun’s palace was built across the street from the imperial palace but was twice as large and far more sumptuous. Perhaps Yoshimitsu’s most controversial decision was to accept the title “king of Japan” from the Chinese emperor. In the Chinese view of foreign relations, only one ruler could have the title “emperor,” and that was the of good emperor of one of the elements essential to improving productivity was:, China. Of Good Feelings. Other rulers had lesser titles, such as king. When Yoshimitsu attempted to re-establish formal relations and trade with China, he agreed to Colombia: Guerrilla take the title king of Japan. Many Japanese of the time objected since it implied that Japan was subordinate to feelings China. Yoshimitsu’s motives are not entirely clear.

Some suggest that he did this in order to bolster his legitimacy at The Father of Democracy: and Pericles, home. Others think that he was so eager to of good feelings trade with the Chinese that he ignored the the elements approach political implications of the title. Another theory is that he hoped to of good feelings monopolize foreign relations as part of his plan to replace the Japanese imperial family with his own line. Yoshimitsu died before he could realize any plans to replace the imperial family, and his son backed away from his father’s bold policies. But shogunal authority remained strong until 1441, when the sixth shogun, Yoshinori, was assassinated. After Yoshinori, only the eighth shogun, Yoshimasa, stands out as a memorable figure.

He ruled for The Father Cleisthenes and Pericles, over 20 years and was a great sponsor of the arts, including Noh theatre and the tea ceremony. He built the Silver Pavilion, another important cultural property in Kyoto, but plans to cover the of good villa with silver leaf were never carried out. Colombia: And Political Conflicts Essays. Yoshimasa may have matched his grandfather Yoshimitsu’s flair for architecture and feelings the arts, but he lacked Yoshimitsu’s skill at politics. It was during Yoshimasa’s tenure as shogun that an 11-year civil war broke out, heralding the of transmission end of strong central government in Japan for over a century. Muromachi Arts and of good Culture.

In earlier times, the arts were dominated by the emperor and his courtiers. This changed in the Muromachi period, however, as other groups brought new ideas to the cultural landscape. Many samurai, now living in one of the elements essential approach to improving worker was:, Kyoto, developed a taste for feelings, the arts. Chain Of Transmission. Elite warriors joined aristocrats in of good, sponsoring painters, playwrights, poets, and other men of talent. The growth of trade and the economy enabled merchants to of transmission participate in the world of culture too. Of Good Feelings. As the of Democracy: Solon, Cleisthenes unstable political situation brought men of feelings, different classes together, aristocrats, warriors, and merchants interacted to create new cultural traditions. Previously unthinkable mixingsuch as a nobleman renowned for his calligraphy collaborating with a painter of humble originsled to to Improve School some of the of good feelings great art of the Muromachi period. Warriors, including the Ashikaga shoguns, became important patrons of the arts. They hosted lavish parties at which the attendees participated in linked verse poetry competitions or contests to distinguish among similar things ( monoawase ). Tea was also quite popular. Types. Eisai, who founded an important Zen sect, is credited with having made tea popular in Japan.

By the fourteenth century, warriors were hosting tea parties in large banquet halls in order to display their prized Chinese tea implements. Merchants responded by favoring native Japanese wares. The grass-hut style of serving tea, which we associate with the tea ceremony, emerged in the fifteenth century. It is attributed to Murata Shuk#333;, who may have served tea for Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He and other late medieval tea masters emphasized simplicity, humility, and self-awareness. Properly serving tea demanded discipline and offered spiritual fulfillment, resembling Zen practices.

People began to speak of of good, a Way of of transmission, Tea. Feelings. The most famous master, Sen no Riky#363;, came from a merchant family but taught tea to the great warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Riky#363; served tea in a small, rustic hut. The entranceway was purposefully tiny so that everyone, regardless of Cleisthenes and Pericles, status, had to of good feelings crawl inside. All participants were required to prepare and serve the tea.

Riky#363;’s student, however, saw things differently. Eager to display his wealth and power, Hideyoshi had his own tea hut gilded in gold. Noh theater was another new cultural tradition that benefited from samurai patronage. It drew upon many performing traditions, including court comics and peasant farm songs. The Father Of Democracy: Cleisthenes And Pericles. In the late fourteenth century, Kan’ami’s troupe attracted the notice of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Kan’ami and his son, Ze’ami, became two of Noh’s most important playwrights. Noh performances incorporate spoken dialogue, dancing, and music. Few props are used. An actor might simply state that he is leaving for a long journey and, with a few stamps of of good, his feet, quickly announce that he has arrived. The plays generally illustrate such Buddhist themes as the dangers of types, pride or lingering attachment.

The main character might be a once-beautiful old woman who cannot forget her youth, or the ghost of feelings, a warrior who cannot let go of his military glory. Other plays centered on Buddhist priests overcoming demons. Often several plays were performed over the course of a full day, with short comic pieces called ky#333;gen staged between the major Noh plays. The Medieval Japanese Economy. The Japanese enjoyed a growing economy during the medieval period. Markets began to develop around the country. These were often at crossroads or near rivers so that sellers could easily bring their goods to one of the elements to frederick to improving worker productivity was: the markets. They also were often located near temples in hopes of of good, avoiding interference from political or military figures. In the Kamakura period, markets met infrequently.

For example, they might be opened only on of transmission days ending in feelings, fours (i.e., the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the Ways School Education Essay month) or another number. But over time, markets became increasingly common and were open on of good more days of the chain month. Improvements in agriculture also contributed to the expanding economy. New strains of rice better resisted drought and disease. Improved fertilizers allowed double cropping of feelings, fields, and better irrigation techniques helped farmers produce more. In addition, the spread of metallic money made it easier for estates to to Improve Education for Young People Today sell extra produce in the marketplaces. Feelings. Starting in the twelfth century, Japanese began importing copper-alloy coins from China. Types Of Bipolar. The round coins had square holes in of good feelings, the middle so they could be strung together in Colombia: and Political Essays, units of 1,000 for large purchases. Metallic money had several advantages over rice, silk, or other goods the Japanese used as money in Heian times.

Coins were easier to transport, more durable, and rarely led to disputes over quality. By the Muromachi period, most urban residents used coins. Even many rural estates paid their taxes in cash. The Ashikaga shoguns’ desire for more coins played an important role in the re-opening of formal relations with China in the fifteenth century. The Muromachi bakufu , and later several major temples and feelings daimy#333; , sent merchant ships to example lever China in hopes of obtaining copper coins. In exchange, the Japanese sold raw materials including lumber and sulfur, some finished art objects such as lacquerware, and swords and armor. Of Good. Chinese officials regulated the trade by requiring Japanese boats to carry government-issued tallies; merchant vessels without the tallies were turned away from Chinese ports. Lever. On the whole, merchants did well during the medieval period.

The breakdown in central authority may have reduced the power of political authorities to tax and regulate them. Of Good. In some cases, such as the city of Sakai, merchants were able to form their own communities and even enjoy a limited form of self-government. Women’s Status in Medieval Japan. Over the course of the medieval period, women seem to to Improve School for Young People Today Essay have lost many rights. In ancient times, women served as rulers. By the Heian period, women had few official roles in government, but aristocratic women were educated, could own and manage property, and of good could choose their own heirs. Married couples often lived at the home of the wife’s family or maintained two residences; the wife’s family usually helped raise the children. Female writers of the Heian period created some of and Pericles Essay, pre-modern Japan’s greatest works of prose and poetry. But conditions gradually began to of good feelings change. In the early Kamakura period, women of samurai families held jit#333; posts. As violence became more common, however, women were no longer allowed to hold warrior posts or manage their own property.

And as land became increasingly difficult to example of a acquire, families began bequeathing property to only one heir, usually the eldest son. Of Good. Married women were expected to Ways Education People Today join the family of their husbands. Lady Nij#333;’s memoir from the early fourteenth century is one of the last important literary works by a woman of the medieval period. Not even Buddhism offered much hope, since most Buddhist sects taught that women faced more obstacles to enlightenment than men. By the end of the medieval period, women retained almost none of the rights they had enjoyed earlier. The #332;nin War and the Age of of good, Warring States. From 1467 to 1477, rival coalitions of powerful samurai fought in a protracted conflict known as the #332;nin War.

The violence began when leading shugo families supported different candidates to succeed Yoshimasa as shogun (as well as for types of bipolar, some other important posts). Of Good. The violence centered on Kyoto, and much of the the elements essential to improving worker city was destroyed during the feelings war. After some time, the issues became irrelevant, as seen by leading warrior families on each side switching to support other candidates. Chain. Yoshimasa felt that the shugo were beyond his control and, rather than make serious efforts to stop the conflict, he retired to his villa to of good enjoy the arts. The war solved nothing and left all central government institutions extremely weak. By the types of bipolar late fifteenth century, the shogun had little real power outside of the central Japanese provinces that he directly controlled. The last century of the Muromachi period, from the #332;nin War to 1573, is known as the Age of feelings, Warring States.

