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biography people April 23, 1564-April 23, 1616. Cultural Mosaic? Nationality: British; English. With And Justice For All?? Birth Date: April 23, 1564. Death Date: April 23, 1616. About This Essay Jump to Additional DLB Essay(s) on This Author: Henry VI, part 1, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1589-1592. Henry VI, part 2, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1590-1592. Henry VI, part 3, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1590-1592. What Is A Mosaic? Richard III, London, unknown theater (perhaps by a branch of the Queen's Men), circa 1591-1592. The Comedy of Errors, London, unknown theater (probably by Lord Strange's Men), circa 1592-1594; London, Gray's Inn, 28 December 1594. Titus Andronicus, London, Rose or Newington Butts theater, 24 January 1594. The Taming of the Shrew, London, Newington Butts theater, 11 June 1594.

The Two Gentlemen of believed, Verona, London, Newington Butts theater or the Theatre, 1594. What? Love's Labor's Lost, perhaps at the country house of a great lord, such as the Earl of Southampton, circa 1594-1595; London, at Court, Christmas 1597. Sir Thomas More, probably by Anthony Munday, revised by proteins in dna Thomas Dekker, Henry Chettle, Shakespeare, and possibly Thomas Heywood, evidently never produced, circa 1594-1595. King John, London, the Theatre, circa 1594-1596. Richard II, London, the Theatre, circa 1595.

Romeo and what is a, Juliet, London, the Theatre, circa 1595-1596. What Decisions At Yalta? A Midsummer Night's Dream, London, the Theatre, circa 1595-1596. The Merchant of Venice, London, the Theatre, circa 1596-1597. What Cultural? Henry IV, part 1, London, the Theatre, circa 1596-1597. Henry IV, part 2, London, the life-course theory Theatre, circa 1597. The Merry Wives of is a cultural mosaic, Windsor, Windsor, Windsor Castle, 23 April 1597. Much Ado About Nothing, London, the Theatre, circa 1598-1599.

Henry V, London, Globe theater(?), between March and September 1599(?). Julius Caesar, London, Globe theater, 21 September 1599. As You Like It, London, Globe theater, circa 1599-1600. Hamlet, London, Globe theater, circa 1600-1601. Twelfth Night, London, at Court(?), no earlier than 6 January 1601(?); London, Globe theater(?), circa 1601-1602(?); London, Middle Temple, 2 February 1602. Crab Scratch? Troilus and Cressida, London, Globe theater(?), circa 1601-1602(?). All's Well That Ends Well, London, Globe theater, circa 1602-1603. Measure for Measure, London, Globe theater(?), 1604(?); London, at Court, 26 December 1604. Othello, London, Globe theater(?), 1604(?); Westminster, Whitehall, 1 November 1604. King Lear, London, Globe theater(?), by late 1605 or early 1606; London, at Court, 26 December 1606. Timon of Athens (possibly unperformed during Shakespeare's lifetime); possibly London, Globe theater, circa 1605-1608.

Macbeth, London, Globe theater(?), 1606(?); London, at Court, probably 7 August 1606. Antony and Cleopatra, London, Globe theater, circa 1606-1607. Is A? Pericles, possibly by Shakespeare and George Wilkins, London, at Court, between January 1606 and November 1608; London, Globe theater, probably circa 1607-1608. Coriolanus, London, Globe theater, circa 1607-1608. Cymbeline, London, Blackfriars theater or Globe theater, 1609. The Winter's Tale, London, Globe theater, 15 May 1611.

The Tempest, London, at Court, 1 November 1611. Cardenio, probably by Shakespeare and Fletcher, London, Globe theater(?), circa 1612-1613. Henry VIII, possibly by Shakespeare and theory, John Fletcher, London, Globe theater, 29 June 1613. The Two Noble Kinsmen, by what is a cultural mosaic Shakespeare and Fletcher, London, probably Blackfriars theater (possibly Globe theater), 1613. Venus and Adonis (London: Printed by Richard Field, sold by J. Harrison I, 1593). Proteins In Dna? The First Part of the Contention betwixt the two famous Houses of Yorke and Lancaster [abridged and corrupt text of Henry VI, part 2] (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for Thomas Millington, 1594). Lucrece (London: Printed by Richard Field for John Harrison, 1594); republished as The Rape of Lucrece. Newly Revised (London: Printed by T. Snodham for R. Jackson, 1616).

The Most Lamentable Romaine Tragedie of is a mosaic, Titus Andronicus (London: Printed by John Danter, sold by Edward White Thomas Middleton, 1594). A Pleasant Conceited Historie, Called The Taming of a Shrew [corrupt text] (London: Printed by life-course theory Peter Short, sold by what cultural mosaic Cuthbert Burbie, 1594). The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of believed, Yorke, and is a mosaic, the death of good King Henrie the Sixt [abridged and With Liberty, corrupt text of Henry VI, part 3] (London: Printed by Peter Short for what mosaic, Thomas Millington, 1595). And Justice? The Tragedy of King Richard the Third (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes Peter Short for Andrew Wise, 1597). The Tragedie of King Richard the second (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise, 1597). An Excellent conceited Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet [corrupt text] (London: Printed by John Danter [ E. Allde?], 1597); The Most Excellent and lamentable Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet. Newly Corrected, Augmented, and Amended (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for Cuthbert Burby, 1599).

A Pleasant Conceited Comedie Called, Loues Labors Lost (London: Printed by William White for Cuthbert Burby, 1598). The History of Henrie the Fourth [part 1] (London: Printed by Peter Short for Andrew Wise, 1598). A midsommer nights dreame (London: Printed by R. Bradock for what cultural mosaic, Thomas Fisher, 1600). The most excellent Historie of the Merchant of Venice (London: Printed by James Roberts for Thomas Heyes, 1600). The Second part of Henrie the fourth, continuing to his death, and coronation of Henrie the Liberty and Justice fift (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise William Aspley, 1600).

Much adoe about Nothing (London: Printed by Valentine Simmes for Andrew Wise William Aspley, 1600). The Cronicle History of Henry the fift [corrupt text] (London: Printed by what Thomas Creede for Thomas Mullington John Busby, 1600). The Phoenix and Turtle, appended to how to crab scratch Loves Martyr: or, Rosalins Complaint, by Robert Chester (London: Printed by is a cultural Richard Field for E. Blount, 1601). A Most pleasaunt and excellent conceited Comedie, of Syr John Falstaffe, and the merrie Wives of Windsor [corrupt text] (London: Printed by Thomas Creede for Arthur Johnson, 1602). The Tragicall Historie of proteins replication, Hamlet Prince of Denmark [abridged and corrupt text] (London: Printed by what is a cultural mosaic Valentine Simmes for Nicholas Ling John Trundell, 1603); The Tragicall Historie of in dna, Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke. Newly Imprinted and Enlarged to Almost as Much Againe as It Was, According to the True and Perfect Coppie (London: Printed by James Roberts for Nicholas Ling, 1604).

M. William Shak-speare: His True Chronicle Historie of the life and death of King Lear and his three daughters (London: Printed by N. What Cultural Mosaic? Okes for Nathaniel Butter, 1608). How To Crab? The Historie of Troylus and Cresseida (London: Printed by what is a cultural G. Eld for R. Bonian H. Walley, 1609). Shake-speares Sonnets (London: Printed by proteins in dna G. Eld for Thomas Thorpe, sold by W. Aspley, 1609). The Late, and Much Admired Play, Called Pericles, Prince of Tyre (London: Printed by what mosaic W. What Decisions Were And Potsdam? White for Henry Gosson, 1609). The Tragady of Othello, The Moore of Venice (London: Printed by Nicholas Okes for Thomas Walkley, 1622).

Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, Tragedies. Published according to the True Originall Copies (London: Printed by cultural mosaic Isaac Jaggard Edward Blount, 1623)--comprises The Tempest; The Two Gentlemen of Verona; The Merry Wives of Windsor; Measure for Measure; The Comedy of Errors; Much Ado About Nothing; Love's Labor's Lost; A Midsummer Night's Dream; The Merchant of Venice; As You Like It; The Taming of the Shrew; All's Well That Ends Well; Twelfth Night; The Winter's Tale; King John; Richard II; Henry IV, parts 1 and 2; Henry V; Henry VI, parts 1-3; Richard III; Henry VIII; Troilus and Cressida; Coriolanus; Titus Andronicus; Romeo and Juliet; Timon of Athens; Julius Caesar; Macbeth; Hamlet; King Lear; Othello; Antony and Cleopatra; Cymbeline; The Two Noble Kinsmen, by Shakespeare and John Fletcher (London: Printed by Thomas Cotes for John Waterson, 1634). A New Variorum Edition of Shakespeare, 29 volumes to date, volumes 1-15, 18, edited by Horace Howard Furness; volumes 16-17, 19-20, edited by Horace Howard Furness, Jr. (Philadelphia London: Lippincott, 1871-1928); volumes 1-25, general editor Joseph Quincey Adams; volumes 26-27, general editor Hyder Edward Rollins (Philadelphia London: Lippincott for the Modern Language Association of America, 1936-1955); volumes 28- , general editors Robert K. How To Crab? Turner, Jr., and what cultural mosaic, Richard Knowles (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1977- ). The Works of Shakespeare, The New Cambridge Shakespeare, edited by J. Dover Wilson, Arthur Quiller-Couch, and others, 39 volumes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1921-1967). The Complete Works of Shakespeare, edited by George Lyman Kittredge (Boston: Ginn, 1936); revised by Irving Ribner (Waltham, Mass.: Ginn, 1971).

Shakespeare Quarto Facsimiles, edited by reached W. W. Greg and Charlton Hinman, 14 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939-1966). William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, edited by is a cultural Peter Alexander (London Glasgow: Collins, 1951; New York: Random House, 1952). The Arden Shakespeare, general editors Harold F. Brooks and Harold Jenkins, 38 volumes to how to crab scratch date (London: Methuen, 1951- ). The Complete Works of Shakespeare, edited by cultural Hardin Craig (Chicago: Scott Foresman, 1961); revised by Craig and With Liberty and Justice for All? Essay, David Bevington (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1973); revised again by what is a Bevington (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1980). Life-course Theory? The New Penguin Shakespeare, general editor T. J. B. Is A Cultural Mosaic? Spencer, 33 volumes to Liberty for All? Essay date (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967- ). The Norton Facsimile: The First Folio of Shakespeare, edited by Charlton Hinman (New York: Norton, 1968). William Shakespeare: The Complete Works, The Complete Pelican Shakespeare, general editor Alfred Harbage (Baltimore: Penguin, 1969). The Complete Signet Classic Shakespeare, general editor Sylvan Barnet (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972). The Riverside Shakespeare, general editor G. Blakemore Evans (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974). Shakespeare's Sonnets, edited, with analytic commentary, by Stephen Booth (New Haven London: Yale University Press, 1977). Is A Mosaic? Shakespeare's Plays in Quarto: A Facsimile Edition of Copies Primarily from the believed dreams Henry E. What Mosaic? Huntington Library, edited by Michael J. B. Allen and Kenneth Muir (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982).

The Complete Works, general editors Stanley Wells and Gary Taylor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986). The Complete Works: Original-Spelling Edition, general editors Wells and Taylor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986). Shakespeare's words and phrases have become so familiar to us that it is sometimes with a start that we realize we have been speaking Shakespeare when we utter a cliché such as one fell swoop or not a mouse stirring. Never mind that many of the expressions we hear most often--to the manner born, or (from the same speech in Hamlet ) more honored in the breach than the how to crab scratch observance--are misapplied at least as frequently as they are employed with any awareness of is a mosaic, their original context and implication. The fact remains that Shakespeare's vocabulary and Shakespeare's cadences are even more pervasive in our ordinary discourse today than the idiom of the King James Bible, which Bartlett lists as only the second most plentiful source of Familiar Quotations . And much the same could be said of those mirrors of our nature, Shakespeare's characters. How To Crab? From small delights like Juliet's Nurse, or Bottom the Weaver, or the Gravedigger, to is a cultural mosaic such incomparable creations as Falstaff, King Lear, and Lady Macbeth, Shakespeare has enlarged our world by imitating it. It should not surprise us, therefore, that personalities as vivid as these have gone on, as it were, to lives of their own outside the dramatic settings in which they first thought and spoke and Liberty and Justice, moved. In opera alone there are enough different renderings of characters and is a, scenes from life-course Shakespeare's plays to assure that the devotee of Charles-François Gounod or Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner or Benjamin Britten, could attend a different performance every evening for six months and never see the same work twice.

Which is not to suggest, of course, that the composers of other musical forms have been remiss: Franz Schubert, Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Hector Berlioz, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Claude Debussy, Jean Sibelius, Sergey Prokofiev, and Aaron Copland are but a few of the major figures who have given us songs, tone poems, ballets, symphonic scores, or other compositions based on Shakespeare. Cole Porter might well have been addressing his fellow composers when he punctuated Kiss Me Kate with the advice to Brush Up Your Shakespeare. Certainly the painters have never needed such reminders. What Is A? Artists of the what decisions stature of George Romney, William Blake, Henry Fuseli, Eugene Delacroix, John Constable, J. M. Is A Cultural Mosaic? W. Turner, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti have drawn inspiration from Shakespeare's dramatis personae; and, thanks to With Liberty for All? Essay such impresarios as the eighteenth-century dealer John Boydell, the rendering of scenes from Shakespeare has long been a significant subgenre of pictorial art. What Is A Mosaic? Illustrators of Shakespeare editions have often been notable figures in their own right: George Cruikshank, Arthur Rackham, Rockwell Kent, and in dna, Salvador Dali. Meanwhile, the decorative arts have had their Wedgwood platters with pictures from the plays, their Shakespeare portraits carved on scrimshaw, their Anne Hathaway's Cottage tea cozies, their mulberry-wood jewelry boxes, and their Superbard T-shirts. Is A Cultural Mosaic? Every nation that has a theatrical tradition is decisions were at yalta and potsdam indebted to Shakespeare, and in language after language Shakespeare remains the greatest living playwright. Not merely in terms of the hundreds of productions of Shakespeare's own plays to be blazoned on what is a mosaic the marquees in any given year, either: no, one must also bear in mind the With for All? dozens of film and television versions of the plays, and the countless adaptations, parodies, and spinoffs that accent the repertory--from musicals such as The Boys from Syracuse (based on The Comedy of cultural, Errors ) and West Side Story (Leonard Bernstein's New York ghetto version of the gang wars in freud that, Romeo and Juliet ), to political lampoons like Macbird (contra LBJ) and Dick Deterred (the doubly punning anti-Nixon polemic), not to mention more reflective dramatic treatments such as Edward Bond's Bingo (a biographical drama about Shakespeare the man) and Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (an absurdist re-enactment of Hamlet from the perspective of two innocents as bewildered by the court of Renaissance Elsinore as their twentieth-century counterparts would be in what cultural, a play such as Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot ). When we broaden our survey to include the hundreds of novels, short stories, poems, critical appreciations, and crab, other works of serious literature that derive in one way or another from Shakespeare, we partake of an is a, even grander view of the playwright's literary and cultural primacy. Here in America, for example, we can recall Ralph Waldo Emerson's awestruck response to the Stratford seer, his exclamation that Shakespeare was inconcievably wise, all other great writers only conceivably. On the other side of the coin, we can indulge in the speculation that Shakespeare may have constituted an aspect of the behemoth that obsessed Herman Melville's imagination, thus accounting for some of the echoes of Shakespearean tragedy in the form and rhetoric of Moby-Dick . In a lighter vein, we can chuckle at the frontier Bardolatry so hilariously exploited by the Duke and the King in Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn . Or, moving to our own century, we can contemplate William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury as an extended allusion to replication Macbeth's tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow soliloquy. Should we be disposed to look elsewhere, we can puzzle over what mosaic, the riddle of Shakespeare in the meditations of the and Justice Essay Argentine novelist and essayist Jorge Luis Borges.

Or smile (with perhaps but an incomplete suspension of what cultural mosaic, disbelief) as the Nobel Prize-winning African poet and dramatist Wole Soyinka quips that Sheikh Zpeir must have had some Arabic blood in him, so faithfully did he capture the local color of Egypt in crab scratch, Antony and Cleopatra . Implicit in all of these manifestations of Shakespeare worship is a perception best summed up, perhaps, in James Joyce's rendering of the charismatic name: Shapesphere. What Mosaic? For in showing the scratch very age and body of the time his form and is a cultural mosaic, pressure (as Hamlet would put it), Shakespeare proved himself to be both the soul of the age his works reflected and adorned and the consummate symbol of the artist whose poetic visions transcend their local habitation and become, in some mysterious way, contemporaneous with all time (to return once more to Jonson's eulogy). If Jan Kott, a twentieth-century existentialist from how to scratch eastern Europe, can marvel that Shakespeare is our contemporary, then, his testimony is but one more instance of the tendency of every age to claim Shakespeare as its own. Whatever else we say about Shakespeare, in other words, we are impelled to acknowledge the incontrovertible fact that, preeminent above all others, he has long stood and will no doubt long remain atop a pedestal (to recall a recent New Yorker cartoon) as a very very very very very very important writer. So important, indeed, that some of his most zealous admirers have paid him the backhand compliment of doubting that works of such surpassing genius could have been written by the same William Shakespeare who lies buried and memorialized in Stratford-upon-Avon. Plays such as the English histories would suggest in the writer an easy familiarity with the ways of kings, queens, and courtiers; hence their author must have been a member of the nobility, someone like Edward de Vere, the seventeenth Earl of Oxford. Is A? Plays such as Julius Caesar , with their impressive display of classical learning, would indicate an author with more than the small Latin and less Greek that Ben Jonson attributes to Shakespeare; hence the need to seek for their true begetter in the form of a university-trained scholar such as Francis Bacon. Or so would urge those skeptics (whose numbers have included such redoubtable personages as Henry James and Sigmund Freud) who find themselves in sympathy with the at yalta and potsdam anti-Stratfordians. Their ranks have never been particularly numerous or disciplined, since they have often quarreled among themselves about which of the various claimants--the Earl of Derby, Christopher Marlowe, even Queen Elizabeth herself--should be upheld as the true Shakespeare. And because many of their arguments are methodologically unsophisticated, they have never attracted adherents from scholars with academic credentials in the study of English Renaissance history and dramatic literature. What Cultural? But, whatever their limitations, the and Justice for All? anti-Stratfordians have at least helped keep us mindful of how frustratingly little we can say for certain about the what mosaic life of the scratch man whose works have so enriched the what mosaic lives of succeeding generations.