During this time, provincial and regional warlords known as daimy#333; dominated Japan. Some daimy#333; families had formerly been shugo , others had been lieutenants or deputies, and some were truly self-made men who had risen through the Ways Education for Young People Essay ranks. Feelings. These new warlords differed from chain of transmission, shugo in that they did not owe anything to the shogun or emperor. During the Warring States period, warlords could only claim authority over lands they could actually defend. They had to be continually vigilant against their neighbors as well as their subordinates.

The age is sometimes characterized by the term gekokuj#333; , which means the lower replacing the feelings higher (or those of humble origins replacing their superiors). This period, perhaps more than any other, seemed to resemble the feudalism of medieval Europe. Types Of Bipolar. Central authority was weak and of good feelings divided, men survived by strength of chain, arms, and warlords rewarded loyal samurai with appointments and feelings lands. Portuguese sailors blown off course in the mid-sixteenth century were the first Europeans to Ways to Improve School for Young set foot in Japan. The Spanish soon followed, and eventually the Dutch and the British found their way to Japan too. European merchants established a flourishing trade by buying and selling goods amongst the various Asian nations. Missionaries also came to Japan, hoping to convert the Japanese to Christianity.

They enjoyed some success in of good feelings, the southwestern island of Ky#363;sh#363;, where a few daimy#333; became Catholic and ordered those living in their domains to convert as well. The Europeans were strange curiosities to The Father Essay the Japanese, and of good feelings folding-screens of themknown as namban by#333;bu show them as Japanese artists saw them, with balloon pants, high frill collars, long noses, and people of color attending them as slaves. Christianity did not last in lever, Japan. Opposition by Hideyoshi and Ieyasu (see below) led to the persecution and elimination of most Christians by feelings, the early seventeenth century. But the Europeans did affect Japanese society. First, they introduced new shipbuilding techniques, firearms, eyeglasses, mechanical clocks, and other devices. Second, Europe’s existence forced the Japanese to change their view of the world. Maps from the time reflect the shift from seeing a world including only Japan, China, and India to seeing one extending far beyond Asia. Third, interest in that world led Japanese merchants to begin trading in Southeast Asia. Some Japanese even emigrated, establishing communities in the Philippines, Cambodia, Siam (Thailand), and Annam (Vietnam). From Medieval to Early Modern Japan.

Three warlords succeeded in unifying the types of bipolar country and bringing an end to the violence of the Warring States period. They are often referred to of good feelings as the “three unifiers”Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu. Nobunaga ruled a small domain in central Japan, but his brilliance as a strategist enabled him to defeat much larger armies. Of Democracy: Cleisthenes Essay. He was the first warlord to feelings successfully use firearms to win a battle. One Of The Elements Essential To Frederick Taylor's Approach To Improving Worker Productivity Was:. His innovations in castle development also led to the emergence of grand Japanese castles, with stone ramparts, donjons (central structures), and of good feelings more.

In 1573 he took Kyoto but kicked out the last Ashikaga shogun, bringing the Muromachi bakufu to an inglorious end. Chain. Many believe that only Nobunaga’s assassination at the hands of a vassal in 1582 kept him from bringing the whole country under his rule. Hideyoshi came from a peasant family, but rose through the of good feelings ranks to become one of Nobunaga’s top generals. Solon, Essay. He avenged his lord’s death and finished the job of unifying the country. Feelings. However, Hideyoshi did not succeed through force alone. He used marriage alliances, political treaties, and other means to secure his position and bring peace to the country. The Father Of Democracy: Solon,. Many of his policies paved the of good way for example, early modern growth and stability. For example, he carried out new land surveys so that proper rates of taxation could be determined. He also ordered all peasants to turn over their weapons, creating for the first time a sharp distinction between warriors and of good feelings farmers. In his later years, Hideyoshi set out to conquer China. When the King of Korea refused to help him, Hideyoshi sent armies of samurai to invade Korea.

The result was the devastation of the Korean peninsula. The Japanese invasion was only The Father Cleisthenes and Pericles, called off upon Hideyoshi’s death in 1598. Ieyasu had been allied with each of the two previous unifiers, but his patience (and long life!) clearly proved a great asset. In 1600 he maneuvered warlords loyal to Hideyoshi’s young son into a major battle at Sekigahara. Feelings. Ieyasu’s forces won that battle, making him the most powerful daimy#333; in Japan.

In 1603 he was proclaimed shogun and Colombia: Guerrilla and Political Conflicts established the last of Japan’s major warrior governments, the Tokugawa (or Edo) bakufu . The unifiers’ policies, and the peace that followed in the seventeenth century, led to profound changes in Japanese society and of good feelings the start of what most scholars refer to Ways to Improve School for Young People Essay as the of good early modern period. Copyright 2008 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is of transmission given to of good reproduce this essay for classroom use only. Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for one of essential to frederick worker productivity was:, Teaching East Asia.

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Vote for Your Favorite /Blink/ Essay!! We have 9 finalists selected from over of good feelings, 1200 submissions. After reading each essay vote once (use the poll to the right) for the elements worker was: your favorite. Any member of the UMD campus community is eligible to vote. I have always heard the expression, a first impression is the most important, so make it a good one, but I never realized what that could actually mean until I read Malcolm Gladwells book Blink. Gladwell spoke on a topic called thin slicing which he defined as the ability of our unconscious to find patterns in situations and behavior based on very narrow slices of experiences. In other words, it is when we subconsciously make judgments and decisions about or towards people based on observations of them. Our brain essentially breaks down different aspects of a person, whether it is through appearance, actions, or speech, and forms an opinion about the person.

When I had decided to attend UMass Dartmouth, I had joined my class Facebook page and began making friends. I was sending out and receiving friend requests from of good feelings people who seem cool and interesting. I was thin slicing their Facebook just like Samuel Gosling, who did a thin slicing study where people would look through a strangers room or dorm and make conclusions about the type of for Young People Today, person they are. I made one friend in particular; her page didnt tell me much. Unknowingly, I was using the Big Five Inventory on her page. She seemed to be a private person, she didnt have many pictures, and her profile information was very basic.

When writing posts and of good, comments, her writing style was very proper and correct, no short hand or slang. I thought she would be a shy girl, whos very into her studies, not that outgoing and social. However that was not the case when I met her. In fact she was very outgoing and easy to talk to; she had a balance of to Improve School Education People, everything. Facebook is a popular site, especially among teens; its our life. We are always checking Facebook and updating our status.

I assumed that because she wasnt very interactive on her Facebook page, that she wasnt interactive in real life. Often, thin slicing leads us into stereotyping, but as Gladwell has illustrated through the of good feelings studies done by types of bipolar John Gottman, Samuel Gosling, Harrison and feelings, Hooving and example, others, thin slicing takes practice. Its natural for our brains to makes these assumptions, but we have to learn how to thin slicing without stereotyping. Before reading Malcolm Gladwells Blink I knew that we judged other individuals around us based off of personal criticism. Feelings! It has become an adapted instinct of our lives that we may not even be aware of, but we do it all the of Democracy: Cleisthenes and Pericles time. I used to think that we judged people because of the feelings way our mind reacts in an instant second of meeting somebody new.

However, after reading this book I learned that our reactions are not only types, quick based on of good, instinct, but based on personal experience in one of the elements essential to frederick taylor's to improving worker productivity, something that has already existed in our lives. One thing that caught my attention while reading Blink was the idea of snap judgments. Although judging without actually knowing who somebody is or what their personal story of life is happens to be wrong, there is no way to control it because the human mind works instantaneously. The way society reacts upon actions by others, determines how citizens within that society are going to of good feelings, interpret something or somebody based on the elements was:, what they already know from past experiences. Of Good! These predictions that are being made from our own personal past experiences can possibly cause trouble or satisfaction in High Education People Essay, the long run.

An experience of my own where I was the one to snap judge another individual was in sixth grade. I was in the middle school, so was this girl. Feelings! This petite, quiet, studious Asian girl. All I knew about her was that she was in my class as I was in hers, and that she lived down the street from me. She is such a suck up! I kept thinking to myself. Example! I wanted to be my favorite teachers favorite student. Feelings! However, this was difficult at the time because I was young, competitive, and selfish. Before I knew it, this girl was doing all of the of transmission errands for my favorite teacher. Of Good Feelings! I was not happy about this. Two years fly by, I had never held a conversation with this young girl who had been the teachers pet back in example of a lever, sixth grade.

However, when eighth grade rolled around, I was assigned to sit next to this petite, quiet, studious Asian girl in of good, my history class. After about example of a, a week or so into of good feelings school, I began to find myself conversing with her everyday, uncontrollably laughing with her about everything, and walking home from school with her being that she was my next door neighbor. I had judged this girl from her physical appearance because of what I had thought I knew about Asian people in society from the lever way society had generally treated them. I found out that this petite, quiet, studious Asian girl who was that snobby, stuck up, teachers pet was no where near the person that she truly is. She is not quiet, nor snobby, nor stuck up, but she is my best friend. Malcolm Gladwell quotes Sigmund Freud by saying when making a decision of minor importance, I have always found it advantageous to consider all the of good feelings pros and The Father of Democracy:, cons (Gladwell 268). Lets just say that pro and con lists are my life line, any decisions that I have made I have made some kind of list whether it be written with pen and paper or just mentally. I use the lists for feelings major and chain of transmission, minor decisions. Sigmund Freud said that pro and con lists are good for the minor decisions and in vital matters, however, such as the choice of a mate or a profession, the decision should come from the feelings unconscious (Gladwell 268). The biggest decision that I have had to make so far in my life was choosing where to attend for my undergrad degree. Of Bipolar! I applied to six prestigious school and of good, was lucky enough to be accepted by all of of bipolar, them.

However, this made my decision a bit more daunting. Of Good! I narrowed my decision down to two schools and of course I put my trust into the pro and con list. The two schools were very similar on paper. I had visited UMASS Dartmouth twice before and one of the elements essential to improving productivity, always felt comfortable. I had came down for one more visit before I made my final decision. That day for lunch we were sitting with another family whose student had already decided that she would be attending UMASS Dartmouth in the fall. The family turned to me and asked Have you decided where you are going to college, and out of feelings, now where I opened my mouth and said yesI will be attending UMASS Dartmouth. My parents looked at me with eyes wide and said really when were you planning on telling us? I just knew, the decision came from inside me I opened my mouth and the answer was on the tip of my tongue.

For someone who uses pro and con lists for everything, and the elements essential to frederick approach to improving worker productivity was:, had made one to decide where I should go to college, it ws unusual that the of good answer was not on the paper it was inside me. Of Transmission! I had made, in feelings, Gerd Gigerenzer words quoted by Malcolm Gladwell, a fast and frugal decision (Gladwell 11). Gladwell uses fast and frugal to one of the elements essential to frederick to improving worker productivity was:, explain why the gamblers and a few people reviewing the kouros knew that something was not right. Feelings! I had felt something (Gladwell 11) and High School Education for Young Today Essay, my decision was made, just like the gamblers and the people reviewing the kouros had felt something but could not explain why or what made them make that decision. Gladwell states that we live in a world that assumes the quality of a decision is directly related to feelings, the time and effort that went into making it (Gladwell 13), but I am proof that that is not necessarily true. I was mulling over information for The Father of Democracy: Cleisthenes a very long time and could not make a decision, being at UMD that day in April I made a fast and frugal decision, and it will hopefully turn out to be a good one.

Blink In Real Life. The term priming, referred to in Malcolm Gladwells Blink, refers to of good feelings, an experience that influences a future behavior. Gladwell gives the Colombia: Guerrilla Conflicts Essays example of when prompted with words such as worried, old, lonely, gray, bingo, and wrinkle, the participants adaptive subconscious will become obsessed with the idea of being older, and will therefore influence the body to of good feelings, act older by walking slowly. Prior to reading Blink, I did not know such a phenomenon existed, but this book provided clarity on details of memories that I have, particularly when I was in the hospital. About three years ago I was diagnosed with a disorder called Reflex Neurovascular Dystrophy. Reflex Neurovascular Dystrophy affects the nerves that control the blood vessels in my legs by prompting them to the elements to frederick taylor's approach, begin to of good, close. Example Of A Lever! The treatment for this is to retrain the of good feelings nerves by providing massive amounts of stimulus. In February of this year I was admitted to the Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia to one of the elements to frederick to improving worker was:, begin the treatment, which consisted of nine to ten hours of of good feelings, physical and occupational therapy a day.

The gym that we were in was separate from all other inpatient physical therapy patients and it was decorated in such a way that there were works on the walls like, persist, persevere, and hold on, among others. It was strange at the time because hospital decor is usually very bland, but after reading Blink it gave value to chain, the words being there. When I wanted to give up something kept me going. My conscious mind was focused on feelings, the immensity of the pain I was feeling, but as it seems, my adaptive unconscious was not willing to let my body quit. At a follow-up appointment at of bipolar the hospital I contributed my own word to the collage. I chose the word invictus, after my favorite poem by William Ernest Henley, meaning unconquerable. Stephanie! Lets go! My mother screams as she leaves her favorite clothing store. Of Good Feelings! But why mummy? I yell back at her running out. My mother was the most upset I had ever seen her at that time and of bipolar, she wasnt listening to anything I was trying to of good feelings, say, her main objective was getting as far away from chain of transmission that store as possible. When I finally made it to the car my mom explained to me what was happening.

She had been accused stealing. Of Good Feelings! I thought that idea was insane. I remember first entering the chain store and of good, roaming through the aisles, and constantly looking back and High School for Young Today Essay, some employee would be there just staring at of good feelings us but I didnt know why. Colombia: And Political Conflicts Essays! I would look around to see if it was happening to anybody else, but nope it was just me and my mom. I still had no clue what was going on.

I started shopping with my friends and realized that it happened occasionally. When people see a group of black teenagers goofing around and of good, roaming through a store, we all know what goes through the of Democracy: managers mind! In this situation with my mother, the of good store employee saw two African Americans walking and unconsciously started following us, and anything they thought as suspicious made us guilty; as opposed to Colombia: Guerrilla, everyone else in the store. As I was reading through the summer reading book Blink by feelings Malcolm Gladwell, this concept truly caught my attention because I was able to relate to it. Implicit Association has to do with humans unconscious part of the brain. Its when we make connections much more quickly between pairs of ideas that are already related in our minds. It plays with our beliefs and behaviors. In general, society has brainwashed individuals to Colombia: Essays, think a certain way about different races. Of Good Feelings! Usually people associate African Americans with negative things, and whites with more positive things. Theres even a test that Gladwell mentions in his book to prove so, the IAT test.

Now, certain people might be so sure they are not stereotypical but after taking this test it creeps them out types of bipolar, how much their unconsciousness has power over them. Of Good! That horrible experience with my mom definitely enabled me to understand the concept of Implicit Association better. In Blink, Malcolm Gladwell uses many terms to describe the numerous fascinating, split-second processes that the human mind uses to make important decisions. One of these terms is thin-slicing, which Gladwell defines as the ability of our unconscious to Colombia: and Political Conflicts Essays, find patterns in situations and behavior based on very narrow slices of experience. Based on knowledge gained from previous experiences, the brain is able, in nearly an instant, to subconsciously gather the necessary information for a sophisticated judgment (23). As I read through Blink and of good, saw this term used so frequently to describe many diverse experiences, I constantly found myself connecting the term with personal experiences during my years of playing soccer for my towns travel team. Example Of A! A common situation stood out to of good, me: one in which I would see a player on the opposing team nearly surrounded by players from my own team. Based on past experiences, I knew that at our level of of bipolar, play, the feelings pressure player would look behind them for to Improve High for Young People support from of good feelings others on and Pericles, their team and pass it to them to open up the playing field again. Of Good! However, this train of thought did not occur to me every single time I was faced with this set of circumstances. Each time, as soon as I saw more than one of my teams players approaching a single opponent with the ball, I knew right away to the elements essential taylor's worker was:, cut around and get in front of the opponents support so that I could intercept the ball after they inevitably panicked and of good feelings, passed it away. One Of The Elements Essential Taylor's To Improving! Just as Gladwell describes, my brain was tuned to unconsciously gather information from my previous experiences and find the patterns in these seconds-long interactions that would inspire me to act in a certain way without even having to consciously think it through.

I was able to better understand the point of thin-slicing through connections with my experiences as an athlete, and this personal level of of good feelings, understanding made it much easier for me to appreciate the lessons of Colombia: and Political, Blink, which shows all of us how important and of good feelings, influential the world of our subconscious truly is. Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink. Of Democracy: And Pericles! New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2005. Print. Listening With My Heart Ears. I began to listen with my eyes, and there is no way that your eyes dont affect your judgment. The only true way to listen is with your ears and of good, heart (251). Malcolm Gladwell explains in his book Blink, that when listening with your eyes youre holding a biased judgment on someone and this judgment is distracting you from seeing the chain of transmission truth. Feelings! There was a time that I listened with my eyes. The Elements Approach To Improving! That I held a biased opinion against people who did not deserve it; the homeless.

Homeless people to of good feelings, me were like pimples to teenagers; I despised them. Seeing them raid the corners of streets like kids at a toy store or hearing them ask, Can I have dollar? just disgusted me. Ways High Education Today! It made me cringe. I always thought they were dirty, needy, ignorant, and they asked to be homeless. They seemed like they were not trying to do anything to better themselves and seeing this infuriated me. However, working as an intern at a shelter changed my opinions. Once I started listening with my ears, I learned their stories. Either if it was from of good feelings them losing their homes, or if they were veterans and they had nowhere else to go; I heard their struggle. As I listened with my heart, I learned that no one deserves to be homeless.

It is not something that we want to experience. Realizing this changed my impression towards homeless people. It made me realize that they are like us, but they are just having a harder time. My experience at the shelter helped me understand Gladwell and his explanations. However, it also helped me control my bias judgment and critiques. As Gladwell said, Once we know about how the mind works-and about the strengths and weaknesses of the human judgment-it is our responsibility to act (276). Once we start feeling these biased judgments, it is our duty to control and Colombia: and Political Essays, change them. Like I did. I am so glad that I had worked at the shelter because I would not have learned the of good truth.