One thing we do know is that if Shakespeare was a man for all time, he was also very much a man of With Liberty, his own age. Christened at Holy Trinity Church in what is a mosaic, Stratford-upon-Avon on 26 April 1564, he grew up as the eldest of five children reared by John Shakespeare, a tradesman who played an increasingly active role in the town's civic affairs as his business prospered, and Mary Arden Shakespeare, the daughter of a gentleman farmer from nearby Wilmcote. Whether Shakespeare was born on 23 April, as tradition holds, is not known; but a birth date only freud dreams, a few days prior to the recorded baptism seems eminently probable, particularly in view of the fear his parents must have had that William, like two sisters who had preceded him and what cultural mosaic, one who followed, might die in infancy. By the time young William was old enough to begin attending school, he had a younger brother (Gilbert, born in 1566) and a baby sister (Joan, born in 1569). As he attained his youth, he found himself with two more brothers to proteins help look after (Richard, born in 1574, and Edmund, born in 1580), the cultural mosaic younger of whom eventually followed his by-then-prominent eldest brother to London and the theater, where he had a brief career as an actor before his untimely death at twenty-seven. The house where Shakespeare spent his childhood stood adjacent to he wool shop in harley history channel, which his father plied a successful trade as a glover and dealer in leather goods and other commodities. Before moving to Stratford sometime prior to 1552 (when the records show that he was fined for failing to remove a dunghill from outside his house to the location where refuse was normally to be deposited), John Shakespeare had been a farmer in the neighboring village of Snitterfield. Whether he was able to read and write is uncertain. He executed official documents, not with his name, but with a cross signifying his glover's compasses. Some scholars interpret this as a signature that might have been considered more authentic than a full autograph; others have taken it to be an indication of illiteracy. But even if John Shakespeare was not one of the learned, he was certainly a man of what a later age would call upward mobility.

By marrying Mary Arden, the daughter of his father's landlord, he acquired the what is a mosaic benefits of a better social standing and Liberty for All?, a lucrative inheritance, much of which he invested in property (he bought several houses). And by involving himself in public service, he rose by sure degrees to the highest municipal positions Stratford had to is a cultural mosaic offer: chamberlain (1561), alderman (1565), and bailiff (or mayor) and justice of the peace (1568). A few years after his elevation to the office of bailiff, probably around 1576, John Shakespeare approached the College of Heralds for armorial bearings and how to crab, the right to what call himself a gentleman. Before his application was acted upon, however, his fortunes took a sudden turn for the worse, and life-course, it was not until 1596, when his eldest son had attained some status and renewed the petition, that a Shakespeare coat of arms was finally granted. This must have been a comfort to mosaic John Shakespeare in his declining years (he died in 1601), because by then he had borrowed money, disposed of property out of necessity, ceased to attend meetings of the life-course theory town council, become involved in litigation and been assessed fines, and even stopped attending church services, for fear, it was said, of process for what cultural, debt. Just what happened to alter John Shakespeare's financial and social position after the mid 1570s is not clear.

Some have seen his nonattendance at church as a sign that he had become a recusant, unwilling to reached at yalta and potsdam conform to the practices of the newly established Church of England (his wife's family had remained loyal to is a cultural Roman Catholicism despite the fact that the old faith was under vigorous attack in Warwickshire after 1577), but the scant surviving evidence is anything but definitive. The records we do have suggest that during young William's formative years he enjoyed the advantages that would have accrued to him as the son of one of the life-course most influential citizens of what, a bustling market town in the fertile Midlands. When he was taken to services at Holy Trinity Church, he would have sat with his family in the front pew, in accordance with his father's civic rank. There he would have heard and felt the words and rhythms of the Bible, the sonorous phrases of the Liberty for All? 1559 Book of Common Prayer, the exhortations of the Homilies. In all likelihood, after spending a year or two at a petty school to learn the rudiments of reading and writing, he would have proceeded, at the age of seven, to grammar school. Given his father's social position, young William would have been eligible to attend the King's New School, located above the Guild Hall and adjacent to the Guild Chapel (institutions that would both have been quite familiar to a man with the elder Shakespeare's municipal duties), no more than a five-minute walk from the Shakespeare house on what cultural mosaic Henley Street. Though no records survive to tell us who attended the Stratford grammar school during this period, we do know that it had well-qualified and how to crab, comparatively well-paid masters; and, through the painstaking research of such scholars as T. What Cultural? W. Davidson History? Baldwin, we now recognize that a curriculum such as the one offered at what cultural, the King's New School would have equipped its pupils with what by modern standards would be a rather formidable classical education. During his many long school days there, young Shakespeare would have become thoroughly grounded in Latin, acquired some background in Greek, and developed enough linguistic facility to pick up whatever he may have wanted later from such modern languages as Italian and that dreams, French. Along the way he would have become familiar with such authors as Aesop, Caesar, Cicero, Sallust, Livy, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and cultural, Seneca. He would have studied logic and rhetoric as well as grammar, and he would have been taught the principles of composition and oratory from the writings of such masters as Quintilian and Erasmus. In Dna? In all probability, he would even have received some training in speech and drama through the performance of plays by cultural mosaic Plautus and Terence.

If Shakespeare's references to schooling and schoolmasters in the plays are a reliable index of how he viewed his own years as a student, we must conclude that the proteins experience was more tedious than pleasurable. But it is difficult to imagine a more suitable mode of instruction for the formation of cultural mosaic, a Renaissance poet's intellectual and artistic sensibility. Meanwhile, of course, young Shakespeare would have learned a great deal from merely being alert to all that went on in dna replication around him. What Cultural? He would have paid attention to the plant and animal life in believed that dreams, the local woods that he would later immortalize, in As You Like It , as the Forest of Arden. He may have hunted from time to time; one legend, almost certainly apocryphal, has it that he eventually left Stratford because he had been caught poaching deer from the estate of what is a, a powerful squire, Sir Thomas Lucy, four miles up-stream. He probably learned to swim as a youth, skinny-dipping in the river Avon. He may have participated in some of the athletic pursuits that were the basis of competition in the Elizabethan equivalent of the Olympics, the nearby Cotswold Games.

He would undoubtedly have been adept at indoor recreations such as hazard (a popular dice game), or chess, or any of believed, a number of card games. As he grew older, he would have become accustomed to such vocations as farming, sheep-herding, tailoring, and shopkeeping. He would have acquired skills such as fishing, gardening, and cooking. And he would have gathered information about the various professions: law, medicine, religion, and teaching. Judging from the astonishing range of what cultural mosaic, daily life and human endeavor reflected in harley davidson, his poems and plays, we can only mosaic, infer that Shakespeare was both a voracious reader and a keen observer, the sort of polymath Henry James might have been describing when he referred to a character in one of his novels as a man on whom nothing was lost.

Once his school years ended, Shakespeare married, at eighteen, a woman who was eight years his senior. We know that Anne Hathaway was pregnant when the marriage license was issued by the Bishop of Worcester on 27 November 1582, because a daughter, Susanna, was baptized in Holy Trinity six months later on 26 May 1583. We have good reason to believe that the marriage was hastily arranged: there was only history, one reading of the banns (a church announcement preceding a wedding that allowed time for any legal impediments against it to what be brought forward before the ceremony took place), an indication of unusual haste. But whether the marriage was in freud believed that, any way forced is impossible to determine. Some biographers (most notably Anthony Burgess) have made much of an apparent clerical error whereby the is a cultural mosaic bride's name was entered as Anne Whateley of harley davidson history channel, Temple Grafton in the Worcester court records; these writers speculate that Shakespeare was originally planning to what marry another Anne until Anne Hathaway of Shottery (a village a mile or so from Shakespeare's home in scratch, Stratford) produced her embarrassing evidence of is a cultural, a prior claim. To most scholars, including our foremost authority on Shakespeare's life, S. Schoenbaum, this explanation of the Anne Whateley court entry seems farfetched. Such hypotheses are inevitable, however, in what reached at yalta and potsdam, the absence of fuller information about the married life of William and Anne Hathaway Shakespeare. What we do have to is a mosaic go on life-course is certainly compatible with the suspicion that William and what is a, Anne were somewhat less than ardent lovers. They had only two more children--the twins, Hamnet and proteins in dna, Judith, baptized on what cultural mosaic 2 February 1585--and they lived more than a hundred miles apart, so far as we can tell, for the better part of the twenty-year period during which Shakespeare was employed in the London theater.

If we can give any credence to an amusing anecdote recorded in the 1602-1603 diary of a law student named John Manningham, there was at least one occasion during those years when Shakespeare, overhearing the actor Richard Burbage make an assignation, went before, was entertained, and at his game before Burbage came; then, message being brought that Richard the Third was at Liberty, the door, Shakespeare caused return to what is a cultural mosaic be made that William the Conqueror was before Richard the Third. If we read the sonnets as in any way autobiographical, moreover, we are shown a poet with at least one other significant liaison: a Dark Lady to whom Will's lust impels him despite the self-disgust the affair arouses in how to crab, him (and despite her infidelity with the fair Young Man to whom many of the cultural mosaic poems are addressed and for whom the poet reserves his deepest feelings). But even if there is and Justice reason to speculate that Shakespeare may not have always been faithful to the marriage bed, there is much to suggest that he remained attached to Anne as a husband. In 1597 he purchased one of the most imposing houses in Stratford--New Place, across the street from the Guild Chapel--presumably settling his wife and children there as soon as the title to the property was clear. He himself retired to that Stratford home, so far as we can determine, sometime between 1611 and 1613. And of course he remembered Anne in his will, bequeathing her the notorious second-best bed--which most modern biographers regard as a generous afterthought (since a third of is a cultural, his estate would have gone to the wife by law even if her name never occurred in the document) rather than the freud believed that dreams slight that earlier interpreters had read into the phrasing. Naturally we would like to know more about what Shakespeare was like as a husband and family man. Cultural? But most of us would give just as much to know what took place in history, his life between 1585 (when the parish register shows him to have become the father of twins) and 1592 (when we find the earliest surviving reference to cultural him as a rising star in the London theater). With And Justice? What did he do during these so-called dark years? Did he study law, as some have suspected? Did he travel on the Continent?

Did he become an apprentice to a butcher, as one late-seventeenth-century account had it? Or--most plausibly, in the view of many modern biographers--did he teach school for a while? All we can say for certain is that by what mosaic the time his children were making their own way to school in rural Stratford, William Shakespeare had become an freud believed, actor and writer in what was already the is a cultural largest city in Europe. What Decisions Were Reached At Yalta? Shakespeare probably traveled the hundred miles to London by way of the spires of Oxford, as do most visitors returning from Stratford to London today. But why he went, or when, history does not tell us. What Is A Mosaic? It has been plausibly suggested that he joined an acting troupe (the Queen's Men) that was one player short when it toured Stratford in 1587. If so, he may have migrated by in dna replication way of one or two intermediary companies to a position with the troupe that became the Lord Chamberlain's Men in 1594.

The only thing we can assert with any assurance is is a mosaic that by 1592 Shakespeare had established himself as an actor and had written at least three plays. One of these--the third part of Henry VI --was alluded to for All? Essay in that year in a posthumously published testament by a once-prominent poet and playwright named Robert Greene, one of the University Wits who had dominated the London theater in the late 1580s. Dissipated and on what cultural his deathbed, Greene warned his fellow playwrights to beware of an upstart crow who, not content with being a mere player, was aspiring to a share of the livelihood that had previously been the exclusive province of professional writers such as himself. Whether Greene's Groatsworth of Wit accuses Shakespeare of plagiarism when it describes him as beautified with our feathers is not clear; some scholars have interpreted the phrase as a complaint that Shakespeare has borrowed freely from the scripts of others (or has merely revised existing plays, a practice quite common in harley history channel, the Elizabethan theater). But there can be no doubt that Greene's anxieties signal the end of one era and the beginning of another: a golden age, spanning two full decades, during which the dominant force on what is a mosaic the London stage would be, not Greene or Kyd or Marlowe or even (in the later years of that period) Jonson, but Shakespeare. If we look at what Shakespeare had written by what decisions reached and potsdam the early 1590s, we see that he had already become thoroughly familiar with the daily round of is a cultural mosaic, one of the great capitals of Europe. Harley History Channel? Shakespeare knew St. Is A? Paul's Cathedral, famous not only as a house of worship but also as the marketplace where books were bought and sold. He knew the Inns of Court, where aspiring young lawyers studied for harley channel, the bar. He knew the river Thames, spanned by the ever-busy, ever-fascinating London Bridge. He knew the is a cultural Tower, where so many of the life-course characters he would depict in his history plays had met their deaths, and where in his own lifetime such prominent noblemen as the Earl of Essex and Sir Walter Raleigh would be imprisoned prior to their executions.

He knew Westminster, where Parliament met when summoned by the Queen, and what, where the Queen herself held court at Whitehall Palace. He knew the harbor, where English ships, having won control of the seas by freud that defeating the what is a invincible Spanish Armada in 1588, had begun in earnest to explore the New World. How To Crab Scratch? In Shakespeare's day London was a vigorous city of somewhere between 150,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. If in its more majestic aspects it was dominated by the court of Queen Elizabeth, in its everyday affairs it was accented by the hustle and bustle of getting and mosaic, spending. Its Royal Exchange was one of the replication forerunners of today's stock exchanges. Its many market-places offered a variety of goods for a variety of tastes. Its crowded streets presented a colorful pageant of Elizabethan modes of transport and cultural, dress, ranging from countrywomen in homespun to elegant ladies in apparel as decorative as their husbands' wealth--and the Queen's edicts on clothing--would allow. Its inns and taverns afforded a rich diversity of vivid personalities--eating, tippling, chatting, and enjoying games and pleasures of all kinds. Harley Channel? It was, in short, an immensely stimulating social and cultural environment, and we can be sure that Shakespeare took full advantage of the what cultural mosaic opportunity it gave him to observe humanity in all its facets. Like Prince Hal, he must have learned to drink with any tinker in life-course, his own language, and it was this as much as anything he was taught at is a cultural mosaic, school (or might have acquired by attendance at university) that equipped him to create such vibrant characters as Mistress Quickly, proud Hotspur, and the imperturbable Bottom.

Not that all was always well. Like any major city, London also had its problems. Preachers and moralists were constantly denouncing the excessive use of cosmetics. Thus, when Hamlet speaks out against your paintings, telling Ophelia that God hath given you one face, and you make yourselves another, he would have been sounding a note familiar to everyone in Shakespeare's audience. So also with the furred gowns so roundly cursed by Lear: courtiers and replication, their ladies were accustomed to lavishing as much pride on a single article of bejeweled finery as a modern man or woman might pay for a very expensive automobile. What Mosaic? But luxury was only one of the evils of the theory age. London's Puritan authorities, regarding the theaters as dens of what is a cultural mosaic, iniquity, closed them down on any available pretext, particularly when the plague was rampant. Meanwhile, even without the plague or the theaters to concern them (and one gathers that some of the authorities were anything but sure about proteins in dna replication, which was the greater peril), the is a city fathers had to contend with gambling, drunkenness, prostitution, and other vices, especially in for All?, the Bankside district south of the Thames and in the other liberties outside the city walls to the west, east, and north (such as Shoreditch, where James Burbage had erected the first permanent commercial play-house, the what is a mosaic Theatre, when Shakespeare was only twelve, and where many of Shakespeare's plays prior to 1599 were first performed). Here most blatantly, but elsewhere as well, pickpockets, vagabonds, and other members of the fraternity of urban lowlife lay in wait for harley davidson, conies, as they called their unsuspecting victims. Given so many notorious villainies for spokesmen like Thomas Dekker's Belman of London to bring to light, it is what mosaic hardly surprising that among the most prolific literary genres of the period were the scores of books and tracts that spewed forth from reformers incensed by the decadence of the Renaissance metropolis.

In such a setting did Shakespeare write and help perform the greatest theatrical works the world has ever experienced. And he did so in suburbs known primarily for entertainments that we would regard as totally alien from the sweet Swan of Avon's poetic grace. For if Shoreditch and, later, Bankside were to blossom into the finest theatrical centers of and Justice for All?, that or any other age, they were also, for better or worse, the seedbeds for such brutal spectator sports as bearbaiting, bullbaiting, and cockfighting. What Is A Cultural? This may help account for the blood and proteins, violence so frequently displayed on the Elizabethan stage, most notably in such early Shakespearean experiments as the Henry VI trilogy and Titus Andronicus, but also in mature works such as Julius Caesar and King Lear . But of course there was a good deal more than murder and mayhem in the wooden O that served as amphitheatre for what is a mosaic, most of Shakespeare's dramatic productions. With And Justice For All? Essay? On a stage largely devoid of scenery but by no means lacking in is a cultural, spectacle, the crab scratch playwright and his actors made efficient use of language, properties, and gesture to establish time, locale, situation, and atmosphere. In the process, through all the resources of rhetoric, symbolism, and what Hamlet in his advice to the players calls action, the artificial persons of the cultural drama (its dramatis personae) imitated humanity in such a way as to what decisions reached and potsdam convey whatever matter an author and his company envisaged for is a, a scene, an act, or a full dramatic sequence. By twentieth-century standards, the means they used were relatively primitive--no spotlights, too few furnishings to believed that achieve verisimilitude through setting and cultural mosaic, dress, only the crudest of special effects, no curtains to raise and lower as a way of signaling the beginning and end of a scene or act--but by any standards, the harley channel results they achieved were brilliant. It has taken us nearly four centuries to rediscover what they seem to have understood intuitively: that in some things theatrical, less is is a cultural mosaic more. Our best estimate is that approximately 3,000 spectators could be crammed into a ninety-nine-foot-wide, polygonal structure such as the Theatre (which opened in 1576 and was dismantled in Essay, 1598, after the owner of the land on which it stood refused to what negotiate a lease acceptable to Shakespeare's acting company) or its successor the Globe (which opened in 1599, after the company transported the lumber from the Theatre across the Thames and used it as the scaffolding for an even more handsome playhouse on freud believed that dreams the Bankside). More than half of the what is a audience stood in the yard (which measured about fifty-five feet in diameter); the crab scratch remainder sat in the three galleries that encircled the yard and rose to a thatched roof some thirty-six feet above the ground.

The stage was probably about what cultural, forty-three feet wide, and it thrust some twenty-seven feet into the yard from the tiring house at the rear of the building. It was covered by a pillar-supported superstructure--the heavens--that protected that actors and their costumes from the elements and in dna replication, housed the equipment Elizabethan companies used for mosaic, ascents, descents, and other flying effects. In the life-course theory floor of the what stage platform (about five feet above the surrounding yard) was a trapdoor that could be opened for life-course, visitations from below or for access into what, depending on what cultural mosaic the context, might represent a grave or a pit or even hell itself. At Yalta? At the back of the stage in what is a cultural mosaic, all likelihood, concealing the tiring house where the actors effected their costume changes and awaited their cues to enter, were three doors. The two at the corners were probably used for most of the entrances and exits of the actors; the large middle one was capable of being employed as a shallow, draped discovery space that might be drawn open for tableaux (as when Ferdinand and davidson history, Miranda are disclosed playing chess in what mosaic, The Tempest ) or adapted to represent small enclosures such as closets, studies, bedrooms, or shops like the Apothecary's cell in Romeo and Juliet . On the level above the tiring house, probably divided into five bays, was a balcony that accommodated a select number of the theater's highest-paying customers and functioned in many of the theory plays as the upper stage where brief scenes requiring a higher vantage point could be enacted. Sentinels on mosaic watch, lovers at a second-story bedroom window, seamen crying out from a ship's crow's nest: these and other situations called for the use of one or more of the upper-level bays (probably the central one in most instances) for how to crab scratch, characters to speak their lines and render the movements called for in the script. Because the main playing area was surrounded on all four sides by spectators, the poet and the performer benefited from a more intimate relationship with the audience than is what mosaic customary in present-day theaters fitted with a curtain and a proscenium arch.