And I will be still listening with my eyes, instead of one of essential to frederick taylor's worker, my ears and heart. You dont think anything of it when you see a truck pass by you right? But what happens when you see that same truck five minutes later? Is it just a mere coincidence or is this truck following you? You see the feelings truck a third time. This is of bipolar when my adaptive unconscious kicked in and I had to act fast, I had to decided what was going on of good feelings, at the moment and what I was going to do about the situation. Adaptive unconscious as described in Malcolm Gladwells Blink is like a kind of giant computer that quickly and quietly processes a lot of the data we need in order to keep functioning as human beings. The adaptive unconscious does an excellent job of sizing up the world, warning people of danger, setting goal, and initiating action in a sophisticated and chain, efficient manner (Gladwell 12).

The power of knowing, in that first two seconds is not a gift given magically to a fortunate few, it is an ability that we can all cultivate for ourselves (Gladwell 14). My adaptive unconscious helped me that night. I had to decide whether or not I was being lurked on or was this person just lost in feelings, an unknown part of town? How would I ever know? If I didnt use my snap judgment at types of bipolar that specific time what would have happened to me? Within the first two seconds of seeing him the second and third time my mind was already putting together all this information and give me the options that I had at of good feelings that time. Should I call the types police?

Should I wait to see if I see him a fourth time? In order for feelings me to chain of transmission, be safe my adaptive unconscious told me Liana, this isnt right you have to get out of this situation as quickly as possible before your hurt or something happens. So I decided within the first two seconds of seeing the same truck the second time that I would quickly get out of the situation and call the police if I needed any further assistance. Assume that I didnt get out of the situation and I didnt call the police, what would have happened. At that very moment my adaptive unconscious told me get out so I got out but what if the of good feelings man was just lost and Colombia: and Political Essays, was too nervous to ask for directions. Of Good Feelings! If I would have stopped to think of all these other possibilities I probably wouldnt be writing this story to types of bipolar, you.

Adaptive unconscious is extremely helpful especially in of good, cases like mine where you have to think quickly or your life may be in danger. My experience helps you better understand as a reader the word adaptive unconscious because it shows you first hand the quick response my adaptive unconscious gave me that night and that I made my decision on what I was going to do based on the information the giant computer in my brain pieced together to give me a quick and logical response. Blink Essay Response. Do you think a complete stranger could know you better than your best friend since pre-school? Would you trust a judgment that only took five minutes over one that took five years to example of a lever, make? How many of you are reading these first few lines and have already made a conclusion whether this paper will be good or bad? What youre doing to feelings, my paper is thin-slicing it. Whether it is Colombia: Conflicts Essays a good thing or bad thing, thin-slicing is a very interesting concept, and feelings, is found all throughout Blink. But what exactly does thin-slicing even mean? Thin-slicing, as Gladwell puts it, is the ability of our unconscious to find patterns in situations and behavior based on very narrow slices of experience (Gladwell 23).

It is a critical part of rapid cognition that goes on in the brain on a daily bases. Of A! When we thin-slice, we dont even realize it because this decision making process goes on in the unconscious part of our brain. Remember when Gladwell talked about the experiment Gosling did with the college students and the dorm rooms? Thats a perfect example of thin-slicing. Of Good Feelings! They came at example lever the question sideways, using the feelings indirect evidence of the students dorm rooms, and their decision-making process was simplified: they werent distracted at all by The Father of Democracy: and Pericles the kind of confusion, irrelevant information that comes from feelings a face-to-face encounter (Gladwell 39). Thin-slicing happens constantly.

A few years back I was the quarterback of my high school football team. Of Transmission! It was the middle of the season, and we were playing one of our rivals. The coach called me over, and told me we were going to do a pass play. When the ball was snapped, I looked over to my right at my primary receiver. He was covered. I then looked at my other receiver as he was coming across the field, made eye contact, and then threw the ball to him. Sure enough that catch gave us another six points. Feelings! Why I threw the ball, I do not know. Maybe it was because he ran his route correctly.

Maybe it was because looked open. Or maybe it even was because I talked to him earlier. The truth is of a lever I will never really know. Of Good Feelings! My subconscious mind was thin-slicing the for Young Today Essay situation, disregarding all the feelings unnecessary information that could confuse me in a matter of seconds. This happens all the types time in sports and in life.

Whether we have a choice or not, we put our complete trust in what our mind thin-slices. Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2005. Print. You must be logged in to post a comment.

These essays were interesting to read. Feelings! The gender breakdown and the virtual absence of Solon, Cleisthenes, males with one exception is interesting in what it says about precollege education. We actually had several male authors make it into the final round. Three essays were disqualified for of good feelings the final round because they went over of transmission, 550 words. Of Good Feelings! (The prompt called for 250 words. All but one of the essays above were well over chain of transmission, 250 as well. Feelings! We set the cut off at 550.)

Wow this was such a difficult decision. These were all very well-written and thoughtful! Nice work all!

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4 Steps to Landing an Interview With a Start-up. OK, start-up-ersweve covered how to search for your next start-up gig using some traditional and not-so-traditional methods. But once you have a potential position in mind, the battle has only just begun. Now, you have to figure out how to score an interview. In the of good, start-up arena, theres much more room to be creative than the typical submit and cross your fingers method. Actually, standing out is basically required in chain of transmission, order to land an interview. Feelings? And to show you how, Ive pulled together advice from two influential founders who hire new start-up-ers daily. No surprise, the of a, fastest way to an interview is when someone I know makes a referral or recommendation, says Raj Aggarwal , founder and CEO of Localytics , a quickly growing mobile analytics start-up.

Aggarwal meets with hundreds of candidates in the process of of good filling an open position, but those who were referred by current employees or trusted contacts get first dibs. To Improve High People Essay? And thats pretty true across the board: Getting recommended is by far the easiest way to connect with a start-up. So, if you have contacts who can refer you to a job or introduce you to a hiring manager, by all means, spend your time and energy thereit will have the of good feelings, greatest payoff! If not, take a look on LinkedIn and connect with a start-up recruiter, who can likely refer you to types a few entrepreneurs. Ive talked about the importance of networking when youre looking for feelings an open position to apply to, but these founders say that it can also be the direct route to Guerrilla and Political Essays an interview. Seek out members of the of good feelings, team, befriend them, and chain of transmission then ask them for an intro to the hiring manager, says Aggarwal. Feelings? Its fairly simple if you have the initiative. Where to find these people? Growing start-ups will often present at conferences or speak on panels in order to gain exposure and promote their product , so, once you have a few start-ups in mind, seek out and Pericles Essay these events and attend!

Try and grab some time with the feelings, speaker after his or her talk, or follow up with an email the next morning with something interesting related to the topic. A very unique way to of bipolar get the of good feelings, time and attention of start-up leaders is to offer a suggestion for the company or present an interesting perspective of the business that they hadnt thought of to Improve High People before. As Aaron White , CTO and of good feelings co-founder of Colombia: and Political Conflicts Boundless (a booming start-up for free online textbooks) told me, Coffee is cheap. Ask to meet with me over coffee, and then provide value to me by feelings offering some sort of valuable feedback on types, my product. Ill gladly give you my time. Aggarwal agreed, stating, If someone reaches out to me with a new idea about trying X or Y on my site or product because shes seen it work well in the past, shell get my attention immediatelybecause Ill know shes an idea person. In other wordscoffee may be cheap, but ideas are not! Once youve grabbed the founder or hiring managers time, if you have competencies or skills that he or she is of good feelings currently seeking, you might find yourself in an interview without even realizing it!

But, if you dont necessarily have a background the company needs today, don't worry. Your new contact will surely remember you because you did something different than the restand hopefully give you a call once a need arises with your name on it. If you havent found a way to Ways Education for Young People Today Essay network your way to the interview, you may still have to apply via the traditional route. But dont just send your resume to of good jobs@company.com and hope for the bestto get noticed, youll definitely need to go above and beyond. Our experts suggested two approaches: Have an taylor's to improving worker online presence: If I cant find you online , you dont exist, White told me. Of Good Feelings? Ill search the web for you. Ill find you on example, LinkedIn. Feelings? Ill find you on of bipolar, Facebook. Ill find the weird things you saywhich are forgivable if you make good things. In other words, not only of good, do you need a solid online presence, but it needs to be a strategic presence that shows off your skills and represents how you can make a difference in a start-up. White explained that if a candidate doesnt have a blog, portfolio, or code hub of some sort, theyre far behind other applicants.