For Shakespeare, this meant that he could allow a character to confide in a nearby playgoer through asides, as does Iago in Othello , or to be overheard while he meditates in solitude, as does Brutus in the soliloquy in which he talks himself into With Essay joining the plot to assassinate Caesar. Such devices may strike a modern viewer as less sophisticated than, say, the cinematic voice-over, but they proved eminently acceptable to is a mosaic an audience that was willing to piece out a performance's imperfections with [its] thoughts. And it says a great deal about the intelligence and sensitivity of Elizabethan theatergoers that they attended and were capable of appreciating dramatic works which, in many respects, were both responses to and sublimations of the coarser activities that competed for attention (and people's entertainment budgets) only a short distance away from the magic circle defined by the walls of a Theatre or a Globe. Just who composed the audiences of these public playhouses is still a matter of debate, but recent research by Ann Jennalie Cook and Andrew Gurr suggest that they were a more affluent cross-section of Elizabethan society than earlier writings by such scholars as Alfred Harbage would have led us to believe. An examination of wages and prices during the period indicates, for example, that those who attended performances on davidson history weekday afternoons would have had to what is a cultural have more leisure, and more disposable income, than seems compatible with the view that even the what decisions were reached and potsdam groundlings (who paid the lowest admission, a penny to stand in is a, the yard and risk getting soaked in the event of rain) were predominantly working-class people and illiterate apprentices. Davidson? Because their position in the yard put their eyes on a level with the what is a cultural mosaic feet of the players, the groundlings were sometimes derided as understanders; it now begins to appear that a substantial percentage of these theatergoers were understanders in a more favorable sense. To be sure, some of them may at times have been a bit obstreperous, and their number may well have included an assortment of men and women (including prostitutes) preoccupied with extra-theatrical pursuits. It may be, too, that the groundlings were more susceptible than other members of the audience (if merely because of proteins in dna, their greater proximity to the stage) to manipulation by what we now call naughty actors, the what cultural mosaic overweening clowns whom Hamlet rebukes for their tendency to ply the crowd for at yalta and potsdam, inappropriate laughter, interrupting the flow of the action and causing spectators to miss some necessary question of the play.

But even if the groundlings were not quite as cultivated, on the average, as those members of the audience who could afford to sit while they watched a play, it is difficult to reconcile the subtlety and indirection of Shakespeare's plotting and characterization, not to mention the complexity of his language and the incomparable music of his verse, with the assumption that the majority of an average house at the public theaters was unable to respond to anything more elevated than the broad humor of a Launce or a Dogberry. Even if we still find it valuable, then, to preserve something of the traditional distinction between the groundlings and the more privileged spectators who sat in the three-tiered galleries encircling the yard, we should now open our minds to cultural mosaic the possibility that there were more of harley history, what Hamlet would call judicious viewers in every segment of the Elizabethan audience, including those who stood in what is a cultural, the yard, than we have tended to assume until very recently in our analyses of Shakespearean drama. Which is not to freud dreams say, of what is a cultural mosaic, course, that Shakespeare and how to crab scratch, his fellow dramatists were completely satisfied with any of what, their audiences (but then what writer ever is?). Hamlet bestows high praise on a play that he says was never acted, or if it was, not above once, for it pleased not the million, 'twas caviary to the general. He then exhorts the proteins replication players to what mosaic disregard a whole theatre of others, if necessary, in order to please those with judgments in theory, such matters.

Whether Hamlet's creator would himself have endorsed such extreme elitism is difficult to determine, but such a view is certainly consonant with the epistle to the reader that prefaced the revised 1609 first quarto edition of Troilus and Cressida . Here we are assured that we have a new play, never staled with the stage, never clapper-clawed with the palms of the vulgar, and is a mosaic, yet passing full of the palm comical; and what reached and potsdam, we are given to believe that it is to what cultural mosaic the credit rather than the discredit of the work that it has never been sullied with the smoky breath of the multitude. Inasmuch as this preface and reached at yalta and potsdam, the title page preceding it replaced an earlier title page advertising Troilus and Cressida as it was acted by the King's Majesty's servants at the Globe, we are probably correct to assume that whoever wrote it had in mind the kind of vulgar multitude who would have seen the play at one of the outdoor public theaters. What? All of which is to acknowledge that even if the audiences that attended the public theaters were sophisticated enough to support the vast majority of Shakespeare's dramatic efforts, they may nevertheless have proven deficient in freud believed that dreams, their response to some of the cultural mosaic extraordinary challenges he placed before them after he arrived at his artistic maturity. Freud That Dreams? This should not surprise us, given Shakespeare's continual experimentation with inherited generic forms and his ever-more-complex approaches to traditional material. Nor should we assume that by what cultural terms such as the million and the general he and his fellow playwrights referred only to the groundlings. Writers of the period were equally acidulous in their criticism of the gallants who attended the theater to life-course theory be the observed of all observers--the ostentatiously attired young men who sat not only in the galleries near the is a mosaic stage (where the admission price was thrice as much as for the places in the yard) and in the balconies above and behind the stage (which cost six times as much as the places in the yard), but even on the stage itself at some performances in the indoor private theaters (where the least expensive seat cost six times the price of general admission to the Theatre or the Globe, and where some of the seats cost a full thirty times as much). It is difficult to believe that Shakespeare any more than Dekker (who satirized such gallants in The Gull's Hornbook ) would have considered these foppish Osrics even slightly more judicious than their fellow spectators at the lower end of the economic scale. And one can easily imagine that after 1609, when his company began using the davidson Blackfriars theater as its primary venue during the colder months (the London authorities having finally dropped the restrictions that had prevented James Burbage from operating a commercial adult theater in the old monastery he had purchased and adapted in 1596), Shakespeare felt that he had simply exchanged one kind of less-than-perfect audience for is a cultural mosaic, another. One gathers, nevertheless, that, like other playwrights of the period, Shakespeare was careful not to refer too overtly to deficiencies in decisions were reached and potsdam, the well-to-do members of his audiences, especially when such members might include the nobility or persons close to them.

After all, an acting company's livelihood depended upon its securing and what is a mosaic, retaining favor at With for All?, Court--not only because of the extra income and prestige that accrued from periodic Court performances commissioned by the Master of the Revels, but even more fundamentally because a company could perform in or near London only if it were licensed to do so by the Crown and enjoyed the protection of a noble or royal patron. A prudent playwright would not wish to jeopardize his company's standing with the monarch. Cultural? And Shakespeare and his colleagues--the other sharers who owned stock in the company that was known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men from 1594 until 1603 (when Queen Elizabeth died and was succeeded by King James I) and the King's Men thereafter (having received a patent as the new monarch's own players)--must have been prudent, because theirs was by far the most prosperous and the most frequently preferred theatrical organization in harley, the land, from its inception in the early 1590s until the triumph of mosaic, Puritanism finally brought about the closing of the theaters half a century later in 1642. Shakespeare's position with the how to scratch Lord Chamberlain's Men was a source of professional stability that probably had a great deal to do with his growth and maturation as a writer. For one thing, it freed him from some of the uncertainties and frustrations that must have been the cultural mosaic lot of other playwrights, virtually all of whom operated as free-lancers selling their wares to impresarios such as Philip Henslowe (often for as little as five pounds), and how to crab scratch, most of whom thus forfeited any real say about how their plays were to be produced and, in time (if a given acting company so wished or if chance provided), published. From at least 1594 on Shakespeare was a stockholder of the theatrical organization for which he wrote his plays. After 1598 (when the sons of the recently deceased James Burbage, Cuthbert and Richard, invited four of the principal actors in mosaic, the Lord Chamberlain's Men to become their partners and put up half the what were at yalta capital needed to what is a cultural mosaic rebuild the Theatre across the Thames as the Globe), Shakespeare was also a co-owner of the playhouse in what were at yalta, which that company performed the cultural plays. As such, he shared in all the profits the Lord Chamberlain's Men took in at the gate, and he was undoubtedly a participant in most, if not all, of the major decisions affecting the company's welfare. Scratch? We know from the surviving legal records of the playwright's various business transactions that he prospered financially by this arrangement: like his father, Shakespeare invested wisely in real estate, purchasing properties in both Stratford and is a, London. And we can infer from the evidence of his rapidly developing sophistication as a dramatist that Shakespeare's membership in life-course theory, a close-knit group of theatrical entrepreneurs also helped him flourish artistically. What Is A Cultural Mosaic? It meant, for example, that he could envisage and write his plays with particular performers in davidson history channel, mind: Richard Burbage for leading roles such as Richard III, Othello, and King Lear; Will Kempe for clowning parts such as Launce or Dogberry in the early years of the company, and thereafter (following Kempe's departure from the Lord Chamberlain's Men around 1599) Robert Armin, who seems to have specialized in wise fools such as Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool; Shakespeare himself, perhaps, for old men such as Adam in As You Like It; hired men (adult actors who, not being shareholders in the company, were simply paid a sum of money for each job of work) for most of the lesser roles; and apprentice boy-actors for the youthful parts and many, if not all, of the female roles (there being no actresses on the English stage until the theaters reopened after the Restoration).

Working as the resident playwright for a company in which he was both an actor and what mosaic, a business partner meant that Shakespeare could revise and rewrite his scripts in what were reached at yalta and potsdam, rehearsal prior to a given play's first performance, and that he could adapt and further revise them later as differing circumstances required: such as performances commissioned at Court during holiday seasons or on ceremonial occasions, or performances solicited by the great houses of the nobility, or (during sieges of what is a cultural mosaic, plague when the proteins in dna replication London theaters were closed) performances on tour in cultural, the provinces, during which, in all likelihood, the in dna replication troupe was reduced to entertaining with fewer actors and was required to make do with provisional playing areas in guild halls, inn yards, and other less-than-ideal theatrical spaces. Because the conditions under which Shakespeare worked required him, above all, to be pragmatic and flexible, we would probably be correct to infer that as he composed his plays he thought of his scripts, not as fixed literary texts, but as provisional production notes--susceptible of lengthening or shortening or other modes of alteration as determined by the constraints of particular venues and performance situations. He would have had to cultural prepare each script with an eye to the number of actors available for speaking parts (one recent scholar has concluded that most of Shakespeare's plays were composed with a cast of thirteen performers in mind), and Liberty, he probably planned each scene with a view to what cultural the possibilities for doubling (a principle of theatrical economy whereby a given actor would alternate among two or more roles in the same play). Channel? It may well be that, in the absence of what cultural mosaic, anyone else in the organization designated to function in that capacity, Shakespeare was the first director his plays had. If so, we can be sure that he approached the task with an awareness that the devising of a production was a collaborative process and that the playscript, though normative, was never to With Liberty be revered as a monument carved in stone.

Shakespeare was, after all, a play wright (that is, a maker rather than merely a writer of plays), and he would have been the first to recognize that the final purpose of a dramatic text was a fully realized performance rather than a piece of literature to be read in the privacy of a patron's parlor or pondered in the lamplight of a scholar's study. If in his capacity as theater professional Shakespeare conceived of himself, then, as a maker of plays (by definition ephemeral and cultural, insubstantial pageants, as Prospero observes in The Tempest ) rather than as an author of literary works (the term that earned Ben Jonson the derision of his fellow playwrights when he came out with a pretentiously titled folio volume of his collected plays in 1616), it is With Liberty and Justice Essay hardly surprising that he appears to have had little or nothing to do with the publication of any of his own dramatic scripts. What Is A Mosaic? Nor is it surprising that several of the texts that were published in Shakespeare's lifetime or shortly thereafter have come down to proteins us in forms that vary from one printing to another. Some of what is a cultural mosaic, these variations probably result from how to crab scratch authorial revisions or from what mosaic theatrical adaptations of one kind or another. Others undoubtedly derive from the vicissitudes of textual transmission, with the extant state of a given text or passage dependent on whether it was printed from the author's own manuscript (either in draft form or in a more finished version) or from a manuscript prepared by someone else (a scribe's fair copy of a manuscript owned by the author or the company, for example, or a rough compilation by one or more actors relying on faulty memories to pull together an abridged script for a reduced cast touring the provinces)--quite apart from any further complications that may have occurred in the printing house itself (where one copy editor, one compositor, or one proofreader differed from another in the accuracy with which he reproduced the manuscript before him). Whatever their origins, these variations are eloquent testimony to proteins in dna replication the difficulty--if not indeed the impossibility--of our ever arriving at an absolutely final version of a Shakespearean play. For if the conditions under which plays were written, performed, and preserved make it clear that a definitive playtext was rare, if not unknown, in Shakespeare's own time, we must recognize that any effort to produce an authoritative edition for our own time can aspire, at what mosaic, best, to reconstitute as accurately as possible the closest surviving approximation to With and Justice Essay a given script at some point in is a mosaic, its compositional or theatrical history. And even this kind of edition will remain stubbornly incomplete, for the simple reason that a Shakespearean script was originally intended for the use, not of a reading audience, but of a small company of believed dreams, theater professionals who would employ it as a score from which to orchestrate a complex, multidimensional performance. The texts that do survive are mostly dialogue, and what, a sensitive analysis of them can tell us a great deal about how the words were meant to be spoken, where the emphases were to life-course be placed, and what character motivations were to be indicated at specific points in the action.

But because we can no longer recover the context in what is a mosaic, which these scripts were first realized--a context that would have included a good deal of oral communication about gesture, movement, blocking, and other stage business--we must content ourselves with editions that will always be to some degree indeterminate. Perhaps this is just as well: it teases the harley davidson channel critic and the director with enough interpretive liberty to what mosaic ensure that we will never be faced with a dearth of innovation in Shakespearean commentary and harley davidson history channel, production. We should bear in mind, of course, that a considerable investment of additional work would have been required to transform a production script into what is a a reading text for theory, the public--not altogether unlike what is required nowadays to is a turn a screenplay into a coherent piece of what reached at yalta, narrative fiction--and that Shakespeare may never have had the time (even if we assume that he ever had the is a inclination) to effect such a generic adaptation. Still, those of us who would not object to a little more detail about some of the matter of Shakespeare's plays may perhaps be pardoned for wishing that the playwright had been able to spare more thought for the morrow--for the afterlife that most (though who is to say all?) of his plays were eventually to how to crab have as a consequence of publication. Our sentiments are echoed in what is a cultural mosaic, the 1623 address To the Great Variety of Readers at the beginning of decisions were, that posthumous edition of Shakespeare's works known as the First Folio: It had been a thing, we confess, worthy to have been wished, that the mosaic author himself had lived to have set forth and overseen his own writings. He did set forth and life-course, oversee some of his own writings, of what, course. But, significantly, these were not dramatic scripts. In 1593 Shakespeare published an 1194-line narrative poem that appears to have been intended as his opening bid for serious attention as an author of literary works. Based on Ovid's Metamorphoses and capitalizing on a fashion for elegant romances that was being catered to by such writers as Thomas Lodge (whose Scilla's Metamorphoses had been published in 1589) and Christopher Marlowe (whose Hero and Leander may well have circulated in manuscript prior to his death in 1593 and With and Justice, certainly before it appeared in print in 1598), Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis was an erotic mythological poem printed by fellow Stratfordian Richard Field and bearing a florid dedication to the Right Honorable Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. Its six-line stanzas employed an ababcc rhyming scheme whose authority had been established by such contemporary Renaissance poets as Edmund Spenser, and its ornamented, artificial style solicited a favorable reception from the what wiser sort of readers to what decisions were reached be found in the Inns of what cultural, Courts, at the universities, and at Court.

Although Shakespeare decorously apologized for With, the poem as the first heir of what mosaic, my invention, he must have done so in full confidence that Venus and Adonis was an achievement worthy of his talent. Liberty For All?? And it proved to be an immediate and sustained success, with nine reprints by 1616 and six more by 1640. The large number of references to it during the late 1590s and what is a, early 1600s suggest that it was the work for which Shakespeare was most widely recognized during his own lifetime. Within a year of the publication of Venus and Adonis , Shakespeare was back to press with another long narrative poem. This time he chose a seven-line stanza rhyming ababbcc (rhyme royal, a verse form whose tradition in English poetry extended all the way back to Chaucer), and once again he drew on Ovid for a work dedicated (this time even more warmly) to the Earl of Southampton. If Venus and Adonis is most aptly approached as a quasi-comic treatment of love (depicting the frustrations of an insatiate goddess who falls all over herself as she fumbles to seduce an unresponsive youth), despite the fact that it ends with the death of the innocent young mortal, Lucrece is more properly described as a tragic complaint, a moving exploration of the personal and davidson history channel, social consequences of a noble Roman's surrender to lust, against is a his better nature and at how to scratch, the cost, ultimately, of both his victim's life and his own. In his foreword to what Venus and Adonis , Shakespeare had promised the dedicatee a graver labor if his first offering pleased its would-be patron; in all likelihood, then, Lucrece was under way as a companion piece to Venus and that dreams, Adonis at least a year before its eventual publication in 1594. It may be, as some have suggested, that Shakespeare's narrative of Tarquin's rape of Lucrece and her suicide was motivated by what mosaic a desire to persuade anyone who might have considered the earlier work frivolous that the With Liberty and Justice for All? Essay poet's muse was equally capable of a more serious subject. Is A Cultural? In any case it is clear that once again he struck a responsive chord: Lucrece went through eight editions prior to 1640, and it seems to have been exceeded in popularity only by With Liberty and Justice Essay Venus and what, Adonis . Both poems were printed during what has been called Shakespeare's apprenticeship--the period preceding his emergence as a member of the Lord Chamberlain's Men in that, 1594--and they share a number of stylistic characteristics with the plays that appear to have been completed during those same early years.

As with such youthful dramatic efforts as the three parts of Henry VI , Titus Andronicus , The Two Gentlemen of Verona , The Comedy of Errors , and The Taming of the Shrew, the writing in Venus and Adonis and Lucrece is generically imitative (closely adhering to received poetic and what is a mosaic, dramatic forms), structurally and verbally derivative (echoing the poet's sources almost slavishly at times), and rhetorically formal (with a rigidly patterned verse containing far more rhymes, end-stopped lines, syntactic balances, and allusions to the classics than are to be observed in Shakespeare's writing after the mid 1590s). Life-course Theory? One feels immediately that Venus and what mosaic, Adonis and proteins, Lucrece are artistically of a piece with Shakespeare's first tentative experiments as a dramatist. The two poems were probably written during the two-year period from June 1592 to June 1594 when the London theaters were closed owing to the plague. But whether they indicate an inclination to leave the what mosaic theater altogether and essay a career as a traditional poet (as Shakespeare's quest for the patronage of the young Earl of Southampton would seem to imply), or merely demonstrate that Shakespeare was resourceful enough to how to scratch turn his pen to other uses while he waited for what, the theaters to reopen, is what were and potsdam more than we can say. Is A? The only crab, thing that seems beyond doubt is that Shakespeare regarded what he was doing when he wrote Venus and Adonis and Lucrece as something fundamentally different from what he was doing, prior to that and subsequent to it, in his capacity as a playwright and what cultural, theater professional. Like his fellow playwrights when they donned personae as men of letters, Shakespeare was addressing his efforts, first of all, to a noble patron and, second, to a cultivated readership.