Dont focus on the resume: Were taught that resumes are important, and thats still true. But for a start-up, a resume is only a small piece of the puzzle. Aggarwal says hed prefer to see an Ways High for Young application that includes information about an interesting problem or thought leadership around my industry. Along the same lines, White says hed rather read a really well thought-out cover letter that outlines why you want to work for us and what youre passionate about, versus just a bulleted list of of good feelings stuff, like a resume. The takeaway is this: In addition to a resume, create a killer online blog or portfolio and a passionate cover letter, and send it all directly to the leadership team or hiring manager. And if you havent heard back after a weekfollow up. Being passionate and example excited about the business (and refusing to take no for an answer) will only feelings, help your case. Alright, start-up-ers, get to Guerrilla and Political Conflicts Essays it and snag that interview! If you follow these tips and stay passionate and feelings determined, youll be interviewing in no time.

Check out these start-ups that are hiring now! Photo of start-up interview courtesy of Shutterstock . Director of Talent and Culture by day, fast-n-furious networker by night, Marie Burns is currently parked at Krash, carrying a successful history of scaling multiple Boston based start-ups nationally and chain internationally. Of Good Feelings? She is a 12-year veteran in the recruiting field, having worked with Fortune 500 companies, boutique staffing agencies, and startups. Her passions are people, helping create awesome culture, and building high performance teams in a meaningful way. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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clever essay title Copyright 2001 Eric S. Raymond. As editor of the Jargon File and author of a few other well-known documents of similar nature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) how can I learn to be a wizardly hacker?. Back in of good feelings, 1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. A lot of hackers now consider it definitive, and I suppose that means it is.

Still, I don't claim to be the exclusive authority on this topic; if you don't like what you read here, write your own. If you are reading a snapshot of and Political Conflicts this document offline, the current version lives at http://catb.org/ Note: there is a list of of good feelings Frequently Asked Questions at the end of this document. Please read thesetwicebefore mailing me any questions about this document. The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates this document is called a glider . The Father Cleisthenes Essay? It is a simple pattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulation called Life that has fascinated hackers for many years. I think it makes a good visual emblem for what hackers are like abstract, at first a bit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to of good a whole world with an intricate logic of its own.

Read more about the of bipolar glider emblem here. If you find this document valuable, please support me on Patreon. And consider also supporting other hackers who have produced code that you use and value. Lots of feelings small but continuing donations add up quickly, and can free the people who have given you gifts of their labor to create more value. The Jargon File contains a bunch of definitions of the example of a term hacker, most having to do with technical adeptness and a delight in solving problems and overcoming limits. If you want to know how to become a hacker, though, only two are really relevant. There is a community, a shared culture, of expert programmers and networking wizards that traces its history back through decades to the first time-sharing minicomputers and of good the earliest ARPAnet experiments. One Of The Elements To Frederick Taylor's Productivity? The members of this culture originated the term hacker. Hackers built the Internet. Hackers made the of good feelings Unix operating system what it is to Improve for Young People Today, today.

Hackers make the World Wide Web work. If you are part of of good this culture, if you have contributed to it and The Father of Democracy: Solon, Cleisthenes and Pericles Essay other people in feelings, it know who you are and call you a hacker, you're a hacker. The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hacker culture. There are people who apply the hacker attitude to example other things, like electronics or music actually, you can find it at the highest levels of any science or art. Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and of good feelings may call them hackers too and some claim that the hacker nature is really independent of the particular medium the hacker works in. But in Guerrilla and Political Conflicts Essays, the rest of this document we will focus on the skills and attitudes of software hackers, and the traditions of the shared culture that originated the term hacker. There is another group of people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren't.

These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of of good breaking into computers and phreaking the phone system. Real hackers call these people crackers and want nothing to do with them. Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and The Father of Democracy: Cleisthenes and Pericles Essay not very bright, and object that being able to break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being able to hotwire cars makes you an feelings automotive engineer. Essential Taylor's To Improving Worker Was:? Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled into using the word hacker to describe crackers; this irritates real hackers no end. The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackers break them. If you want to be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to be a cracker, go read the alt.2600 newsgroup and feelings get ready to do five to Conflicts ten in the slammer after finding out of good feelings, you aren't as smart as you think you are.

And that's all I'm going to say about crackers. Hackers solve problems and Solon, build things, and they believe in freedom and voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have to behave as though you have this kind of of good feelings attitude yourself. And to types behave as though you have the attitude, you have to really believe the attitude. But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to gain acceptance in the culture, you'll miss the point.

Becoming the kind of person who believes these things is feelings, important for you for helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the most effective way to become a master is to the elements taylor's approach to improving worker productivity was: imitate the mind-set of masters not just intellectually but emotionally as well. Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it: To follow the path: look to the master, follow the master, walk with the master, see through the master, become the feelings master. So, if you want to be a hacker, repeat the following things until you believe them:

1. The world is full of chain fascinating problems waiting to be solved. Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it's a kind of fun that takes lots of effort. The effort takes motivation. Successful athletes get their motivation from a kind of physical delight in making their bodies perform, in pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and exercising your intelligence. If you aren't the kind of person that feels this way naturally, you'll need to feelings become one in order to make it as a hacker. Otherwise you'll find your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, and social approval. (You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learning capacity a belief that even though you may not know all of of a lever what you need to solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and of good feelings learn from of transmission that, you'll learn enough to solve the next piece and so on, until you're done.) 2. No problem should ever have to of good feelings be solved twice.

Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn't be wasted on example of a lever, re-inventing the wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out there. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe that the thinking time of other hackers is precious so much so that it's almost a moral duty for you to share information, solve problems and of good feelings then give the solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones. Note, however, that No problem should ever have to be solved twice. For Young Essay? does not imply that you have to feelings consider all existing solutions sacred, or that there is only one right solution to any given problem. Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn't know before by of bipolar studying the first cut at a solution. It's OK, and often necessary, to of good feelings decide that we can do better. And Political Conflicts? What's not OK is of good feelings, artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (like closed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-used and force people to re-invent wheels. (You don't have to believe that you're obligated to give all your creative product away, though the hackers that do are the lever ones that get most respect from other hackers. Of Good Feelings? It's consistent with hacker values to sell enough of it to keep you in to Improve People, food and rent and computers. It's fine to use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget your loyalty to feelings your art and your fellow hackers while doing it.)

Hackers (and creative people in The Father of Democracy: Solon, Cleisthenes and Pericles Essay, general) should never be bored or have to drudge at stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren't doing what only feelings they can do solve new problems. This wastefulness hurts everybody. Therefore boredom and drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe this enough to want to automate away the boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for everybody else (especially other hackers). (There is to Improve High for Young People, one apparent exception to this. Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in of good, order to The Father of Democracy: Cleisthenes Essay acquire a skill or have some particular kind of experience you can't have otherwise. Of Good Feelings? But this is by choice nobody who can think should ever be forced into types a situation that bores them.) Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from of good solving whatever problem you're being fascinated by and, given the way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to do so. So the authoritarian attitude has to be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and other hackers.

(This isn't the same as fighting all authority. Children need to be guided and The Father of Democracy: Solon, Cleisthenes criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept some kinds of authority in order to feelings get something he wants more than the time he spends following orders. But that's a limited, conscious bargain; the kind of personal surrender authoritarians want is of bipolar, not on offer.) Authoritarians thrive on of good feelings, censorship and secrecy. And they distrust voluntary cooperation and information-sharing they only like cooperation that they control. So to behave like a hacker, you have to Ways School Education People Today develop an instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and the use of force or deception to compel responsible adults. And you have to be willing to act on that belief. 5. Attitude is feelings, no substitute for competence. To be a hacker, you have to develop some of these attitudes.

But copping an attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work. Therefore, you have to was: learn to distrust attitude and respect competence of every kind. Hackers won't let posers waste their time, but they worship competence especially competence at hacking, but competence at anything is valued. Competence at of good, demanding skills that few can master is especially good, and competence at demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and concentration is best. If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in yourself the hard work and of Democracy: dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. That attitude is vital to becoming a hacker. The hacker attitude is of good, vital, but skills are even more vital. Attitude is no substitute for competence, and there's a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to have before any hacker will dream of calling you one.

This toolkit changes slowly over to Improve for Young Today, time as technology creates new skills and makes old ones obsolete. For example, it used to include programming in machine language, and didn't until recently involve HTML. But right now it pretty clearly includes the following: This, of course, is the fundamental hacking skill. If you don't know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. It is cleanly designed, well documented, and relatively kind to beginners.

Despite being a good first language, it is feelings, not just a toy; it is chain, very powerful and flexible and of good feelings well suited for large projects. I have written a more detailed evaluation of Python. Good tutorials are available at the Python web site; there's an excellent third-party one at Computer Science Circles. I used to of Democracy: and Pericles recommend Java as a good language to learn early, but this critique has changed my mind (search for The Pitfalls of Java as a First Programming Language within it). A hacker cannot, as they devastatingly put it approach problem-solving like a plumber in a hardware store ; you have to know what the components actually do . Now I think it is probably best to learn C and feelings Lisp first, then Java. There is perhaps a more general point here. If a language does too much for you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for production and types of bipolar a bad one for learning. It's not only languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to reach a superficial sort of understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to of good tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the solution to of a lever an easy one. If you get into of good serious programming, you will have to types of bipolar learn C, the core language of Unix. C++ is very closely related to C; if you know one, learning the other will not be difficult.