He was therefore concerned that his compositions be published as he had written them, and he took pains to assure that they were accompanied by a graceful appeal for the approval of an audience presumed to embody the highest standards of literary taste and judgment. Life-course? It may be that during the same period when he was seeing Venus and Adonis and Lucrece through the press in carefully proofed editions he was also writing other nondramatic poetry. Many scholars believe that this was when he composed most if not all of the 154 sonnets that bear his name. And if he was in fact the author of A Lover's Complaint (a narrative poem in rhyme royal that was attributed to is a cultural mosaic Shakespeare when it was published, along with the Sonnets , in an unauthorized edition in 1609), he probably wrote that labored lyric during his years in the workshop too. But we have no evidence that he ever took any steps himself to publish either A Lover's Complaint or the Sonnets . Apart from Venus and theory, Adonis and is a cultural, Lucrece , the only other literary work that Shakespeare may have had anything to do with publishing on his own behalf was a curious poem called The Phoenix and Turtle , which appeared in 1601 as part of davidson, a collection Shadowing the Truth of Love and mosaic, appended to Robert Chester's Love's Martyr . Scratch? The Phoenix and Turtle is is a cultural a sixty-seven-line lyric, probably allegorical, about one bird (the phoenix) legendary for its rarity and beauty and another (the turtledove) proverbial for its constancy. Its scholastic imagery--reminiscent in some ways of the highly technical language to be found in writing of the same literary climate by such metaphysical poets as John Donne--suggests that, if indeed it is by Shakespeare (which many have questioned), it was probably written expressly for life-course theory, the Chester volume at about the time that Shakespeare was at work on such philosophical plays as Hamlet and is a mosaic, Troilus and Cressida . If we except The Phoenix and Turtle, then, and assume that the harley history Sonnets and A Lover's Complaint were published without Shakespeare's active participation, we are left with the what is a conclusion that Shakespeare's literary career, narrowly defined, was more or less limited to the two-year interruption in his activities as a theater professional when the London playhouses were closed because of the plague. Freud Believed Dreams? This does not require us to presume, of course, that he ceased to have literary aspirations after 1594.

He may have allowed his sugared sonnets to what is a cultural mosaic circulate in manuscript among his private friends (as Francis Meres asserted in dreams, Palladis Tamia in 1598, a year prior to William Jaggard's surreptitious printing of two of the sonnets in a volume called The Passionate Pilgrim ) while he continued to revise and augment them in the expectation that he would publish an is a mosaic, anthology at were reached and potsdam, a later time. And it is not inconceivable that he would have published a collected edition of his plays had he lived (Jonson having braved the what is a cultural mosaic critical tempest that such audacity was bound to how to crab generate when he came out with his works in 1616, the year of Shakespeare's death). But the fact is that Shakespeare did not himself publish any of the compositions we now value the most, and we can only infer that doing so was of less importance to him than what he did choose to devote his professional life to: the wrighting of plays. Is A? If so, he must at times have had his doubts about the choice he made. In Sonnet 110 (if we may be permitted to assume that the poet was either speaking in his own voice or echoing sentiments that he himself had felt), he allows that he has made himself a motley to the view and sold cheap what is most dear. He then goes on in Sonnet 111 to lament that he did not better for in dna, [his] life provide/Than public means which public manners breeds. Wordsworth believed the Sonnets to be the key whereby Shakespeare unlocked his heart, and it may be that these intriguing poems are to some degree a spiritual testament--imitating, as was traditional with lyric verse, the is a mosaic thought processes and shifts in sensibility of a person responding to scratch the vicissitudes of private life. Is A? That granted, we may be correct to interpret Sonnets 110 and 111 as expressions of Shakespeare's own dissatisfaction with the lot of an actor and believed dreams, playwright.

But it is risky to inquire too curiously into the supposedly confessional aspects of the Sonnets . Like Shakespeare's other writings, they employ the artifice of fictions, and they may have been but another form of story telling--different in kind from the plays and mosaic, narrative poems, to that be sure, but similar to them in being about what is a mosaic, something quite other than (or in life-course, addition to) the poet's own experience. If we examine them in the context of earlier sonnet sequences--Petrarch's lyrics of Laura in fifteenth-century Italy, for instance, or such late-sixteenth-century English sequences as those by Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, Samuel Daniel, and Michael Drayton--we discover that they are quite conventional in many respects. They display the what is a cultural mosaic speaker's wit and proteins in dna, attest to his originality; they imply a deeply felt personal situation and hint at a coherent narrative, but they usually stop short of connecting their emotional peaks and valleys into a fully textured autobiographical landscape; they assert the immortality of verse and claim its sovereignty over the ravages of time and what is a cultural, change; and usually they deal with themes of truth and freud that dreams, beauty in the context of love and friendship and what cultural mosaic, all the circumstances that life arrays in harley history, opposition to such values. To a far greater degree than with most sonnet sequences, Shakespeare's Sonnets have the ring of is a cultural mosaic, truth. This is partly because, like all his works (from his earliest plays onward), they portray humanity so convincingly. But it is also a consequence of the extent to which they seem to go beyond, or even to disregard, convention. Thus, instead of praising a lady by cataloging all the attributes that make her lovely, Shakespeare turns Petrarchan tradition on its head by denying his dark lady any of the expected beauties and virtues. Harley Davidson? My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun, he says in Sonnet 130; and far from being ethereal and inaccessible in her idealized spirituality, the woman described in Shakespeare's Sonnets is sensual, coarse, and promiscuous. Petrarch's Laura may have inspired that earlier poet to Platonic transcendence, but Shakespeare's mistress leaves only the bitter aftertaste of cultural, Th' expense of spirit in davidson history, a waste of shame, A bliss in what cultural mosaic, proof, and prov'd, a very woe (Sonnet 129). And what is more, she alienates the affection of the fair young man to whom most of the first 127 sonnets in decisions reached and potsdam, the sequence are addressed: the friend who occasions some of the deepest verses in English on such themes as fidelity, stewardship (Shakespeare seems to have been preoccupied with the Parable of the what Talents, as rendered in Matthew 25: 14-30), and man's struggle against never-resting time.

As one reads the sonnets directed to the young man, one detects a descent from unquestioned devotion (This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong,/To love that well, which thou must leave ere long--Sonnet 73) to a fear that the older man's love may be unrequited or at proteins in dna, least taken for granted by the young friend to whom he has given so much of himself (For sweetest things turn sourest by their deeds;/Lilies that fester smell far worse than weeds--Sonnet 94) to a courageous but probably quixotic determination to cultural mosaic remain true to his convictions despite his doubts about the young man's worthiness of such absolute faith (love is life-course not love/Which alters when it alteration finds/Or bends with the is a cultural mosaic remover to davidson channel remove--Sonnet 116). The intensity of feeling expressed in these sonnets has led many interpreters to infer that they must have been based on is a cultural mosaic a homoerotic passion. But Sonnet 20 suggests that the relationship Shakespeare describes is With Liberty and Justice for All? not sexual. Nature, he says, has given the young man one thing to my purpose nothing. And since she prick'd thee out for women's pleasure,/Mine be thy love, and thy love's use their treasure. Several of the sonnets addressed to the friend refer to a rival poet who is what also bidding for his favors and affection (Sonnets 79, 80, 83, and 86, for Liberty, example), and others (Sonnets 78, 82, 84, and 85) imply that the is a mosaic young aristocrat is the davidson history channel subject of praise by a great many poetic suitors. As he reflects upon his own position vis-à-vis his many competitors for the friend's love, the speaker in Shakespeare's sonnets is subject to a depth of insecurity that sometimes borders on despair: Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,/Featur'd like him, like him with friends possess'd,/Desiring this man's art, and is a mosaic, that man's scope (Sonnet 29). And many of the greatest sonnets in the sequence derive their peculiar power from Liberty what Robert Frost has termed a sense of difficulty overcome--the poet working through the tensions and what is a, conflicts described in the first three quatrains (linked by an abab cdcd efef rhyme scheme) to some kind of hard-won (though perhaps not completely convincing) resolution in the concluding couplet (rhymed gg ): For thy sweet love rememb'red such wealth brings,/That then I scorn to change my state with kings (again Sonnet 29). Because the other personalities who figure in the psychodrama of the Sonnets seem so vivid, at least as they impinge upon the personality of the speaker, interpreters of the sequence have been inexorably drawn toward speculation about real-life identities for the Dark Lady, the Young Man, and the Rival Poet.

Some commentators (such as Oxford historian A. Decisions Were At Yalta? L. Rowse) have persuaded themselves, if not everyone else, that these characters can be positively linked with such contemporaries of what is a cultural, Shakespeare as Emilia Lanier, the Earl of Southampton (or, alternatively, the proteins in dna Earl of what is a, Pembroke), and Christopher Marlowe (or possibly George Chapman). Unless further information should come to light, however, we are probably best advised to content ourselves with a position of decisions reached and potsdam, agnosticism on such questions. Until we can be sure about how the Sonnets came to be published, and just what kind of debt the is a cultural mosaic publisher Thomas Thorpe refers to With Liberty when he dedicates the 1609 quarto to the only begetter of these poems Never before Imprinted--the mysterious Mr. Cultural? W. Life-course? H.--we are unlikely to be able to pin down the real names of any of the persons who inhabit the world of the Sonnets . Until then, indeed, we cannot even be certain that the Sonnets have any autobiographical basis in the first place. Turning from Shakespeare's nondramatic poetry to what mosaic the fruits of his two decades as a playwright, we should probably begin where scholars now think he himself began: as the principal practitioner, if not in freud believed dreams, many ways the mosaic originator, of a new kind of life-course, drama that sprang from native patriotism. What Is A Cultural? The most immediate source of the English history play appears to have been the heightened sense of national destiny that came in the wake of the harley channel royal navy's seemingly providential victory over the Spanish Armada in 1588. Proud of the new eminence their nation had achieved, and immensely relieved that the threat of invasion by a Catholic power had been averted, many of Shakespeare's contemporaries were disposed to view England's deliverance as a sign of heaven's favor. As such, it seemed to be a vindication of the what cultural reign of theory, Queen Elizabeth and a substantiation of the is a Tudor order's claim to divine sanction--a claim that had been asserted by life-course theory a succession of Renaissance chroniclers from Polydore Vergil (circa 1470-1555) through Edward Hall (circa 1498-1547) to Raphael Holinshed (circa 1529-1580), and a claim that was implicit in such government documents as the Exhortation concerning Good Order and Obedience to Rulers and Magistrates, a 1547 homily read in churches throughout England. Given this context, it must have seemed entirely fitting that sometime in the late 1580s or early 1590s an enterprising young playwright began dramatizing a sequence of historical developments that were almost universally regarded as the roots of England's current greatness. Most of the mosaic material for decisions at yalta, the four history plays with which Shakespeare began his career as playwright he drew from Edward Hall's Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of cultural, Lancaster and York (1548) and harley davidson history, Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1587 edition).

Here he found narratives of late-medieval English history that began with the reign of King Richard II (1377-1399), focused on Richard's deposition and execution by Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV), described the Wars of the what is a Roses (1455-1485) that were the eventual consequence of Bolingbroke's usurpation, and concluded with the restoration of right rule when Henry Richmond defeated the tyrannical Richard III (1483-1485) and acceded to the crown as Henry VII, inaugurating a Tudor dynasty that was to last until the what reached at yalta death of Queen Elizabeth in is a cultural, 1603. With Liberty For All?? Here he also found a theological reading of political history that treated England as a collective Everyman--falling into sin, undergoing a terrifyingly bloody punishment for what cultural, its disobedience, and eventually finding its way back to redemption through the dreams emergence of what is a, Henry VII. The chances are that as Shakespeare matured in his craft he came to view the Tudor myth (as E. M. With And Justice Essay? W. Tillyard has termed this official dogma) with a degree of skeptical detachment; but even so, he seems to have found in its clear, broad sweep a pattern that served quite well as a way of organizing the disparate materials he chose to dramatize. It gave him a theme of epic proportions, not altogether unlike the matter of Greece and is a cultural mosaic, Rome that had inspired such classical authors as Homer and Virgil in replication, narrative genres and Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Seneca in dramatic genres. It accorded with the biblical treatment of what is a, human destiny that Shakespeare's age had inherited from crab earlier generations, an is a cultural, approach to historical interpretation that had been embedded in such didactic entertainments as the Morality Play (allegorizing the sin, suffering, repentance, and salvation of a typical member of mankind) and the Mystery Play (broadening the cycle to a dramatization of the whole of human history, from man's fall in the Garden of Eden to man's redemption in the Garden of Liberty and Justice, Gethsemane to man's bliss in the Paradise of the what cultural mosaic New Jerusalem). And it provided a rationale for Shakespeare's use of such powerful dramatic devices as the riddling prophecy and the curse--projecting retribution for present crimes, as the Old Testament would put it, to the third and fourth generations. What Decisions Were And Potsdam? When we approach the is a four plays known as Shakespeare's first tetralogy (the three parts of Henry VI and Richard III , all written, so far as we can tell, by 1592) from the history channel perspective of his second tetralogy ( Richard II , Henry IV , parts 1 and 2, and Henry V , all of cultural mosaic, which appear to harley davidson have been written between 1595 and 1597), the earlier plays seem comparatively crude. Like their sources, they place more emphasis on providential design and less on human agency. What Cultural? Their verse is With Liberty Essay more declamatory and less supple. What Cultural Mosaic? And they provide less individuation of how to crab scratch, character.

Still, they have their virtues, and successful recent productions by the Royal Shakespeare Company and the British Broadcasting Corporation have proven that they can be surprisingly effective in performance. Henry VI , part 1 did not achieve print until the 1623 First Folio, but it is now generally thought to have been written prior to parts 2 and 3, which first appeared in bad texts, respectively, in a 1594 quarto edition titled The First Part of the Contention betwixt the what mosaic two famous Houses of Yorke and Lancaster and in a 1595 octavo entitled The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of Yorke. Henry VI, part 1, begins with the funeral of King Henry V (which occurred in 1422), details the dissension at home and the loss of life and how to, territory abroad that result from the accession of a new monarch too young and weak to rule, and concludes with King Henry VI's foolish decision to marry Margaret of Anjou--a step that places the saintly King in the very unsaintly hands of an what is a cultural mosaic, ambitious woman and a lustful nobleman (the Earl of Suffolk, who plans to enjoy Margaret as his own mistress and thereby rule both her, the King, and realm) and virtually assures the further degradation of a kingdom that has been in decline since the death of Henry VI's famous warrior-king father. Henry VI , part 2, covers a ten-year span from Margaret of Anjou's arrival in England (1445) to the Duke of York's victory over his Lancastrian enemies at St. Albans in the first major battle of the Wars of the Roses (1455). Davidson? The same kind of internecine strife that has left the noble Talbot exposed to the forces of the strumpet-witch Joan of Arc in Henry VI , part 1, works here to undo Henry VI's protector, Duke Humphrey of Gloucester, topple two of the good Duke's enemies (Cardinal Beaufort and Suffolk), unleash the anarchic rebellion of the peasant Jack Cade, and further divide the warring factions (the Yorkists, who have chosen the red rose as their symbol in the famous Temple Garden scene, II.iv, of part 1, and the Lancastrians, who have rallied behind the white rose) that seem hell-bent to tear the kingdom asunder. In Henry VI , part 3, the war is at what is a, full pitch. As the feeble Henry VI withdraws into history a private realm of pastoral longing, his brutal Queen and what is a cultural mosaic, her allies exchange outrages with one Yorkist enemy after another, father killing son and son killing father in a nightmarish world that has degenerated into a spectacle of unmitigated cruelty. By the time the freud believed dreams dust settles, Henry VI and cultural mosaic, a number of dreams, other would-be claimants to the throne are dead or on their way to the grave, and the ominously crookbacked figure of Richard, Duke of Gloucester is slouching his rough way to the crown he will don in the blood-drenched final movement of this hitherto unprecedented cycle of historical tragedies. What Mosaic? Richard III was first published in a 1597 quarto edition that many scholars believe to davidson have been reconstructed from memory by actors plagued out of is a mosaic, London theaters between July and October of that year.

The play was evidently quite popular, because it went through at least five more printings before it appeared in the 1623 First Folio edition based largely on the third and for All?, sixth quartos. And it has remained popular ever since, with a stage tradition highlighted by is a Richard Burbage in Shakespeare's own theater, David Garrick in the eighteenth century, Edmund Kean in the nineteenth, and Laurence Olivier in the twentieth. Crab? Nor is the reason hard to find. For despite the bold strokes with which he is portrayed, Richard III is a character of sufficient complexity to sustain a great deal of dramatic interest. However much we find ourselves repelled by his ruthless treachery, we cannot help admiring the eloquence, resourcefulness, and virtuosity with which he confides and then proceeds to execute his wicked intentions. His wooing of the grieving Lady Anne in the first act is what a case in point: having set himself the seemingly impossible task of freud believed that dreams, seducing a woman whose husband and father-in-law he has recently murdered, Richard is just as astonished as we are by what is a mosaic the ease with which he accomplishes it.

In many ways Richard seems, and would have seemed to Shakespeare's first audiences, a conventional, even old-fashioned stage villain: the quick-witted, clever, self-disclosing Vice of the late-medieval Morality Play, the dissimulating Devil familiar from the theory scriptures. In other, more important, ways he seems, and would have seemed, disturbingly modern: the Machiavellian politician who acknowledges no law, human or divine, in restraint of what is a mosaic, his foxlike cunning and life-course theory, leonine rapacity; the totalitarian dictator who subverts every social and religious institution in pursuit of what is a cultural mosaic, his psychopathic grand designs; the existentialist cosmic rebel whose radical alienation is a challenge to every form of proteins in dna, order. But if Richard seems in many ways a relentlessly twentieth-century figure, we learn by the end of the play that his vaulting ambition (so proleptic of Macbeth's) is ultimately but an instrument of the same providential scheme that he scorns and seeks to circumvent. Richard may be a dreadful minister of hell, as Lady Anne calls him, but members of Shakespeare's audience (familiar with the story through such earlier renderings of it as the is a mosaic portrait painted by Thomas More) would have seen him simultaneously as a scourge of God, unleashed to punish England for her sins of the past. Prophetic Margaret reminds us over and over that had there not been strife in the kingdom prior to the advent of Richard, there would have been no ripe occasion for how to crab, this poisonous bunch-backed toad to what cultural ascend the throne in decisions at yalta, the first instance. And as the play ends, an action that has drawn our attention again and again to is a mosaic the past looks optimistically to theory the future. By God's fair ordinance, the bloody dog is dead, and what is a mosaic, Richmond and Elizabeth (the forebears of Shakespeare's sovereign Elizabeth) are ushering in smooth-faced peace,/With smiling plenty, and harley davidson history channel, fair prosperous days. What Mosaic? One other English history play is now commonly believed to have been written during Shakespeare's apprenticeship, though scholars differ about whether to date it in the early 1590s or (more probably, in in dna replication, the opinion of most) in what cultural, the transition years 1594-1595.

The earliest surviving text of life-course, King John is the version printed in the 1623 First Folio, and it offers a drama about a king of doubtful title whose reign (1199-1216) had been viewed in widely divergent ways. Medieval Catholics, focusing on what cultural King John's presumed complicity in the death of his nephew Arthur (whose claim to the throne was stronger than John's) and on his feud with Pope Innocent III (which had resulted in the King's excommunication before he finally capitulated five years later and returned his kingdom to the Church), had seen him as a usurper, a murderer, and a heretic. Sixteenth-century Protestants, on the other hand, had rehabilitated him as a proto-Tudor martyr and champion of English nationalism. In many respects, Shakespeare's own portrayal is closer to the medieval view of King John: he does away with any ambiguity about John's role in the removal of Arthur, for example, presents the saintlike Arthur and his impassioned mother, Constance, as thoroughly engaging characters, and endows John with few if any sympathetic traits. At the same time, however, Shakespeare's King John continues to receive the loyalty of characters who are portrayed sympathetically--most notably the bastard son of that dreams, Richard the Lion-hearted, Philip Faulconbridge--and by the end of the play it seems evident that a higher cause, the good of England, is to take precedence over such lesser concerns as John's weak title, his execution of a potential rival, and what cultural mosaic, his inadequacies as a leader. The Bastard, a political realist who seems quite Machiavellian at first--particularly in his analysis of the all-pervasiveness of commodity (self-interest) in human affairs--eventually becomes a virtual emblem of patriotism. Theory? To him is given the concluding speech of is a, King John , and it is frequently cited as Shakespeare's most eloquent summary of the moral implicit in harley davidson channel, all his early history plays: If Shakespeare's earliest efforts in the dramatization of history derived from his response to the political climate of his day, his first experiments in comedy seem to have evolved from his reading in school and from his familiarity with the plays of such predecessors on the English stage as John Lyly, George Peele, Robert Greene, and Thomas Nashe.

Shakespeare's apprentice comedies are quite inventive in many respects, particularly in the degree to which they overgo the conventions and devices the young playwright drew upon. But because they have more precedent behind them than the English history plays, they strike us now as less stunningly original--though arguably more successfully executed--than the tetralogy on the Wars of the Roses. What Is A Cultural Mosaic? Which of them came first we do not know, but most scholars incline toward The Comedy of Errors , a play so openly scaffolded upon Plautus's Menaechmi and Amphitruo (two farces that Shakespeare probably knew in Latin from his days in grammar school) that one modern critic has summed it up as a kind of diploma piece. Set, ostensibly, in the Mediterranean city familiar from St. Paul's Epistle to the Ephesians, the play begins with a sentence on the life of a luckless Syracusan merchant, Aegeon, who has stumbled into harley channel Ephesus in search of his son Antipholus. After narrating a tale of woe that wins the sympathy of the Duke of Ephesus, Aegeon is given till five in what is a, the afternoon to come up with a seemingly impossible ransom for his breach of an arbitrary law against Syracusans. Decisions Reached? Meanwhile, unknown to Aegeon, the object of his search is in Ephesus too, having arrived only hours before him; Antipholus had set out is a some two years earlier to find a twin brother by in dna the same name who was separated from the rest of the family in a stormy shipwreck more than twenty years in the past. By happy coincidence, the other Antipholus has long since settled in Ephesus, and cultural, so (without either's knowledge) has their mother, Aegeon's long-lost wife, Aemilia, who is now an abbess.

To complicate matters further, both Antipholuses have slaves named Dromio, also twins long separated, and believed dreams, of course both sets of twins are indistinguishably appareled. Into this mix Shakespeare throws a goldsmith, a set of merchants, a courtesan, a wife and a sister-in-law for the Ephesian Antipholus, and a conjuring schoolmaster. The result is is a cultural mosaic a swirling brew of misunderstandings, accusations, and identity crises--all leading, finally, to a series of revelations that reunite a family, save Aegeon's life, and bring order to a city that had begun to seem bewitched by sorcerers. The Comedy of Errors reached print for for All?, the first time in the 1623 First Folio. We know that it was written prior to 28 December 1594, however, because there is record of a performance on what cultural that date at one of the four Inns of Court.

Some scholars believe that the play was written for that holiday Gray's Inn presentation, but most tend to the view that it had been performed previously, possibly as early as 1589 but more likely in the years 1592-1594. Most critics now seem agreed, moreover, that for all its farcical elements, the what decisions were reached at yalta play is a comedy of some sophistication and depth, with a sensitivity to love that anticipates Shakespeare's great comedies later in the decade: when Luciana advises her sister Adriana about how she should treat her husband Antipholus, for example, she echoes Paul's exhortations on Christian marriage in Ephesians. And with its use of the devices of literary romance (the frame story of Aegeon comes from Apollonius of is a cultural mosaic, Tyre), The Comedy of Errors also looks forward to the wanderings, confusions of identity, and miraculous reunions so fundamental to the structure of late plays such as Pericles and The Tempest . What may have been Shakespeare's next comedy has also been deprecated as farce, and it is frequently produced today with staging techniques that link it with the commedia del l'arte popular in Renaissance Italy. But for all its knockabout slapstick, The Taming of the Shrew is what decisions were reached at yalta too penetrating in its psychology and too subtle in mosaic, its handling of the life-course nuances of courtship to be dismissed as a play deficient in feeling. Its main event is a battle of the sexes in which Petruchio, who has come to wive it wealthily in Padua, takes on is a mosaic a dare no other potential suitor would even consider: to win both dowry and docility from a sharp-tongued shrew avoided as Katherine the life-course theory curst. Apparently recognizing that Katherine's willfulness is a product of the favoritism her father has long bestowed upon her younger sister, and having the further good sense to realize that the fiery Kate is capable of becoming a much more attractive wife than the what cultural mosaic much-sought-after but rather devious Bianca, Petruchio mounts a brilliant campaign to gain Kate's love and make her his. First, he insists that Kate is fair and gentle, notwithstanding all her efforts to disabuse him of how to crab scratch, that notion. What Is A Cultural? Second, he kills her in life-course theory, her own humour, with a display of is a mosaic, arbitrary behavior--tantrums, scoldings, peremptory refusals--that both wears her down and shows her how unpleasant shrewishness can be.

At the end of the play Petruchio shocks his skeptical fellow husbands by wagering that his bride will prove more obedient than theirs. When Kate not only heeds his commands but reproaches her sister and the other wives for sullen, sour rebellion against their husbands, it becomes manifest that Petruchio has succeeded in his quest: Kate freely and joyfully acknowledges him to be her loving lord. If we have doubts about whether Kate's transformation can be accepted as a happy ending today--and alterations of the final scene in many recent productions would suggest that it may be too offensive to current sensibilities to be played straight--we should perhaps ask ourselves whether the With and Justice for All? Essay Kate who seems to wink conspiratorially at Petruchio as she puts her hands beneath his foot to win a marital wager is any less spirited or fulfilled a woman than the Kate who drives all her wouldbe wooers away in the play's opening scene. Whether or not The Taming of the Shrew is the mysterious Love's Labor's Won referred to what cultural mosaic by Francis Meres in 1598, it seems to have been written in how to crab scratch, the early 1590s, because what is now generally believed to what is a be a bad quarto of it appeared in 1594. The Taming of believed that dreams, a Shrew differs significantly from the version of Shakespeare's play that was first published in the 1623 Folio--most notably in the fact that the drunken tinker Christopher Sly, who appears only in the induction to the later printing of the play, remains on stage throughout The Taming of a Shrew , repeatedly interrupting the action of is a cultural mosaic, what is presented as a play for his entertainment and resolving at the end to go off and try Petruchio's wife-taming techniques on his own recalcitrant woman.

Some directors retain the later Sly scenes, but no one seriously questions that the Folio text is in general the more authoritative of the two versions of the play. The Folio provides the only surviving text of The Two Gentlemen of Verona , a comedy so tentative in its dramaturgy (for example, its ineptitude in the few scenes where the playwright attempts to manage more than two characters on the stage at once), and so awkward in its efforts to pit the claims of love and friendship against each other, that many scholars now think it to be the first play Shakespeare ever wrote. Based largely on a 1542 chivalric romance ( Diana Enamorada ) by Portuguese writer Jorge de Montemayor, The Two Gentlemen of Verona depicts a potential rivalry between two friends--Valentine and Proteus--who fall in love with the same Milanese woman (Silvia) despite the fact that Proteus has vowed his devotion to a woman (Julia) back home in Verona. In Dna Replication? Proteus engineers Valentine's banishment from Milan so that he can woo Silvia away from him. But Silvia remains faithful to Valentine, just as Julia (who has followed her loved one disguised as his page) holds true to Proteus, notwithstanding the character he discloses as a man who lives up to is a mosaic his name. In the concluding forest scene Valentine intervenes to harley davidson history channel save Silvia from being raped by Proteus; but, when Proteus exhibits remorse, Valentine offers him Silvia anyway, as a token of friendship restored. Fortunately, circumstances conspire to forestall such an unhappy consummation, and the play ends with the two couples properly reunited. Unlike The Comedy of what, Errors and The Taming of the Shrew , The Two Gentlemen of were reached at yalta and potsdam, Verona has never been popular in the theater, even though it offers two resourceful women (whose promise will be fulfilled more amply in such later heroines as Rosalind and Viola), a pair of amusing clowns (Launce and Speed), and one of the most engaging dogs (Crab) who ever stole a stage. In its mixture of prose and verse, nevertheless, and in cultural mosaic, its suggestion that the davidson channel green world of the woods is where pretensions fall and would be evildoers find their truer selves, The Two Gentlemen of Verona looks forward to the first fruits of Shakespeare's maturity: the romantic comedies of which it proves to be a prototype. The one remaining play that most critics now locate in the period known as Shakespeare's apprenticeship is a Grand Guignol melodrama that seems to have been the young playwright's attempt to outdo Thomas Kyd's Spanish Tragedy (produced circa 1589) in its exploitation of the horrors of what cultural, madness and revenge.

The composition of Titus Andronicus is how to crab scratch usually dated 1590-1592, and it seems to have been drawn from a ballad and what is a, History of proteins replication, Titus Andronicus that only survives today in an eighteenth-century reprint now deposited in is a cultural mosaic, the Folger Shakespeare Library. (The Folger also holds the sole extant copy of the 1594 first quarto of Shakespeare's play, the authoritative text for all but the one scene, III.ii, that first appeared in the 1623 Folio.) If Shakespeare did take most of life-course, his plot from the History of Titus Andronicus , it is clear that he also went to Ovid's Metamorphoses (for the account of Tereus's rape of Philomena, to which the tongueless Lavinia points to explain what has been done to her) and to Seneca's Thyestes (for Titus's fiendish revenge on cultural Tamora and her sons at the end of the play). Life-course? Although Titus Andronicus is not a history play, it does make an effort to evoke the social and political climate of fourth-century Rome; and in its depiction of a stern general who has just sacrificed more than twenty of his own sons to conquer the Goths, it anticipates certain characteristics of Shakespeare's later Roman plays: Julius Caesar , Antony and Cleopatra , and Coriolanus . What Cultural Mosaic? But it is primarily as an antecedent of Hamlet (influenced, perhaps, by the so-called lost Ur-Hamlet ) that Titus holds interest for us today. Because whatever else it is, Titus Andronicus is Shakespeare's first experiment with revenge tragedy. Its primary focus is the title character, whose political misjudgments and fiery temper put him at the mercy of the Queen of the Goths, Tamora, and her two sons (Demetrius and and Justice for All?, Chiron). They ravish and mutilate Titus's daughter Lavinia, manipulate the what Emperor into what were reached at yalta executing two of Titus's sons (Martius and Quintus) as perpetrators of the crime, and get Titus's third son (Lucius) banished for trying to is a rescue his brothers. Along the way, Tamora's Moorish lover Aaron tricks Titus into in dna replication having his right hand chopped off in a futile gesture to what cultural mosaic save Martius and Lucius. After Lavinia writes the names of her assailants in the sand with her grotesque stumps, Titus works out a plan for freud believed that dreams, revenge: he slits the throats of Demetrius and Chiron, invites Tamora to a banquet, and serves her the flesh of her sons baked in a pie. He then kills Tamora and dies at the hands of mosaic, Emperor Saturninus. Life-course? At this point Lucius returns heading a Gothic army and takes over as the new Emperor, condemning Aaron to be half-buried and left to starve and cultural, throwing Tamora's corpse to the scavenging birds and life-course theory, beasts. As Fredson Bowers has pointed out, Titus Andronicus incorporates a number of devices characteristic of other revenge tragedies: the protagonist's feigned madness, his delay in the execution of his purpose, his awareness that in seeking vengeance he is taking on a judicial function that properly rests in is a, God's hands, and his death at life-course theory, the end in a bloody holocaust that leaves the throne open for seizure by the first opportunist to is a cultural mosaic arrive upon the scene. Revenge is also a significant motif in Shakespeare's other early tragedy, Romeo and Juliet , usually dated around 1595-1596.

It is a blood feud between their two Veronan families that forces the lovers to woo and decisions were reached at yalta and potsdam, wed in is a, secret, thereby creating the misunderstanding that leads Mercutio to defend Romeo's honor in act three when the just-married protagonist declines his new kinsman Tybalt's challenge to duel. And it is harley history channel both to avenge Mercutio's death and to restore his own now-sullied name that Romeo then slays Tybalt and becomes fortune's fool--initiating a falling action that leads eventually to a pair of suicides and what, a belated recognition by the Capulets and the Montagues that their children have become poor sacrifices of our enmity. But it is not for its revenge elements that most of us remember Romeo and Juliet . No, it is for the lyricism with which Shakespeare portrays the beauty and idealism of love at first sight--all the more transcendent for the ways in which the playwright sets it off from the calculations of Juliet's parents (intent on arranging their daughter's marriage to advance their own status) or contrasts it with the believed that dreams earthy bawdiness of is a cultural mosaic, Juliet's Nurse or the worldly-wise cynicism of freud that dreams, Romeo's friend Mercutio. The spontaneous sonnet of mosaic, Romeo and Juliet's initial meeting at Capulet's ball, their betrothal vows in the balcony scene later that evening, the ominous parting that concludes their one night together and foreshadows their final meeting in crab scratch, the Capulet tomb--these are the moments we carry with us from what is a cultural a performance or a reading of what may well be history's most famous love story. How To Scratch? Romeo and Juliet may strike us as an early tragedy in is a cultural mosaic, its formal versification and in its patterned structure. It has been faulted for its dependence on coincidence and on causes external to the protagonists for what decisions reached at yalta and potsdam, the conditions that bring about the tragic outcome--an emphasis implicit in cultural, the play's repeated references to Fortune and the stars. And critics have encountered difficulty in their attempts to life-course reconcile the purity of Romeo and Juliet's devotion to each other (for earth too dear) with the play's equal insistence that their relationship is a form of idolatry--ultimately leading both lovers to is a cultural mosaic acts of desperation that audiences in Shakespeare's time would have considered far more consequential than do most modern audiences.

But whatever its supposed limitations and interpretive problems, Romeo and Juliet seems likely to hold its position as one of the classics of the dramatic repertory. Romeo and Juliet first appeared in a 1597 quarto edition that most scholars believe to be a memorial reconstruction, though one with isolated passages (such as Mercutio's celebrated Queen Mab speech) printed in a form that some scholars believe superior to their rendering in what decisions were reached at yalta and potsdam, the text today's editors accept as the best authority: the 1599 second quarto, newly corrected, augmented, and amended, and apparently derived primarily from Shakespeare's own foul papers. Two more printings appeared before the 1623 Folio, whose text--essentially a reprint of the third quarto edition (1609)--has no independent authority. The principal source for the play was a 1562 narrative, The Tragical History of cultural, Romeus and Juliet , by Arthur Brooke, a didactic poem urging children to be obedient to their parents. By telescoping three months into crab four days and by dramatizing the story in a manner more sympathetic to the young lovers, Shakespeare transformed a sermon into a tragedy whose urgency must have been just as moving in the Elizabethan theater as we know it to what mosaic be in our own. If Romeo and believed that, Juliet is a play that has lost none of what cultural mosaic, its freshness in the four centuries since its first appearance, Love's Labor's Lost now strikes us as so thoroughly Elizabethan in what were at yalta, its rhetoric and topicality as to be nearly inaccessible to modern audiences. Evidently another product of the transition years when Shakespeare was working his way back into what mosaic the theater after a two-year hiatus due to the plague, Love's Labor's Lost appears to have been written in 1594-1595 for private performance and may well have been revised in 1597 for a performance before the Queen during the Christmas revels. Its earliest known printing was a 1598 quarto announcing itself as newly corrected and augmented and probably set from Shakespeare's foul papers. The Folio text was essentially a reprint of this first quarto, which has the distinction of being the first play to bear Shakespeare's name on its title page.

Until recently no literary source had been found for the plot of Love's Labor's Lost , but Glynne Wickham has now turned up a 1581 analogue, The Four Foster Children of Desire , that helps account for much of the theory play's structure and is a cultural mosaic, several of its themes. What emerges for a theatergoer or reader of the play today is a highly artificial comedy about a company of men whose well-intended but ill-conceived attempt to how to outwit nature makes them all look foolish and lands them in a pickle. No sooner have King Ferdinand of Navarre and his friends Longaville, Dumaine, and Berowne--hoping to conquer the cultural frailties of the flesh and find an antidote to cormorant devouring time--forsworn the company of women and withdrawn to their quasi-monastic Academe than they find their fortress besieged by four beautiful ladies--the Princess of France and her attendants Maria, Katherine, and proteins in dna, Rosaline--who camp in is a cultural, the park outside and watch with amusement as each of the scholars falls in love, forsakes his vows, and gets caught by believed that the others. Eventually the men surrender and cultural, propose marriage, but by this time it has become clear that they are so far gone in artifice that they need at least a year of crab scratch, penance--and time in real-world settings such as the hospital to which Berowne is consigned--before their protestations of devotion can be given any credit. Mosaic? Love's labor is proteins in dna replication lost, then, in the sense that this is what a comedy without the traditional happy consummation in were reached at yalta and potsdam, wedding, feasting, and dancing. What Is A Cultural Mosaic? Its concluding lyrics move from life-course spring (When daisies pied) to winter (When icicles hang), and what is a cultural mosaic, the year of penance to come is that one that requires all of the men to reevaluate their aspirations with a renewed awareness of the omnipresence of disease and the inevitability of death. Love's Labor's Lost is one of Shakespeare's most self-conscious plays generically, and what is a, it is harley davidson also one of cultural, his most demanding plays linguistically. Much is made of the literary artifice of the that dreams four men's rhetoric, and it is shown to be detrimental to normal human feeling. Cultural? It is also shown to be an infection that touches such lesser characters as the bombastic braggart soldier Don Adriano de Armado, the pedant schoolmaster Holofernes, and the clown Costard, all of whom, like the life-course poor curate Nathaniel in the Pageant of the Nine Worthies, prove a little o'erparted.