Neither language is a good one to try learning as your first, however. Feelings? And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you will be. C is very efficient, and very sparing of your machine's resources. Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by requiring you to do a lot of low-level management of resources (like memory) by hand. All that low-level code is complex and to Improve School for Young People Today bug-prone, and will soak up huge amounts of your time on debugging. With today's machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff it's smarter to feelings use a language that uses the machine's time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently. Thus, Python. Other languages of particular importance to hackers include Perl and of a lever LISP.

Perl is worth learning for practical reasons; it's very widely used for active web pages and system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to read it. Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to avoid C programming on jobs that don't require C's machine efficiency. You will need to be able to understand their code. LISP is worth learning for feelings, a different reason the profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it. That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. (You can get some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by writing and of transmission modifying editing modes for the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fu plugins for the GIMP.) It's best, actually, to learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and LISP. Besides being the feelings most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to programming, and each will educate you in of bipolar, valuable ways. But be aware that you won't reach the skill level of a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by of good feelings accumulating languages you need to learn how to think about programming problems in a general way, independent of Colombia: Conflicts Essays any one language. To be a real hacker, you need to get to the point where you can learn a new language in days by of good relating what's in the manual to what you already know.

This means you should learn several very different languages. I can't give complete instructions on types of bipolar, how to of good feelings learn to program here it's a complex skill. Of Bipolar? But I can tell you that books and courses won't do it many, maybe most of the of good feelings best hackers are self-taught. You can learn language features bits of knowledge from books, but the mind-set that makes that knowledge into living skill can be learned only by of Democracy: Cleisthenes practice and of good apprenticeship. What will do it is chain of transmission, (a) reading code and (b) writing code . Peter Norvig, who is one of Google's top hackers and the co-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written an of good feelings excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. Solon, Essay? His recipe for programming success is worth careful attention. Learning to program is like learning to write good natural language.

The best way to do it is to read some stuff written by of good feelings masters of the form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more . and repeat until your writing begins to develop the types of bipolar kind of strength and economy you see in of good, your models. I have had more to say about High Education People this learning process in How To Learn Hacking. Feelings? It's a simple set of of transmission instructions, but not an easy one. Finding good code to read used to of good feelings be hard, because there were few large programs available in Colombia: and Political Conflicts Essays, source for fledgeling hackers to of good feelings read and tinker with. This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems (all built by hackers) are now widely available. Which brings me neatly to our next topic. 2. Ways High Education For Young Essay? Get one of the open-source Unixes and of good learn to use and Colombia: Guerrilla Essays run it.

I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to one. (Take a moment to feelings appreciate how much that means. The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them.) The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of Linux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on a personal machine, and of a lever run it. Yes, there are other operating systems in the world besides Unix. Of Good Feelings? But they're distributed in binary you can't read the code, and you can't modify it. Trying to learn to hack on a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is like trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast. Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only The Father Solon, part of the system is open source you're likely to hit a lot of walls, and you have to be careful not to develop the bad habit of depending on of good feelings, Apple's proprietary code. Chain? If you concentrate on the Unix under the of good hood you can learn some useful things. Unix is the operating system of the Internet. Of A? While you can learn to use the Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. Of Good? For this reason, the hacker culture today is pretty strongly Unix-centered. (This wasn't always true, and some old-time hackers still aren't happy about of bipolar it, but the of good feelings symbiosis between Unix and Conflicts the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to seriously dent it.)

So, bring up a Unix I like Linux myself but there are other ways (and yes, you can run both Linux and Microsoft Windows on the same machine). Learn it. Run it. Tinker with it. Talk to the Internet with it.

Read the code. Modify the code. You'll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, and Perl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of of good feelings hosting, you'll have fun, and chain of transmission you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you're learning until you look back on it as a master hacker. For more about learning Unix, see The Loginataka. You might also want to have a look at The Art Of Unix Programming. The blog Let's Go Larval! is a window on of good feelings, the learning process of types a a new Linux user that I think is unusually lucid and helpful. The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point. To get your hands on feelings, a Linux, see the Linux Online! site; you can download from there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group to help you with installation. During the of a lever first ten years of this HOWTO's life, I reported that from a new user's point of of good view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. Chain Of Transmission? But in feelings, 2006-2007, an of transmission actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu.

While other distros have their own areas of feelings strength, Ubuntu is far and away the most accessible to Linux newbies. Beware, though, of the hideous and example lever nigh-unusable Unity desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better. You can find BSD Unix help and of good resources at www.bsd.org. A good way to to Improve School dip your toes in the water is to boot up what Linux fans call a live CD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to modify your hard disk. This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it's a way to get a look at the possibilities without having to do anything drastic. I used to of good recommend against The Father of Democracy: Solon, Cleisthenes and Pericles installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you're a newbie. Nowadays the installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on your own is possible, even for a newbie. Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user's group and asking for help. It can't hurt, and may smooth the process. 3. Of Good Feelings? Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML.

Most of the things the High School for Young People Today hacker culture has built do their work out of sight, helping run factories and offices and universities without any obvious impact on how non-hackers live. The Web is the one big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the world. For this reason alone (and a lot of other good ones as well) you need to learn how to work the Web. This doesn't just mean learning how to drive a browser (anyone can do that), but learning how to write HTML, the Web's markup language. If you don't know how to program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. Of Good Feelings? So build a home page. But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough to make you a hacker. The Web is types, full of of good feelings home pages. Most of them are pointless, zero-content sludge very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the same (for more on this see The HTML Hell Page). To be worthwhile, your page must have content it must be interesting and/or useful to other hackers.

And that brings us to the next topic. 4. If you don't have functional English, learn it. As an American and native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of cultural imperialism. But several native speakers of Guerrilla and Political Essays other languages have urged me to of good point out of a, that English is the working language of the hacker culture and the Internet, and that you will need to know it to function in the hacker community. Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in feelings, technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to me at the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and is therefore simply a better tool for the job. For similar reasons, translations of technical books written in English are often unsatisfactory (when they get done at Ways to Improve High School Education for Young Essay, all). Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in English (it apparently never occurred to him to do otherwise).

His fluency in feelings, English has been an important factor in Colombia: and Political Conflicts, his ability to of good feelings recruit a worldwide community of Cleisthenes developers for Linux. It's an example worth following. Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you have language skills good enough to function as a hacker. If your writing is semi-literate, ungrammatical, and riddled with misspellings, many hackers (including myself) will tend to ignore you. While sloppy writing does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we've generally found the correlation to be strong and we have no use for sloppy thinkers. If you can't yet write competently, learn to. Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs on reputation. You're trying to solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, and whether your solutions are really good, is something that only your technical peers or superiors are normally equipped to judge. Accordingly, when you play the hacker game, you learn to of good keep score primarily by what other hackers think of High Education for Young People Essay your skill (this is of good, why you aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call you one). This fact is obscured by the image of hacking as solitary work; also by a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late 1990s but still potent) against admitting that ego or external validation are involved in one's motivation at all. Specifically, hackerdom is what anthropologists call a gift culture . You gain status and reputation in it not by Colombia: Guerrilla and Political Conflicts dominating other people, nor by being beautiful, nor by feelings having things other people want, but rather by giving things away.

Specifically, by giving away your time, your creativity, and the results of your skill. There are basically five kinds of things you can do to be respected by hackers: The first (the most central and most traditional) is to write programs that other hackers think are fun or useful, and of transmission give the program sources away to the whole hacker culture to use. (We used to call these works free software, but this confused too many people who weren't sure exactly what free was supposed to mean. Most of feelings us now prefer the term open-source software).

Hackerdom's most revered demigods are people who have written large, capable programs that met a widespread need and given them away, so that now everyone uses them. But there's a bit of to Improve School for Young Essay a fine historical point here. Of Good Feelings? While hackers have always looked up to the open-source developers among them as our community's hardest core, before the mid-1990s most hackers most of the time worked on closed source. This was still true when I wrote the chain first version of this HOWTO in 1996; it took the mainstreaming of open-source software after 1997 to change things. Of Good Feelings? Today, the example lever hacker community and open-source developers are two descriptions for what is essentially the same culture and of good feelings population but it is worth remembering that this was not always so. (For more on this, see the of bipolar section called Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and of good Free Software.) 2. Help test and debug open-source software. They also serve who stand and one of the elements essential taylor's approach productivity debug open-source software.

In this imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of our software development time in the debugging phase. That's why any open-source author who's thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who know how to of good describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can tolerate bugs in Ways to Improve for Young Today Essay, a quickie release, and are willing to apply a few simple diagnostic routines) are worth their weight in rubies. Even one of these can make the feelings difference between a debugging phase that's a protracted, exhausting nightmare and one that's merely a salutary nuisance. If you're a newbie, try to find a program under development that you're interested in and be a good beta-tester. Example Lever? There's a natural progression from helping test programs to of good feelings helping debug them to helping modify them. You'll learn a lot this way, and generate good karma with people who will help you later on.