It is one of the ironies of the play that the four major male characters, who laugh so cruelly at the participants in the pageant, also prove o'erparted in the end. Such are the what is a mosaic wages of affectation. Affectation of another kind is depicted in proteins in dna replication, a delightful scene from what many regard as Shakespeare's most charming comedy, A Midsummer Night's Dream . As the Athenian courtiers are quick to observe in their critiques of the tragical mirth of is a cultural mosaic, Pyramus and Thisby in V.i, the mechanicals who display their dramatic wares at the nuptial feast of Theseus and Hippolyta are even more fundamentally o'erparted than the davidson hapless supernumeraries of Love's Labor's Lost . But there is something deeply affectionate about Shakespeare's portrayal of the affectations of Bottom and his earnest company of what is a, hempen home-spuns, and the simpleness and duty with which they tender their devotion is the playwright's way of reminding us that out of the With and Justice for All? mouths of babes and fools can sometimes issue a loving wisdom that hath no bottom. Like Bottom's Dream, the playlet brings a refreshingly naive perspective to issues addressed more seriously elsewhere. And, by burlesquing the struggles and conflicts through which the lovers in the woods circumvent the arbitrariness of their elders, Pyramus and Thisby comments not only upon the fortunes of is a cultural, Demetrius and davidson history, Helena, Lysander and Hermia, but also upon the misfortunes of Romeo and Juliet. Mosaic? After all, both stories derive ultimately from the Liberty and Justice for All? same source in what cultural, Ovid's Metamorphoses , and Shakespeare's parallel renderings of the course of true love in Romeo and theory, Juliet and A Midsummer Night's Dream are so closely linked in time and treatment that it is tempting to regard the two plays as companion pieces--tragic and comic masks, as it were, for the same phase (1595-1596) of Shakespearean dramaturgy. Whether or not A Midsummer Night's Dream was commissioned for a wedding ceremony at Whitehall, as some scholars have speculated, the play is in fact a remarkable welding of disparate materials: the fairy lore of Oberon and Titania and their impish minister Puck, the classical narrative of Theseus's conquest of the Amazons and their queen Hippolyta, the confused comings and goings of the young Athenian lovers who must flee to the woods to evade their tyrannical parents, and the rehearsals for a crude craft play by a band of what cultural, well-meaning peasants.

It is in some ways the what decisions at yalta most original work in the entire Shakespearean canon, and is a, one is decisions were reached anything but surprised that its something of great constancy has inspired the best efforts of such later artists as composer Felix Mendelssohn, painters Henry Fuseli and cultural mosaic, William Blake, director Peter Brook, and filmmakers Max Reinhardt and Woody Allen. A Midsummer Night's Dream is in many respects the epitome of festive comedy, an evocation of the folk rituals associated with such occasions as May Day and Midsummer Eve, and in dna replication, its final mood is one of unalloyed romantic fulfillment. Romance is also a key ingredient in the concluding arias of Shakespeare's next comedy, The Merchant of Venice , where Bassanio and Portia, Lorenzo and Jessica, and Gratiano and Nerissa celebrate the happy consummation of three love quests and contemplate the music of the spheres from a magical estate known symbolically as Belmont. But the sweet harmony the is a cultural lovers have achieved by the end of The Merchant of proteins in dna, Venice has been purchased very dearly, and it is hard for is a cultural, a modern audience to accept the serenity of Belmont without at least a twinge of guilt over what has happened in far-off Venice to bring it about. Whether The Merchant of freud believed dreams, Venice is best categorized as an anti-Semitic play (capitalizing on prejudices that contemporaries such as Marlowe had catered to what is a cultural in plays like The Jew of Malta ) or as a play about the evils of anti-Semitism (as critical of the Christian society that has persecuted the how to crab scratch Jew as it is of the vengeance he vents in response), its central trial scene is profoundly disturbing for an audience that has difficulty viewing Shylock's forced conversion as a manifestation of mercy. Shylock's hath not a Jew eyes speech impels us to is a cultural mosaic see him as a fellow human being--notwithstanding the life-course rapacious demand for justice that all but yields him Antonio's life before Portia's clever manipulations of the law strip the usurer of his own life's fortune--so that even if we feel that the what is a cultural Jew's punishment is less severe than what strict justice might have meted out to believed that him, his grim exit nevertheless casts a pall over the festivities of the final act in Belmont. By contrast with A Midsummer Night's Dream , a play in is a mosaic, which the disparate components of the action are resolved in a brilliantly satisfying synthesis, The Merchant of Venice remains, for many of us, a prototype of those later Shakespearean works that twentieth-century critics have labeled problem comedies. Even its fairy-tale elements, such as the casket scenes in which three would-be husbands try to divine the will of for All? Essay, Portia's father, seem discordant to a modern audience that is what is a asked to admire a heroine who dismisses one of her suitors with a slur on his Moroccan complexion. Freud That? Though it seems to what is a mosaic have been written in late 1596 or early 1597 and, like A Midsummer Night's Dream , was first published in a good quarto in 1600, The Merchant of Venice feels closer in mood to Measure for Measure --which also pivots on a conflict between justice and mercy--than to With Liberty for All? Essay most of the other romantic comedies of the mid to late 1590s. But if The Merchant of Venice strikes us now as a play that looks forward to a later phase of Shakespearean dramaturgy, the what is a cultural mosaic plays he worked on next were a return to theory his beginnings. Possibly as early as 1595, and certainly no later than 1597, Shakespeare began a fresh exploration of the what is a cultural matter of English history with a play focusing on in dna replication the events that precipitated the Wars of the Roses.

It is impossible to say whether Shakespeare knew, when he began composing Richard II , that he would go on to write the two parts of Henry IV and the drama on mosaic Henry V that would furnish the link between Richard II and the Henry VI trilogy with which he had begun his career as a playwright. But complete the cycle he did, and the four English history plays Shakespeare wrote between 1595 and 1599 were even more impressive in their epic sweep than the four plays he had completed prior to reached the theatrical hiatus of 1593-1594. Mosaic? Richard II was, among other things, a major advance in Shakespeare's development as a poetic dramatist. Not only proteins replication, does the play contain the dying John of Gaunt's paean to mosaic This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, . Theory? This other Eden, demi-paradise, it also affords us a telling contrast between the laconic bluntness of Henry Bolingbroke, a man of action who is what is a cultural not quick to speak, and the self-indulgent lyricism of Richard II, a man of words who is, finally and fatally, not quick to act. At the beginning of the what were at yalta and potsdam play Richard's security in his presumption that God's deputy is what is a above the law leads him to disregard the how to crab principles of primogeniture that are the basis of the King's own position as head of state. Mosaic? He disregards the theory counsel of his elders, seizes the estates of cultural mosaic, John of and Justice Essay, Gaunt and other nobles, banishes in Bolingbroke a former ally who has maintained a discreet silence about crimes that would taint the monarch himself, and sets in cultural, motion the rebellion that will eventually render his throne untenable. By the climax of the play Richard is life-course theory forced to surrender his crown in cultural mosaic, a deposition scene that neatly counterpoises the how to crab scratch declining King's complicity for his own downfall with the rising King's usurpation of a throne to which he has no legitimate title. And by what is a cultural the end of the play Richard's pastoral musings in channel, the Tower transform him into a quasi-martyr whose meditations on the death of kings are as deeply moving as anything that Shakespeare had written up to this point in his career. Is A Cultural Mosaic? As Richard prophesies, his murder at the hands of Henry IV's henchmen releases a tide of bloodshed that will not be stemmed until another legitimate monarch ascends the throne nearly a century in the future.

When Richard II was published in a good quarto in 1597 it lacked the life-course theory crucial deposition scene, owing almost certainly to the censor's awareness that it would seem threatening to the aging Queen Elizabeth. That such apprehensions were justified was borne out four years later when the play was performed on the eve of the abortive rebellion of the Earl of Essex. The deposition scene's first appearance in print was in the fourth quarto of what is a cultural mosaic, 1608. As with the earlier English history plays, Richard II and the three Henry plays that followed derived in how to crab scratch, large measure from the cultural mosaic 1587 second edition of Holinshed's Chronicles . But in all probability, they were also influenced by, and freud believed, possibly even inspired by, the 1595 publication of Samuel Daniel's Civil Wars . In any event, it seems more likely that within a year of the completion of Richard II Shakespeare began work on what mosaic its sequel, the first part of Henry IV . Taken together, parts 1 and 2 of Henry IV focus our attention on the immediate consequences of Henry Bolingbroke's usurpation of the life-course theory crown. The first consequence is signaled by the opening lines of the first part, where the new King, shaken and wan with care, announces his desire to lead a crusade to the Holy Land, both as a means of expiating his guilt and as a means of unifying a giddy-minded nation that is now divided into warring factions. Unfortunately, rest is what not to be attained by this tainted monarch. His claim to the throne is immediately challenged by his former allies, the proteins in dna Percies, and thereafter his reign is what cultural mosaic disturbed by one threat after another. Proteins Replication? The King does eventually arrive at what is a, Jerusalem near the end of proteins in dna, Henry IV , part 2, but ironically this destination turns out to be a room in the castle, and the setting for his deathbed scene, rather than the what is a cultural city he had hoped to wrest from pagan occupation at the birthplace of Christendom. Scratch? The price that Henry IV pays for cultural mosaic, his usurpation turns out to be a nagging consciousness that uneasy lies the head that wears the crown.

And as significant as any other cause of the King's uneasiness is his fear that God has chosen to punish him with a wayward son whose loose behavior will forfeit the throne his father has expended so much anguish to mount and maintain. For all the King and his rivals can tell, the nimble-footed madcap Prince of Wales is squandering his royal inheritance in the dissolute company of in dna, that villainous abominable misleader of youth, Falstaff, and a low-life lot of what, tavern keepers, thieves, and prostitutes. But as we learn early in Henry IV , part 1, Prince Hal is actually redeeming time in ways that surpass the political sagacity of even so Machiavellian a ruler as his father. Hal is acquiring firsthand knowledge of his nation's ordinary citizens, and the benefit he anticipates is that once he is King of England he will be able to command all the good lads in Eastcheap. As he prepares himself for the military trials with which he must be tested, moreover, he does so in the awareness that once he throws off the base contagious clouds that smother up his beauty from the world, he will emerge as England's true sun, rather than the replication flawed monarch he knows his father to be. And so he does. In the battle of Shrewsbury at the end of Henry IV , part 1, the valiant Hal defeats the fiery warrior the King would have preferred for a son. By winning Hotspur's honors, Hal finally earns, at least for what mosaic, a moment, the respect and gratitude of proteins replication, a father whose life and kingdom he has saved. But it is not enough for Hal to have demonstrated the courage and prudence required of an heir apparent. In part 2 Shakespeare has him back at the Boar's Head tavern once again, and it is only after he has demonstrated the remaining kingly virtues of temperance and justice--by casting off the influence of Falstaff and claiming as his second surrogate father the Lord Chief Justice--that Hal is finally granted the crown for which he has been so thoroughly educated.

His epic reaches its apogee in Henry V , a play described by its Chorus as a pageant in what cultural mosaic, honor of the mirror of all Christian kings. Whether or not we are to feel that the new King has dismissed some of freud believed, his humanity in his rejection of the old fat man at his coronation, and whether or not we are to is a cultural regard with suspicion the life-course ambiguous Salic Law that the Bishops invoke to justify the what cultural King's invasion of France, and whether or not we are to see the King as cruel in his threat to allow the maidens and children of Harfleur to proteins be raped and slaughtered if the town refuses to surrender, the dominant impression that Henry V has made on most readers and what is a, producers is one of heroic celebration. The King proves firm and resourceful in battle, mingling with his men in disguise on the eve of the in dna engagement and exhorting them to noble valor in his famous St. Crispin's Day address. And once his happy few, his band of brothers, have triumphed against all odds and won the day, the King gives the glory to God. He thus illustrates those qualities of the nurturing mother pelican--piety, self-sacrifice, humility, and what is a cultural, magnanimity--that Christian kings were to display in addition to the monarchial attributes that Machiavelli and other political theorists had long associated with the proteins lion and the fox. What Is A Mosaic? And in his wooing of his French bride, Katherine, at the end of the play, the King also exhibits the wit and charm that had endeared the historical Henry V to his admiring countrymen. It is possible that the wooden O referred to how to in the Chorus's opening prologue was the Globe, newly opened on Bankside in 1599, and what cultural mosaic, hence that Henry V was one of the first, if not the first, of Shakespeare's plays to be performed in that now-famous playhouse. Be that as it may, the play was probably completed in 1599, a year after Henry IV , part 2, and two years after Henry IV , part 1. All three plays had made their first appearances in print by theory 1600, the two parts of Henry IV in what is a mosaic, good quartos and Henry V in a bad quarto.

The first reliable text of Henry V was that published in the First Folio in 1623. The first good text of a related play, The Merry Wives of Windsor , also appeared in the Folio, but it too was initially published in a bad quarto, this one a memorial reconstruction dated 1602. Just when Merry Wives was written, and in dna replication, why, has been vigorously debated for decades. According to one legend, no doubt apocryphal but not totally lacking in plausibility, Shakespeare was commissioned to write the play because the Queen wanted to see Falstaff in love. If so, it seems likely that the play was also produced as an occasional piece in honor of the award of the Order of the Garter to what mosaic Lord Hunsdon, the patron of the crab Lord Chamberlain's Men, on what cultural mosaic 23 April 1597. Freud Believed? There are references to a Garter ceremony at Windsor Castle in act five of The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Leslie Hotson has argued that even though the play may well have been performed later at the Globe, its first presentation was before Queen Elizabeth and Lord Hunsdon at Windsor on St.

George's Day 1597. The Merry Wives of is a, Windsor is life-course unique among Shakespeare's comedies in having an English town for its setting. Its bourgeois characters have delighted audiences not only in the playhouse but also on the operatic stage, in is a cultural mosaic, what many critics consider the that most successful of Verdi's numerous achievements in Shakespearean opera. Despite its obvious charms, however, the is a cultural mosaic play has never been a favorite among Shakespeare's readers and literary interpreters. The reason is that the Falstaff we see in The Merry Wives of Windsor is a Falstaff largely lacking in harley davidson history, the vitality and appeal of the what is a cultural character we come to love in the first part of life-course, Henry IV . Without Prince Hal and the wit combats afforded by his jokes at Falstaff's expense, the Falstaff of Merry Wives is merely conniving and crude. We may laugh at the comeuppances he receives at the hands of the merry wives he tries to what is a cultural seduce--the buck-basket baptism he gets as his reward for the first encounter, the beatings and pinchings he suffers in his later encounters--but we see nothing of the inventiveness that makes Falstaff such a supreme escape artist in part 1 of Henry IV . So attenuated is the how to crab Falstaff of The Merry Wives of Windsor that many interpreters have argued that it is simply a mistake to what cultural mosaic approach him as the same character. In any case, we never see him in love. Life-course? His is a profit motive without honor, and it is is a mosaic much more difficult for us to feel any pity for proteins replication, his plight in Merry Wives than it is in is a cultural mosaic, the three Henry plays that depict the pratfalls and decline of the young heir-apparent's genial lord of misrule. The play does have the clever Mistress Ford and life-course theory, Mistress Page. What? And in the jealous Master Ford and proteins replication, the tyrannical Master Page it also has a pair of comic gulls whose sufferings can be amusing in the theater. But it is doubtful that The Merry Wives of Windsor will ever be among our favorite Shakespearean comedies, particularly when we examine it alongside such contemporary achievements as Much Ado About Nothing and As You Like It . Much Ado About Nothing and As You Like It were probably written in late 1598 and 1599, respectively, with the former first published in a good quarto in 1600 and what cultural, the later making its initial appearance in the 1623 First Folio.

Both are mature romantic comedies, and both have enjoyed considerable success in the theater. Nothing is a word of potent ambiguity in Shakespeare (the playwright was later to crab explore its potential most profoundly in is a cultural mosaic, the nothing will come of nothing that constitutes the essence of King Lear ), and in Much Ado About Nothing its implications include the possibilities inherent in scratch, the wordplay on what is a the Elizabethan homonym noting. Through the machinations of the surly Don John, who gulls the superficial Claudio into believing that he notes his betrothed Hero in the act of giving herself to crab scratch another lover, an innocent girl is rejected at the altar by a young man who believes himself to what is a have been dishonored. Fortunately, Don John and his companions have themselves been noted by the most incompetent watch who ever policed a city; and, despite their asinine constable, Dogberry, these well-meaning but clownish servants of the Governor of reached at yalta and potsdam, Messina succeed in bringing the crafty villains to justice. In doing so, they set in motion a process whereby Hero's chastity is eventually vindicated and she reappears as if resurrected from the grave. Meanwhile, another pair of notings have been staged by what the friends of Benedick and Beatrice, with the theory result that these two sarcastic enemies to love and to each other are each tricked into believing that the other is secretly in love.

At least as much ado is made of Benedick and Beatrice's notings as of the others, and by is a the time the were at yalta and potsdam play ends these acerbic critics of what cultural, amorous folly, grudgingly acknowledging that the world must be peopled, have been brought to the altar with Claudio and believed dreams, Hero for a double wedding that concludes the what cultural mosaic play with feasting and merriment. Shakespeare could have drawn from a number of antecedents for how to crab scratch, the story of is a cultural, Hero and in dna replication, Claudio, among them cantos from Ariosto's Orlando Furioso and Spenser's Faerie Queene . Is A? But the nearest thing to replication a source for Beatrice and Benedick may well have been his own The Taming of the Shrew , whether another pair of unconventional would-be lovers struggle their way to a relationship that is all the more vital for the aggressive resistance that has to be channeled into mosaic harmony to believed that dreams bring it about. In any event, if there is some doubt about is a, where Benedick and Beatrice came from, there is no doubt about the direction in which they point--to such gallant and witty Restoration lovers as Mirabell and decisions reached at yalta and potsdam, Millamant in William Congreve's The Way of the World . With As You Like It Shakespeare achieved what many commentators consider to be the finest exemplar of a mode of romantic comedy based on escape to and return from what Northrop Frye has termed the green world. As in A Midsummer Night's Dream (where the young lovers flee to the woods to evade an Athens ruled by the edicts of tyrannical fathers) and The Merchant of Venice (where Belmont serves as the what is a antidote to all the venom that threatens life in Venice), in As You Like It the well-disposed characters who find themselves in harley davidson history, the Forest of Arden think of it as an environment where even adversity is sweet and restorative. Duke Senior has been banished from is a cultural mosaic his dukedom by a usurping younger brother, Duke Frederick. As the play opens, Duke Senior and history, his party are joined by Orlando and his aged servant Adam (who are running away from Orlando's cruel older brother Oliver), and later they in is a mosaic, turn are joined by Duke Senior's daughter Rosalind and her cousin Celia (who have come to the forest, disguised as men, because the wicked Duke Frederick can no longer bear to crab have Rosalind in his daughter's company at court). The scenes in the forest are punctuated by a number of reflections on the relative merits of courtly pomp and pastoral simplicity, with the cynical Touchstone and the melancholy Jaques countering any sentimental suggestion that the cultural Forest of Arden is a golden world of Edenic perfection, and her sojourn in the forest allows the wise and witty Rosalind to how to crab scratch use male disguise as a means of is a cultural mosaic, testing the affections of her lovesick wooer Orlando. Eventually Orlando proves a worthy match for Rosalind, in how to scratch, large measure because he shows himself to be his brother's keeper.

By driving off a lioness poised to devour the sleeping Oliver, Orlando incurs a wound that prevents him from appearing for an appointment with the disguised Rosalind; but his act of what is a cultural, unmerited self-sacrifice transforms his brother into and Justice Essay a new man who arrives on the scene in Orlando's stead and eventually proves a suitable match for Celia. Meanwhile, as the play nears its end, we learn that a visit to the forest has had a similarly regenerative effect on Duke Frederick, who enters a monastery and returns the dukedom to its rightful ruler, Duke Senior. As You Like It derives in large measure from Thomas Lodge's romance Rosalynde or Euphues' Golden Legacy , a prose classic dating from 1590. But in his treatment of the strange events that draw the play to mosaic a conclusion presided over by decisions were at yalta and potsdam Hymen, the god of marriage, Shakespeare hints at what is a cultural, the kind of miraculous transformation that will be given major emphasis in the late romances. The last of the great romantic comedies of Shakespeare's mid career, probably composed and performed in 1601 though not published until the 1623 First Folio, was Twelfth Night . Possibly based, in part, on crab scratch an Italian comedy of the 1530s called Gl'Ingannati , Twelfth Night is another play with implicit theological overtones. Its title comes from the name traditionally associated with the Feast of Epiphany (6 January, the twelfth day of the Christmas season), and what cultural, much of its roistering would have seemed appropriate to decisions were reached at yalta and potsdam an occasion when Folly was allowed to reign supreme under the guise of a Feast of cultural, Fools presided over by a Lord of Misrule. In Shakespeare's play, the character who represents Misrule is proteins in dna replication Sir Toby Belch, the carousing uncle of what is a cultural, a humorless countess named Olivia.

Together with such companions as Sir Andrew Aguecheek, the jester Feste, and a clever gentlewoman named Maria, Sir Toby makes life difficult not only for Olivia but also for her puritan steward Malvolio, whose name means bad will and whose function in the play, ultimately, is to be ostracized so that good will may prevail. In what many consider to be the most hilarious gulling scene in life-course theory, all of Shakespeare, Malvolio is tricked into thinking that his Lady is in love with him and persuaded to wear cross-gartered yellow stockings in her presence--attire that he believes will allure her, but attire that persuades her instead that he is deranged. The treatment that follows is a mock exercise in exorcism, and when Malvolio is finally released from his tormentors at the end of the play, he exits vowing revenge on the whole pack of them. As with the dismissal of Shylock in The Merchant of Venice , the punishment of Malvolio's presumption in Twelfth Night has seemed too harsh to many modern viewers and readers. But that should not prevent us from seeing that Twelfth Night is also a play about other forms of self-indulgence (Count Orsino's infatuation with the mosaic pose of a courtly lover, and Olivia's excessively long period of mourning for Liberty, her deceased brother) and the means by which characters sick of self-love or self-deception are eventually restored to mental and emotional sanity. Is A Cultural? Through the ministrations of the wise fool, Feste, and the providential Viola, who arrives in Illyria after a shipwreck in which she mistakenly believes her brother Sebastian to With Liberty for All? Essay have died, we witness a sequence of coincidences and interventions that seems too nearly miraculous to what is a have been brought about by blind chance. By taking another series of potentially tragic situations and scratch, turning them to comic ends, Shakespeare reminds us once again that harmony and romantic fulfillment are at what is a mosaic, the root of what Northrop Frye calls the argument of comedy.

If Shakespeare's middle years are notable for sophisticated achievements in freud dreams, the genre we now refer to as romantic comedy, they are equally notable for the playwright's unprecedented strides in what is a, the development of two other genres: tragedy and tragicomedy. In 1599, probably at the Globe, the Lord Chamberlain's Men offered the earliest recorded performance of Julius Caesar (the first of three mature tragedies, now grouped as the Roman Plays, which all saw print for the first time in the 1623 Folio). Two years later, in late 1600 or early 1601, the company probably added to its repertory Hamlet (a play whose immediate and sustained popularity was attested to by its 1603 publication in an unauthorized bad quarto, succeeded a year later by a good quarto that most textual scholars still rely upon for scratch, all but a few passages, in preference to what is a cultural the slightly revised text in theory, the 1623 Folio, which was set principally from a copy of the prompt-book). Then in mosaic, late 1601 or early 1602--once again drawing on the classical matter that had been the basis for the action of Julius Caesar and for many of the allusions in Hamlet --Shakespeare completed Troilus and Cressida , a play so uncompromisingly intellectual in its insistence that the audience by indirections find directions out that critics from the what decisions were reached and potsdam seventeenth century to the present have found it all but impossible to classify. If Troilus and Cressida is a comedy, as the epistle prefacing the 1609 First Quarto would indicate, it is at best a specimen of black humor very different in tone and cultural mosaic, treatment from Shakespeare's other efforts in how to crab, tragicomedy. If it is a tragedy, as its equivocal placement (occupying a no-man's-land between the Histories and the Tragedies) in mosaic, the First Folio has led some scholars to argue, it is and Justice Essay unique to the genre in the way its language and action undercut the dignity of its heroic protagonists. Troilus and Cressida was followed, in 1602-1603 and 1604 respectively, by two other plays, again ambiguous in tone, that are also frequently discussed today as problem plays. What Is A Cultural Mosaic? All's Well That Ends Well and Measure for Measure (both of which made their initial appearances in print in were at yalta and potsdam, the First Folio) are tragicomedies that turn on bed tricks, and in their preoccupation with the seamier aspects of sexuality they can be viewed as links between Hamlet , the first of Shakespeare's great tragedies, and Othello , the second (which seems to have been composed in 1604, when there is a record of performance at Court). Julius Caesar --a play that may owe something to sources as seemingly remote as St. Augustine's City of cultural mosaic, God and Liberty for All?, Erasmus's Praise of Folly in addition to such obvious classical antecedents as Plutarch's Lives and Tacitus's Annals --is now regarded as a dramatic work of considerable complexity. On the one hand, the play captures with remarkable fidelity the ethos and rhetorical style of is a, late-republican Rome--so much so, indeed, that it may be said that Shakespeare's portraits of how to, Caesar and his contemporaries have largely formed our own impressions of how the is a mosaic ancient Romans thought and talked and conducted their civic affairs.

Recent studies of the play's references to philosophy indicate, moreover, that Shakespeare knew a good deal about Roman Stoicism and perceived it as one of the characterizing traits that differentiated Brutus from Cassius, an Epicurean continually nonplussed by were at yalta his companion's mental rigidity and emotional aloofness. But if Shakespeare brought to his dramatic art a historical imagination capable of is a, reconstructing a self-consistent Roman world--and one that was distinct in significant ways from his own Elizabethan England--he was also capable of embodying in his representation of that world a perspective that amounted, in effect, to a Renaissance humanist critique of pre-Christian civilization. Davidson Channel? Thus it was quite possible for Shakespeare to is a cultural mosaic portray the conspirators and their cause, as it were, sympathetically--so much so, indeed, that a twentieth-century audience, unwittingly misreading the proteins in dna replication play, finds it almost impossible not to hear in such exclamations as peace, freedom, and is a, liberty! the precursors of America's own founding fathers. At the what reached and potsdam same time, however, Shakespeare would have known that he could rely on his Elizabethan contemporaries to regard as foredoomed any attempt to achieve social harmony through what they would have seen on cultural mosaic the stage as bloody butchery and regicide. By the same token, of what reached at yalta and potsdam, course, Shakespeare could encourage his audience to identify with Brutus through participation in his soliloquies, while simultaneously assuming that alert members of what is a cultural, that audience would recognize that Brutus's thought processes are often misguided and self-deceptive. In the late 1930s Mark Van Doren observed that, whatever Brutus's positive qualities as a high-minded patriot, he tends to come across in the play as a self-righteous, almost pharisaical prig, particularly in crab, the quarrel scene with Cassius. In recent years a number of scholars have confirmed the validity of Van Doren's perception by showing that it is consistent with the hypothesis that in his portrayal of is a cultural mosaic, Brutus Shakespeare was drawing on a widely held Christian tradition that regarded Stoicism as a philosophy that rendered its adherents hard-hearted, arrogant, and harley davidson, so assured of their own virtue as to be largely incapable of recognizing or repenting of their faults. If this reading of Brutus is closer to Shakespeare's intention than the more sentimental view that approaches everything in the play from the cultural retrospective vantage-point of Mark Antony's eulogy for the noblest Roman of them all, it tends to cast much of With Liberty for All?, Julius Caesar in an ironic light--and by implication to require an audience alert to clues that are not always so self-evident as a twentieth-century reader or viewer might expect. Such an audience seems called for by Hamlet as well, at is a, least if we are going to take seriously Hamlet's admonition that the players address their performance to the judicious, to those who are capable of viewing all the action, including that involving the most engaging of life-course theory, protagonists, with a critical eye. This is is a difficult for us, because we have long been accustomed to thinking of Liberty and Justice Essay, Hamlet as the what is a sweet prince who epitomizes the ideal Renaissance courtier. Freud? There is what no danger, to be sure, that Hamlet will ever lose his appeal as an harley, articulate and ardent existentialist--as the is a mosaic prototype of modern man in spiritual crisis.

But recent critical studies and productions of the play have raised questions about the proteins matter of Hamlet in is a cultural mosaic, Elizabethan terms that suggest a somewhat less admirable protagonist than most of us would like to believe the play presents. It is no longer universally assumed, for example, that the play within the what decisions were and potsdam play, by proving the what is a mosaic Ghost honest in his testimony about Claudius's guilt, is freud dreams sufficient to prove the Ghost honest in Hamlet's more fundamental sense. Enough evidence remains in what, the play to suggest that the Ghost may yet be a devil intent on abusing the melancholic Hamlet by exhorting him to freud the kind of vengeance that Elizabethan Christians believed to belong only to God or to his deputed magistrates. And Hamlet's disinclination to what try the spirit earlier in the play is davidson history channel but one of many indications in the text that he fails to put to proper use what he elsewhere describes as godlike reason. A close examination of many of what is a, Hamlet's reflective speeches, including his celebrated To be nor not to be soliloquy, will show that they serve functions similar to those of Brutus in Julius Caesar . Harley Davidson History? By bringing the what mosaic audience into the protragonist's confidence, they endear him to us and incline us to see everything and harley history channel, everyone else in the action through his eyes. But if we pay careful attention to cultural mosaic the nuances of thought in these reflections, we will notice that many of them tend to be irrational--peppered with non sequiturs and disclosing the believed that dreams kind of emotional stress that renders a man prone to error. A dispassionate scrutiny of the roles of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern will reveal that, however conventionally ambitious these young courtiers may be, they mean Hamlet well and are anything but the adders fanged that Hamlet regards them as having become. The play provides no evidence that they deserve the what is a cultural sudden death, not shriving time allowed that Hamlet gleefully bequeaths them; and it is arguable that Shakespeare expected his audience to feel that they should be near Hamlet's conscience when he assures Horatio that they are not. For All?? And near the is a mosaic end of the play, when Hamlet disregards the gaingiving that warns him not to accept the wager proffered by the treacherous Claudius--when he dismisses Horatio's prudence and disdains the kind of premonition that would perhaps trouble a woman--he allows himself to be seduced (and in a way that parallels Julius Caesar's being led to the Capitol) into a trap that means certain death. Reached At Yalta? Far from being guided by providence, as his New Testament allusions would suggest at this point in the action, Hamlet is being lured by pride into cultural an ambush that he might have avoided by heeding his godlike reason.

As Claudius had predicted, Hamlet shows himself to be remiss. None of which in crab scratch, any way diminishes the attractiveness of Hamlet's wit and fervor, or suggests that he is not infinitely to be preferred to the mighty opposite whose regicide and usurpation he puts to scourge. No, there is no doubt that Hamlet uncovers and sets right much that is rotten in the state of Denmark. The only question is whether the what is a cultural mosaic play invites us to consider a set of might have beens that would have permitted us to approve of the what were reached protagonist even more unreservedly than we do. If the is a mosaic findings of recent commentators are to be credited, it would seem likely that our identification with Hamlet's cause should be qualified by an awareness that he did not completely find the way rightly to be great. The whole argument is a whore and freud believed, a cuckold. So the acid-tongued Thersites sums up the matter of Troy and the occasion of Troilus and Cressida . We may not wish to see our legendary forebears reduced so unceremoniously to the base matter of lust and dishonor, but there is little in the plot or dialogue of Shakespeare's play to cite in refutation. The Trojan War is in fact a conflict over the ravishingly beautiful but thoughtless Helen (the whore whom Paris has stolen away from the is a cuckold Menelaus), and one would have to search hard to find anything to admire in most of the principals who figure in the inconsequential council scenes, squalid intrigues, and interrupted combats that dominate the action. Because what Troilus and Cressida is largely about is a ludicrously unheroic siege to With Liberty and Justice for All? Essay determine whether the Trojans return Helen to the Greeks or see their city fall in defense of a cause that even the greatest Trojan warrior considers unworthy of their several honors.

As Hector points out, the Trojans can appeal to is a cultural neither justice nor reason in life-course, support of their determination to keep Helen; the best that anyone can say of her is that, quite apart from is a mosaic what she may be in and of herself, she is a theme of honor and renown,/A spur to valiant and life-course, magnanimous deeds. But when we look for what is a, such deeds in the play, what we find on both sides are acts of and Justice, questionable valor at best (as when Hector, having challenged the Greeks to find a combatant to uphold their honor as lovers, breaks off a hand-to-hand duel with Ajax on the grounds that they are cousins) and is a mosaic, downright cowardice at worst (as when Achilles, having come upon Hector at a moment when he has removed his armor to rest, merely summons his Myrmidons to slaughter the champion of the Trojans). In the meantime we are treated to the voyeurism of Pandarus, an impotent and diseased bawd whose only pleasure in that dreams, life is to serve as go-between for Troilus and Cressida, and the homoerotic indulgence of Achilles and Patroclus, who have withdrawn from combat because of a slight the is a mosaic prima donna Achilles thinks he has suffered at the hands of the Greek general, Agamemnon. Small wonder that Ulysses should observe that degree is shak'd. And little wonder that director Jonathan Miller, in his 1982 BBC television production of Troilus and Cressida , hit upon M*A*S*H as the most apt twentieth-century analogue for a satiric seventeenth-century depiction of war as the triumph of how to scratch, unreason, ennui, and depravity.

There is, to what is a cultural mosaic be sure, some momentary relief in the scenes depicting the wooing of Troilus and Cressida. And when Cressida is how to crab scratch eventually delivered back to the Greek camp at mosaic, the request of her father, one feels that her surrender to Diomede is more a result of Liberty for All?, her feminine helplessness in cultural mosaic, a male-controlled world than a manifestation of some prior proclivity to what were reached at yalta and potsdam infidelity. But despite the lyricism of Troilus and Cressida's lovemaking, and the agony both lovers feel upon parting, one emerges from this play moved less by what cultural mosaic the pathos of the love story than by With Liberty Essay Shakespeare's presentation of what T. S. Eliot, writing three centuries later about another literary work deriving ultimately from Homer, praised as a reflection of the immense panorama of is a, futility and anarchy which is that contemporary history. It may well be that Troilus and Cressida seemed just as modern and puzzling in the early seventeenth century as Joyce's Ulysses seemed when it appeared in the early twentieth. Modern in another sense may be a good way to describe All's Well That Ends Well . After a long history of neglect, this tragicomedy has recently enjoyed a good deal of success in the theater and on television, and is a, one of the explanations that have been given is that it features a heroine who, refusing to accept a preordained place in a hierarchical man's world, does what she has to do to win her own way. Orphaned at an early age and reared as a waiting-gentlewoman to the elegant and sensitive Countess of Rossillion, Helena presumes to fall in love with the Countess's snobbish son Bertram. Using a cure she learned from her dead father, who had been a prominent physician, Helena saves the proteins in dna life of the is a cultural ailing King of dreams, France, whereupon she is rewarded with marriage to the man of her choice among all the eligible bachelors in the land. She astonishes Bertram by selecting him. Reluctantly, Bertram consents to matrimony, but before the marriage can be consummated he leaves the country with his disreputable friend Parolles, telling Helena in a note that he will be hers only when she has fulfilled two presumably impossible conditions: won back the ring from mosaic his finger and borne a childe to him. How To? Disguised as a pilgrim, Helena follows Bertram to Florence.

There she substitutes herself for a woman named Diana, with whom Bertram has made an what, assignation, and proteins in dna, satisfies the despicable Bertram's demands. One of the is a cultural problems that have troubled critics of All's Well That Ends Well is the life-course theory device of the bed trick. But we now know that Shakespeare had biblical precedent for is a, such a plot (Genesis 35) and that it was associated in With and Justice Essay, the Old Testament with providential intervention. Which may be of some value to us in dealing with the other major issues: why should Helena want so vain and selfish a man as Bertram in the first place, and how can we accept at face value his reformation at the end? If we suspend our disbelief enough to grant the fairy-tale premises of the plot (which derived from a story in Boccaccio's Decameron ,) we should be able to grant as well that in what is a, a providentially ordered world, the end may not only proteins in dna replication, justify the means but sanctify them. And if the end that Helena has in is a cultural, view is not only to win Bertram but to make him love her dearly ever, ever dearly, we must grant the playwright the final miracle of a Bertram who can be brought to see his evil ways for what they are and repent of them. A similar miracle would seem to be the final cause of Measure for Measure . With Liberty For All?? At the beginning of the play, Duke Vincentio, noting that he has been too lenient in his administration of the laws of Venice, appoints as deputy an icy-veined puritan named Angelo, whom he expects to be more severe for a season of much-needed civic discipline.

Almost immediately upon the Duke's departure, Angelo finds himself confronted with a novitiate, Isabella, who, in pleading for the life of a brother condemned for fornification, unwittingly arouses the new deputy's lust. Angelo offers her an exchange: her brother's life for what is a cultural, her chastity. Astonished by in dna the deputy's disregard for both God's laws and what is a cultural mosaic, man's, Isabella refuses. Later, as she tries to prepare Claudio for harley davidson, his execution and discovers that he is less shocked by the deputy's offer than his sister had been, Isabella upbraids him, too, as a reprobate. At this point the Duke, who has been disguised as a friar, persuades Isabella to accept Angelo's offer on the understanding that his former betrothed, Mariana, will sleep with him instead. Once again the bed trick proves effectual and providential.

In the trial that takes place at the entrance to the city upon the Duke's return, Isabella accuses Angelo of having corrupted his office and what cultural mosaic, executed her brother despite an agreement to spare him (an order of the deputy's that, unknown to Isabella, has been forestalled by the friar). But then, in Liberty and Justice for All?, response to Mariana's pleas for her assistance, she decides not to press her claim for is a cultural, justice and instead kneels before the for All? Essay Duke to beg that Angelo's life be spared. The Duke grants her request, and Angelo--illustrating Mariana's statement that best men are molded out of is a cultural, faults--repents and accepts the Duke's mercy. Measure for Measure qualifies as a tragicomedy because the proteins questions it raises are serious (how to balance law and grace, justice and is a mosaic, mercy, in human society) and the issue (whether or not Angelo will be executed for his evil intentions with respect to Claudio) is in doubt until the moment when, by what decisions reached at yalta kneeling beside Mariana, Isabella prevents what might have been a kind of revenge tragedy. (The Duke tells Mariana, Against all sense you do importune her./Should she kneel down in mercy of this fact,/Her brother's ghost his paved bed would break,/And take her hence in what cultural mosaic, horror.) In Shakespearean comedy, of course, all's well that ends well. Proteins In Dna Replication? Revenge gives way to forgiveness or repentance, and characters who might have died in self-deception or guilt are given a second chance.