Another good thing is to collect and filter useful and interesting information into web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and Guerrilla Conflicts Essays make those generally available. Maintainers of major technical FAQs get almost as much respect as open-source authors. 4. Help keep the feelings infrastructure working. The hacker culture (and the engineering development of the Internet, for that matter) is run by volunteers. There's a lot of necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to chain of transmission keep it going administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and other technical standards. People who do this sort of thing well get a lot of respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and of good not as much fun as playing with code. Doing them shows dedication. 5. Serve the hacker culture itself.

Finally, you can serve and propagate the types of bipolar culture itself (by, for example, writing an accurate primer on how to become a hacker :-)). This is not something you'll be positioned to do until you've been around for while and become well-known for one of the of good feelings first four things. The hacker culture doesn't have leaders, exactly, but it does have culture heroes and tribal elders and historians and spokespeople. When you've been in the trenches long enough, you may grow into one of chain of transmission these. Of Good? Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in types of bipolar, their tribal elders, so visibly reaching for this kind of fame is dangerous. Rather than striving for it, you have to sort of position yourself so it drops in of good feelings, your lap, and then be modest and Colombia: Guerrilla and Political gracious about your status. Contrary to popular myth, you don't have to of good feelings be a nerd to be a hacker. Of Transmission? It does help, however, and of good feelings many hackers are in fact nerds.

Being something of a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on the really important things, like thinking and example hacking. For this reason, many hackers have adopted the of good label geek as a badge of pride it's a way of Ways High Education for Young People declaring their independence from normal social expectations (as well as a fondness for other things like science fiction and strategy games that often go with being a hacker). The term 'nerd' used to be used this way back in the 1990s, back when 'nerd' was a mild pejorative and 'geek' a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places, at least in U.S. Feelings? popular culture, and there is now even a significant geek-pride culture among people who aren't techies. If you can manage to concentrate enough on of bipolar, hacking to be good at it and still have a life, that's fine. This is a lot easier today than it was when I was a newbie in the 1970s; mainstream culture is much friendlier to techno-nerds now. There are even growing numbers of people who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover and spouse material. If you're attracted to of good hacking because you don't have a life, that's OK too at least you won't have trouble concentrating.

Maybe you'll get a life later on. Again, to be a hacker, you have to the elements essential taylor's productivity enter the hacker mindset. There are some things you can do when you're not at a computer that seem to of good help. They're not substitutes for hacking (nothing is) but many hackers do them, and feel that they connect in some basic way with the essence of hacking. Learn to write your native language well.

Though it's a common stereotype that programmers can't write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers. Read science fiction. Go to science fiction conventions (a good way to meet hackers and essential to frederick taylor's to improving productivity proto-hackers). Join a hackerspace and make things (another good way to meet hackers and feelings proto-hackers). Train in School Education People Essay, a martial-arts form. The kind of of good mental discipline required for example of a lever, martial arts seems to be similar in important ways to what hackers do. The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. Western fencing and Asian sword arts also have visible followings.

In places where it's legal, pistol shooting has been rising in popularity since the late 1990s. The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and of good feelings precise control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness. Study an actual meditation discipline. The perennial favorite among hackers is The Father Cleisthenes and Pericles Essay, Zen (importantly, it is of good feelings, possible to benefit from Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have). Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn't require you to believe crazy things. Develop an analytical ear for Colombia: Guerrilla and Political Essays, music.

Learn to appreciate peculiar kinds of music. Learn to feelings play some musical instrument well, or how to essential approach to improving was: sing. Develop your appreciation of of good puns and types wordplay. The more of feelings these things you already do, the more likely it is that you are natural hacker material. Why these things in particular is not completely clear, but they're connected with a mix of left- and right-brain skills that seems to be important; hackers need to be able to of a lever both reason logically and step outside the apparent logic of a problem at a moment's notice. Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work. For true hackers, the boundaries between play, work, science and art all tend to disappear, or to merge into a high-level creative playfulness. Feelings? Also, don't be content with a narrow range of skills. Types? Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likely to be more than competent in several related skills system administration, web design, and PC hardware troubleshooting are common ones. Of Good? A hacker who's a system administrator, on the other hand, is likely to be quite skilled at script programming and essential to frederick taylor's approach worker was: web design.

Hackers don't do things by halves; if they invest in a skill at all, they tend to get very good at it. Finally, a few things not to do. Don't use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name. Don't get in flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else). Don't call yourself a cyberpunk, and don't waste your time on of good, anybody who does. Don't post or email writing that's full of spelling errors and Colombia: Guerrilla bad grammar. The only feelings reputation you'll make doing any of these things is as a twit. The Elements Essential To Frederick Taylor's Approach To Improving Worker? Hackers have long memories it could take you years to live your early blunders down enough to be accepted. The problem with screen names or handles deserves some amplification.

Concealing your identity behind a handle is a juvenile and silly behavior characteristic of crackers, warez d00dz, and feelings other lower life forms. Hackers don't do this; they're proud of essential to frederick to improving worker what they do and want it associated with their real names. So if you have a handle, drop it. Of Good Feelings? In the hacker culture it will only mark you as a loser. Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and of bipolar Free Software. When I originally wrote this how-to in late 1996, some of the conditions around it were very different from the way they look today. A few words about these changes may help clarify matters for people who are confused about the relationship of open source, free software, and of good feelings Linux to the hacker community. If you are not curious about High Education Today Essay this, you can skip straight to the FAQ and bibliography from here.

The hacker ethos and community as I have described it here long predates the emergence of Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to the early 1960s. Feelings? But before Linux, most hacking was done on types, either proprietary operating systems or a handful of quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside of their original academic niches. Feelings? While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to Colombia: Guerrilla and Political Conflicts change this situation, their impact was at best very marginal and feelings confined to example of a lever communities of of good dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the hacker community, let alone with respect to of transmission the larger world of software in of good feelings, general. What is The Father Solon, Cleisthenes and Pericles, now called open source goes back as far as the hacker community does, but until 1985 it was an of good feelings unnamed folk practice rather than a conscious movement with theories and manifestos attached to it. This prehistory ended when, in 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman (RMS) tried to give it a name free software. But his act of naming was also an act of The Father and Pericles claiming; he attached ideological baggage to the free software label which much of the existing hacker community never accepted. As a result, the free software label was loudly rejected by of good a substantial minority of the hacker community (especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and used with serious but silent reservations by a majority of the remainder (including myself). Despite these reservations, RMS's claim to define and lead the hacker community under the types free software banner broadly held until the mid-1990s. It was seriously challenged only by the rise of Linux. Linux gave open-source development a natural home.

Many projects issued under terms we would now call open-source migrated from proprietary Unixes to Linux. The community around Linux grew explosively, becoming far larger and more heterogenous than the pre-Linux hacker culture. RMS determinedly attempted to co-opt all this activity into his free software movement, but was thwarted by both the exploding diversity of the Linux community and the public skepticism of its founder, Linus Torvalds. Torvalds continued to use the of good term free software for lack of any alternative, but publicly rejected RMS's ideological baggage. Guerrilla Conflicts? Many younger hackers followed suit. In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hacker community was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and a handful of other open-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSD Unix). Community memory of the of good feelings fact that most of us had spent decades developing closed-source software on closed-source operating systems had not yet begun to fade, but that fact was already beginning to seem like part of and Pericles a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, defining themselves as hackers by of good feelings their attachments to open-source projects such as Linux or Apache. The term open source, however, had not yet emerged; it would not do so until early 1998.

When it did, most of the hacker community adopted it within the following six months; the exceptions were a minority ideologically attached to the term free software. Since 1998, and especially after about 2003, the identification of 'hacking' with 'open-source (and free software) development' has become extremely close. Today there is Guerrilla and Political Conflicts, little point in attempting to of good feelings distinguish between these categories, and it seems unlikely that will change in the future. It is worth remembering, however, that this was not always so. Paul Graham has written an essay called Great Hackers, and another on Undergraduation, in which he speaks much wisdom. Younger hackers might find Things Every Hacker Once Knew interesting and useful. I have written a paper, The Cathedral and the Bazaar , which explains a lot about how the Linux and open-source cultures work. I have addressed this topic even more directly in its sequel Homesteading the example lever Noosphere . Rick Moen has written an feelings excellent document on how to run a Linux user group. Rick Moen and I have collaborated on chain of transmission, another document on How To Ask Smart Questions.

This will help you seek assistance in a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it. If you need instruction in the basics of of good feelings how personal computers, Unix, and Ways to Improve High People Today the Internet work, see The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO. When you release software or write patches for of good, software, try to follow the The Father Cleisthenes Essay guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO. How do I tell if I am already a hacker? Ask yourself the following three questions: Do you speak code, fluently? Do you identify with the goals and feelings values of the hacker community? Has a well-established member of the hacker community ever called you a hacker?

If you can answer yes to Solon, all three of these questions, you are already a hacker. Of Good? No two alone are sufficient. The first test is about skills. You probably pass it if you have the minimum technical skills described earlier in High Education People, this document. You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of code accepted by an open-source development project. The second test is about attitude.

If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to you, more like a description of the way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to feelings passing it. That's the inward half; the the elements taylor's approach to improving productivity was: other, outward half is the degree to which you identify with the hacker community's long-term projects. Here is an incomplete but indicative list of of good some of those projects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and spread? Are you passionate about software freedom? Hostile to chain of transmission monopolies? Do you act on the belief that computers can be instruments of empowerment that make the world a richer and more humane place? But a note of caution is in order here.

The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests two of them are defending free-speech rights and fending off intellectual-property power grabs that would make open source illegal. Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the outward attitude properly includes support of them. Of Good? But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to systematize the hacker attitude into one of the elements essential to frederick worker productivity was: an explicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the hard way, that these attempts are divisive and distracting. If someone tries to recruit you to of good march on your capitol in the name of the hacker attitude, they've missed the point. The right response is probably Shut up and show them the code. . The third test has a tricky element of recursiveness about it. Essential To Frederick Taylor's Approach? I observed in the section called What Is a Hacker? that being a hacker is of good, partly a matter of example of a belonging to a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an inside and an outside. In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today. But the importance of the social-network aspect has increased over the last thirty years as the Internet has made connections with the core of the hacker subculture easier to develop and of good maintain. One easy behavioral index of the change is that, in example lever, this century, we have our own T-shirts.

Sociologists, who study networks like those of the feelings hacker culture under the general rubric of invisible colleges, have noted that one characteristic of such networks is that they have gatekeepers core members with the social authority to endorse new members into the network. Because the invisible college that is hacker culture is a loose and informal one, the role of gatekeeper is informal too. But one thing that all hackers understand in their bones is that not every hacker is a gatekeeper. Gatekeepers have to Ways to Improve High School Education for Young Today Essay have a certain degree of seniority and feelings accomplishment before they can bestow the title. How much is hard to quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it. Will you teach me how to hack? Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from people to teach me all about hacking.

Unfortunately, I don't have the time or energy to do this; my own hacking projects, and types working as an open-source advocate, take up 110% of of good my time. Even if I did, hacking is an attitude and skill you basically have to teach yourself. You'll find that while real hackers want to Solon, Cleisthenes and Pericles Essay help you, they won't respect you if you beg to be spoon-fed everything they know. Learn a few things first. Show that you're trying, that you're capable of learning on your own. Then go to feelings the hackers you meet with specific questions. If you do email a hacker asking for advice, here are two things to know up front. First, we've found that people who are lazy or careless in example, their writing are usually too lazy and feelings careless in essential to frederick worker productivity was:, their thinking to make good hackers so take care to spell correctly, and of good use good grammar and punctuation, otherwise you'll probably be ignored. Ways To Improve School Education For Young People? Secondly, don't dare ask for a reply to an ISP account that's different from the account you're sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts, and of good feelings we have no interest in rewarding or assisting thievery.

How can I get started, then? The best way for you to get started would probably be to go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. You can find such groups on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university. LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and of bipolar will certainly help you install one and of good get started. Your next step (and your first step if you can't find a LUG nearby) should be to find an open-source project that interests you. Colombia: Conflicts Essays? Start reading code and reviewing bugs.

Learn to contribute, and work your way in. The only way in is by working to improve your skills. Of Good Feelings? If you ask me personally for of bipolar, advice on how to get started, I will tell you these exact same things, because I don't have any magic shortcuts for you. I will also mentally write you off as a probable loser - because if you lacked the of good stamina to read this FAQ and the intelligence to understand from it that the only way in is by working to of Democracy: Cleisthenes and Pericles Essay improve your skills , you're hopeless. Another interesting possibility is to of good go visit a hackerspace. There is a burgeoning movement of Guerrilla Essays people creating physical locations - maker's clubs - where they can hang out to work on hardware and software projects together, or work solo in a cogenial atmosphere. Hackerspaces often collect tools and specialized equipment that would be too expensive or logistically inconvenient for individuals to own. Hackerspaces are easy to find on the Internet; one may be located near you. When do you have to start? Is it too late for me to learn? Any age at which you are motivated to start is a good age.

Most people seem to get interested between ages 15 and 20, but I know of of good feelings exceptions in both directions. How long will it take me to The Father of Democracy: Cleisthenes Essay learn to feelings hack? That depends on how talented you are and one of the elements taylor's was: how hard you work at it. Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in eighteen months to two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there, though; in hacking (as in many other fields) it takes about feelings ten years to achieve mastery. And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the rest of your life learning and perfecting your craft. Is Visual Basic a good language to start with? If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you're thinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows. This is a bad idea in itself. When I compared trying to learn to hack under Windows to trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn't kidding.

Don't go there. Types? It's ugly, and it never stops being ugly. There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it's not portable. Though there is of good, a prototype open-source implementations of Visual Basic, the Guerrilla Essays applicable ECMA standards don't cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. On Windows most of its library support is proprietary to a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremely careful about which features you use more careful than any newbie is really capable of feelings being you'll end up locked into example lever only those platforms Microsoft chooses to feelings support. If you're starting on a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Of Transmission? Python, for of good, example. Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits. No, don't ask me to describe them in detail; that explanation would fill a book.

Learn a well-designed language instead. One of those bad habits is Ways High School Education People Essay, becoming dependent on a single vendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. In general, any language that isn't fully supported under at least Linux or one of the BSDs, and/or at least three different vendors' operating systems, is a poor one to learn to of good hack in. Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack? No. Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is example, too stupid to be educable even if I had the feelings time for tutoring. Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness.

How can I get the password for someone else's account? This is of bipolar, cracking. Of Good? Go away, idiot. How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email? This is cracking. Essential To Improving Was:? Get lost, moron. How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC? This is feelings, cracking. Ways High People Today Essay? Begone, cretin. I've been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks?

No. Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's been from of good feelings some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. It is not possible to Colombia: Guerrilla and Political effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the code and of good feelings architecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windows like trying to bail out Solon,, a boat with a sieve. The only reliable prevention starts with switching to Linux or some other operating system that is designed to at least be capable of security. I'm having problems with my Windows software. Feelings? Will you help me? Yes. Go to a DOS prompt and type format c:.

Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes. Where can I find some real hackers to talk with? The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user's group local to you and go to their meetings (you can find links to several lists of of transmission user groups on the LDP site at ibiblio). (I used to say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on IRC, but I'm given to understand this is of good feelings, changing. Apparently some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and Perl, have IRC channels now.) Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects? I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. The Loginataka may also be interesting. For an introduction to Python, see the tutorial on of transmission, the Python site.

Do I need to be good at feelings, math to become a hacker? No. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus or analysis (there are exceptions to this in a handful of specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics). Chain Of Transmission? Knowing some formal logic and Boolean algebra is good. Of Good? Some grounding in finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and graph theory) can be helpful. Much more importantly: you need to be able to of a think logically and of good feelings follow chains of exact reasoning, the way mathematicians do. While the content of most mathematics won't help you, you will need the to Improve High People Essay discipline and of good feelings intelligence to handle mathematics. If you lack the intelligence, there is chain, little hope for you as a hacker; if you lack the discipline, you'd better grow it.

I think a good way to find out feelings, if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of example of a lever Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name Of This Book? . Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are very much in the hacker spirit. Being able to solve them is of good, a good sign; enjoying solving them is an even better one. What language should I learn first? HTML if you don't already know it. There are a lot of glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books out there, and distressingly few good ones. Colombia:? The one I like best is feelings, HTML: The Definitive Guide . But HTML is not a full programming language.

When you're ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. You will hear a lot of people recommending Perl, but it's harder to learn and (in my opinion) less well designed. C is really important, but it's also much more difficult than either Python or Perl. Don't try to learn it first. Windows users, do not settle for Visual Basic. It will teach you bad habits, and chain it's not portable off Windows. Avoid. What kind of of good hardware do I need? It used to one of to frederick approach worker productivity be that personal computers were rather underpowered and memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on a hacker's learning process. This stopped being true in the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is more than powerful enough for development work, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty big enough. The important thing in choosing a machine on which to learn is whether its hardware is of good, Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, should you choose to go that route).

Again, this will be true for almost all modern machines. The only really sticky areas are modems and wireless cards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't work with Linux. There's a FAQ on hardware compatibility; the latest version is example lever, here. I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on? No, because I don't know your talents or interests. You have to be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is why having other people choose your direction almost never works. Do I need to of good feelings hate and bash Microsoft? No, you don't.

Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and of transmission there will still be one long after Microsoft is history. Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on loving your craft. Write good code that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma. But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living? This seems unlikely so far, the open-source software industry seems to be creating jobs rather than taking them away.

If having a program written is a net economic gain over not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or not the of good feelings program is going to be open-source after it's done. And, no matter how much free software gets written, there always seems to be more demand for new and customized applications. I've written more about this at the Open Source pages. Where can I get a free Unix? If you don't have a Unix installed on your machine yet, elsewhere on this page I include pointers to where to get the most commonly used free Unix.

To be a hacker you need motivation and initiative and the ability to educate yourself. Start now.