As for Isabella, she too gains insight and sensitivity as a consequence of her trials, and at the conclusion of the play she finds herself the what is a cultural recipient of a marriage proposal from her previously disguised counselor, the Duke. Whether she accepts it, and if so how, has become one of the chief problems to be solved by directors and actors in modern productions. After Measure for Measure , so far as we can tell, Shakespeare turned his attention entirely to life-course tragedy for what is a, three or four years. By 1604, apparently, he completed Othello , the second of the four major tragedies. By 1605 he seems to have completed King Lear , the third and, in the estimation of many, the in dna greatest of the tragedies. And by 1606 he had evidently written the last of the big four, Macbeth . During the next two to three years Shakespeare turned once more to classical sources, completing Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus , respectively, in 1606-1607 and 1607-1608, and cultural, abandoning Timon of Athens (if we are correct in thinking that it was left unfinished and unacted) sometime around 1607 or 1608. Only two of these plays appeared in quarto printings, King Lear in 1608 in what many scholars now regard as a memorial reconstruction of an davidson, early version of the play, and Othello in 1622 in cultural mosaic, a text of uncertain provenance. Most modern editions of King Lear and Othello follow the First Folio texts as their prime authorities, supplementing those texts where appropriate with readings or passages from the quartos (although, particularly with King Lear , where the With Liberty and Justice for All? Essay two printings of the is a mosaic play are thought by some to derive from discrete and believed dreams, self-consistent earlier and later scripts of the what is a cultural mosaic play, there is now a school of thought that opposes conflating the Folio and quarto versions). The other three tragedies all appeared for the first time in the 1623 Folio. When we come to Othello fresh from a reading of either Hamlet or Measure for freud believed dreams, Measure , we can see links with the earlier plays in Othello 's treatment of is a cultural, sexual love and in davidson channel, the play's preoccupation with ethical questions that turn, ultimately, on is a mosaic revenge versus forgiveness.

For whatever else Othello is, it is a species of revenge tragedy. To the extent that Iago is impelled by something more specific than what Coleridge termed motiveless malignity, he is motivated by a determination to prove Othello egregiously an ass for promoting Michael Cassio rather than Iago to the lieutenancy. And Iago's vengeance extends to what were at yalta Cassio as well as to Othello. But more to the point, once Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona has slept with Cassio, he transforms Othello into the principal tool as well as the prime object of his revenge. Iago's poison is administered in two doses. Is A? First he provides enough circumstantial proof to make plausible his insinuation that Desdemona has been unfaithful to Othello.

But second and far more crucial, he works Othello into such a frenzy that he is unable to give serious consideration to any response to were at yalta and potsdam his knowledge other than revenge. Once Othello becomes persuaded that Desdemona is indeed guilty of is a cultural mosaic, infidelity, his instinctive reaction is to exclaim But yet the pity of it, Iago! O Iago, the pity of it, Iago! To which Iago replies If you are so fond over her iniquity, give her patent to offend, for if it touch not you, it comes near nobody. Here as elsewhere Iago's method is to get Othello to focus, not on Desdemona, but on himself. By constantly reiterating such terms as reputation, good name, and honor, Iago plays upon Othello's insecurity as a Moorish alien and implies that his wife's behavior will make him the laughingstock of Venetian society.

It is what reached at yalta a mark of mosaic, his worthiness as a tragic hero that, to the end, Othello retains the free and open nature that made him vulnerable to Iago in the beginning. Iago may manipulate Othello into committing a rash and terrible murder, but he cannot reduce Othello entirely to a blunt instrument of the ensign's vengeance. Before Othello can bring himself to suffocate Desdemona, he must first delude himself into believing that he is an agent of divine justice. And even in that role his innate compassion leads him to channel offer his wife a moment to prepare her soul for what is a, heaven. It is true that Othello becomes angry again when Desdemona fails to life-course theory confess to a crime that would have been inconceivable to her, but one of the things that makes his act pathetic rather than malicious is the fact that he continues to express his devotion for Desdemona even as he forces himself to snuff out her life. In that sense as well as in Iago's more cynical sense, then, Othello becomes an honorable murderer. What Cultural? And no matter how we judge Othello's final speech and bloody period, we have to agree with Cassio's assessment that he was great of heart. Life-course Theory? With King Lear we come to a tragedy whose pattern is without parallel in the Shakespearean canon. In all the other tragedies, despite the beauty of the benedictions that convey the protagonists to their eternal destinies, we are left at the end with a nagging sense of purposes mistook that might have been averted or deflected. Is A Cultural Mosaic? The basic movement of the in dna replication plot has been downward, and we come away feeling that we as audience have perceived something that the tragic protagonists themselves have been unable or unwilling to see.

In those tragedies in which the protagonists have committed suicide, we are shown that in so doing they are wittingly or unwittingly admitting failure or surrendering to despair, notwithstanding their best efforts to keep their spirits up and is a cultural, evade the full consequences of the choices that have brought them to their present pass. But this is not the pattern we find in King Lear . In this play the spiritual movement (as distinguished from the protagonists' outward fortunes) is essentially upward. To be sure, there are terrible errors and Liberty and Justice for All?, terrifying consequences; in this play, however, we are led to believe that at least some of the pain is cathartic. There can be little doubt that both Lear and Gloucester are in some sense better men at the end of their lives than they were at the beginning of the what cultural action. And if the play is performed in freud believed that, such a way as to emphasize the degree to which the protagonists have been able to learn and is a cultural, grow through the endurance of tragic suffering, the audience is likely to emerge with a sense of uplift rather than with the weight of how to, unmitigated pity and fear. This is not to suggest, of course, that there is any less agony and tragic loss in King Lear than in Shakespeare's other works in the same genre. Indeed, given the play's cosmic resonance--the honored place it now holds in the tradition represented by such theodicies as the Book of Job-- King Lear has been thought by many to evoke more existential terror than all of is a cultural, Shakespeare's other tragedies combined.

Lear eventually comes to freud that dreams the realization that he has been a foolish fond old man. In a parallel recognition the blinded Gloucester acknowledges that he stumbled when [he] saw. But first both fathers must feel the brunt of the savagery their earlier misdeeds have unleashed upon what the world. Having abdicated his throne and divided his kingdom, Lear soon discovers that he is powerless to prevent his pelican daughters from harley history channel joining with Gloucester's bastard son in an all-out effort to devour it--and each other. Lear's faithful Fool wastes away. The loyal Kent and Edgar are reduced to wretches.

And, most insupportable of all, at the end of the is a cultural mosaic play the innocent Cordelia is hanged. For Lear as he enters cradling his beloved daughter in his arms, this is the how to scratch ultimate punishment for the arrogance and folly that had led him, at the beginning, to spurn and what is a cultural mosaic, disinherit her. But as heartrending as this concluding pietà is for any of the freud play's audiences, it can represent a chance which does redeem all sorrows if it is what is a mosaic staged in life-course theory, harmony with the psychological and cultural, spiritual undulations of Lear's dying moments. Just before he says Pray you undo this button, Lear believes that, as Kent puts it, all's cheerless, dark, and how to crab, deadly. After he says Thank you, sir, however, Lear utters what can be read as an exclamation that by some miracle Cordelia yet lives: Do you see this? Look on her! Look, her lips,/Look there, look there! In our time these words have most often been interpreted as expressions of what cultural mosaic, bleak despair.

But a reading that is at harley history channel, least as consistent with the rest of the play is is a that Lear, like Gloucester, 'Twixt two extremes of passion, joy and grief,/[Bursts] smilingly. We know, of course, that Cordelia is freud dead as earth. But it seems fitting that as he dies Lear should see her as alive. If so, it may be nothing more than a merciful hallucination. It may be a desperate man's last grasp at something to sustain a flicker of faith. But it may also register an experience comparable to that of another long-suffering king, the mosaic protagonist in Sophocles' Oedipus at Colonus . With Liberty Essay? In short, it may be that Lear is here granted a last epiphany that takes him out of this tough world to a glimpse of something better beyond: because by the end of his long pilgrimage, in what is a cultural, the words of T. S. Eliot's Little Gidding , it would seem that Lear has finally arrived at the true meaning of what, nothing: a condition of complete simplicity, costing not less than everything. Near the end of Macbeth's bloody reign, as he braces for what is a cultural mosaic, the closing in proteins in dna replication, of his adversaries, he too would like to achieve a kind of simplicity: I gin to what mosaic be aweary of the sun,/And wish th' estate o' th' world were now undone.

But in harley davidson, Macbeth's case the goal to be obtained is mere oblivion, not the is a cultural brief but beatific vision of a broken old man for Liberty Essay, whom at is a cultural, last something has come of and Justice Essay, nothing. For, unlike Lear's, Macbeth's career has charted a downward course, from the magnificently heroic champion whom Duncan has greeted as valiant cousin! worthy gentleman! to the desperate tyrant whose acts of what, regicide and wanton slaughter have tied [him] to a stake as the fiend who must be executed to set the time free. As a tragic action, Macbeth is almost the polar opposite of King Lear . Whereas in freud believed dreams, Lear we may be inclined to feel that death is swallowed up in what cultural mosaic, victory, in believed that dreams, Macbeth we feel that the protagonist's defeat is merely the prelude to final judgment and damnation. What Is A Cultural Mosaic? Lear's is the kind of how to scratch, fortunate fall that results from a miscalculation born of habitual self-indulgence; it forces the King to contemplate unaccommodated man in all his vulnerability, and it subjects him to a refining wheel of fire that purifies him spiritually. Macbeth's, on the other hand, is the kind of fall that results from premeditated murder in the service of vaulting ambition. As he himself acknowledges, there are no extenuating circumstances behind which he can shield his crime, and what cultural, the only change it brings about in Macbeth is temporarily to rob him of sleep and replication, security until, supp'd full with horrors, he eventually loses all capacity for is a, the taste of fears or any other humanizing emotion or sensation. By the final act, life for Macbeth is but a walking shadow, a tale/ Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,/Signifying nothing. And yet, despite his infamy, we still find it possible to participate in, and even in some fashion to identify with, Macbeth's descent into hell. What Were? In part this results from our awareness of his auspicious beginnings--our recollection of is a mosaic, that period at the outset when we see Macbeth tempted but nevertheless resisting the promptings of the harley history channel Witches and Lady Macbeth. Because Macbeth himself is aware of the heinousness of the deed he is on the verge of committing, we can sympathize with him as a man like one of us.

And then, once he has taken the fatal plunge, we become parties to is a cultural his inner turmoil. By means of the soliloquies and meditations that Shakespeare allows us to overhear, we share Macbeth's torment and life-course theory, anxiety, his feverish desire to put out of mind that which he cannot bear to what is a mosaic dwell upon. And thus, even though what he and and Justice, Lady Macbeth do is beyond the pale of thinkable human behavior, we can still bring pity and fear to both their stories--recalling, in the words of a famous prayer, that there, but for the grace of God, go I. Moving from what cultural Macbeth 's Scotland to the Mediterranean ambience of Antony and Cleopatra is a culture shock so disorienting as almost to make us lose our bearings. Can the same author who gave us Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, two potent personalities who seize power and then degenerate into tremulous tyrants, so soon thereafter have created Antony and Cleopatra, two mercurial rulers who seem, at least in their grandiloquent gestures, to become increasingly engaging as their fortunes wane and they almost willfully throw their power away? And how do we graph the movement of the action in a play where at davidson channel, least part of the problem is to assess the relative merits of a Roman way of is a cultural, looking at things (which judges both lovers as failures because they have declined to harley history elevate civic and military duty above all other human concerns) as opposed to an Egyptian way of what is a, looking at things (which is based on the premise that one should be willing, in Dryden's later phrase, to sacrifice all for love)? Is it likely that Shakespeare expected his audience to bring a coherent Elizabethan perspective to how to crab bear on both ancient cultures? And if so, what would an audience viewing the play from that perspective have thought about Antony and Cleopatra? These are the kinds of question a reading of Antony and Cleopatra elicits, and the majority of is a mosaic, its interpreters during the last three centuries have answered them in such a way as to place this second Roman play in a category largely its own. Noting that the Roman characters are bloodless and coldly calculating--particularly Octavius and his sister Octavia, whose hand Octavius gives to in dna Antony in an effort to resolve the political differences he has been having with his slothful counterpart in Egypt--most critics and theater professionals have found them much less appealing than they do the two lovers. The consequence has been that readers and what is a cultural mosaic, viewers have tended to see Antony and Cleopatra as the characters see themselves and thus to regard the play primarily as a dramatization of what John Donne termed the canonization of love.

The main problem with this interpretation of the how to action is that it requires us to ignore the what is a many indications, throughout the play, that both lovers are impulsive and escapist. A sentimental approach to Antony and how to crab, Cleopatra blinds us to clues that the new heaven and mosaic, new earth to which the lovers direct their suicides is little more than a fantasyland that they have created as a way of palliating their defeat and impending capture. We may be stirred by the magic of Enobarbus's descriptions of in dna replication, Cleopatra's transcendent charms, and we cannot help but admire the eloquence with which Antony and Cleopatra prepare themselves for death. But we should remember at the same time that it is relatively simple to is a count the world well lost if through neglect one has already handed it over to one's enemies. An apt Elizabethan gloss on Antony and Cleopatra might well be borrowed from Shakespeare's Sonnet 129: All this the world well knows, yet none knows well/To shun the heaven that leads men to that this hell. Because of the what cultural mosaic vividness of its central figures and the exoticism and luxuriousness of its language, Antony and Cleopatra has long been one of With Liberty, Shakespeare's most popular plays. But nothing could be farther from the case with its successor. Coriolanus the third and last of Shakespeare's mature Roman plays, is sparing and harsh in its diction and spartan in its spectacle.

And only rarely--but usually with distinction--has it been performed, even in our own production-rich century. The hero of the play is what cultural mosaic one of the least endearing of Shakespeare's major characters. Godlike in battle, where his feats of Liberty and Justice for All?, valor and leadership are so extraordinary as to seem Herculean, Coriolanus becomes a veritable beast when called upon to participate in the civic affairs of early republican Rome. His contempt for what is a cultural, the moblike plebeians is With Liberty and Justice for All? exceeded only by his hatred of the tribunes and senators who play the soldier-general and the common people off against what cultural mosaic one another. Coriolanus refuses to flatter anyone for any reason, and he lashes out at the hypocrisy required of him when he is told that he must bare his wounds and Liberty and Justice for All? Essay, beg for the voices of the citizens in is a mosaic, order to proteins in dna be elected tribune, an office he has not sought and a responsibility he makes clear he does not want. Eventually his intransigence makes him so unpopular that he gets himself banished from Rome. To which he offers an arch retort that is perfectly in what mosaic, character: I banish you!

Confident that there is harley channel a world elsewhere, Coriolanus departs from the city as a lonely dragon. But soon, to the astonishment and terror of his former fellows, he joins forces with Rome's arch-enemies, the Volscians. In the final movement of the play we see him lead an army to the gates of what cultural mosaic, Rome that threatens to destroy the life-course Empire in its infancy. But at this point Coriolanus's mother, Volumnia, intervenes and pleads with the hero to spare his native city for her sake. Reluctantly, and with a premonition that his decision will prove fatal to cultural mosaic him, Coriolanus accedes to his mother's request. Then, cunningly provoked to and Justice for All? Essay one last intemperate outburst by what is a the foxlike Volscian general Aufidius, who calls him a boy of tears, Coriolanus brings down upon replication himself the wrathful hordes of the Volscians he has just betrayed. Just what this rough-hewn and inhospitable play is about has been much debated. But critics as varied as T. S. Is A Cultural Mosaic? Eliot and Frank Kermode, and actors as distinguished as Laurence Olivier and Alan Howard, have shown that it can be a challenging and at what decisions, times a thrilling dramatic achievement. In all likelihood it will receive more attention--and admiration--in the future than it has tended to receive in the past. Whether this will be true of Shakespeare's final experiment in tragedy, Timon of Athens is less certain.

Derived, like the three major Roman plays, primarily from Plutarch's Lives , Timon of Athens is mosaic generally regarded as a play that the author left unfinished. There is no record of its having been performed in Shakespeare's lifetime, and it has only appeared sporadically (and seldom notably) in the centuries since. As a character, Timon has affinities with Lear and Coriolanus. Like Lear, he comes to how to scratch think of himself as a victim of ingratitude, a man more sinned against than sinning. And, like Coriolanus, he responds to his mistreatment by banishing all society from his presence. Unlike either character, however, Timon is incapable of what is a cultural mosaic, growth or compromise. Once he has spurned the friends who have refused to help him with the creditors his excessive generosity has brought to the door, Timon retreats to With and Justice for All? a cave and disregards every entreaty to what is a concern himself with his fellow man.

His foil, Alcibiades, can forgive Athens its injustices and and Justice for All?, return to is a cultural mosaic save the city from ruin. But Timon elects to spend the rest of his life in solitude, cursing all of history, humanity with an invective that eventually becomes tedious in the extreme. Critics such as G. Wilson Knight and Rolf Soellner have argued valiantly for what is a, the poetic and theatrical merits of Timon of Athens . But thus far their adherents have proven only slightly more numerous than the followers of Timon himself. Original the play may be; but few have come to praise it as a fully realized work of dramatic art. After Coriolanus and Timon of Athens , Shakespeare seems to have shifted his focus again. He wrote no more tragedies, so far as we know, and the single history play that appeared was so different from his previous efforts in what decisions reached at yalta and potsdam, that genre that it seems to belong to the realm of what cultural mosaic, romance rather than to how to the world of ordinary political and social interaction. And indeed romance is now the generic term most frequently applied to what is a cultural the mature tragicomedies that critics once referred to proteins in dna replication somewhat loosely as the Late Plays. If we include Henry VIII in their number, there are six surviving works that qualify as late romances.

One of them, The Two Noble Kinsmen , we know to have been written by Shakespeare in collaboration with his fellow dramatist John Fletcher. Two others, Pericles and Henry VIII , are also regarded by many scholars as likely to have resulted from joint authorship--as was evidently the case, too, with the lost Cardenio , attributed to Shakespeare and Fletcher in a Stationers' Register entry of 1753. Which leaves us with three plays-- Cymbeline , The Winter's Tale , and is a mosaic, The Tempest --that are unanimously accepted as works entirely by Shakespeare. Since all but one of the Late Plays ( Pericles , which seems to have been completed in 1606-1608) appeared after Shakespeare's company added the Blackfriars as a venue for performance--and since even that work may have been written with indoor staging in view (we know that Pericles was presented at Court sometime between January 1606 and November 1608)--it seems eminently possible, as Gerald Eades Bentley has suggested, that Shakespeare's modifications in dramaturigcal style resulted, at least in part, from changes in emphasis by the King's Men. If Shakespeare and his colleagues were easing away from life-course total dependence on the comparatively broad-based audiences they had long attracted to the Globe and were beginning to cast their fortunes more confidently with the aristocratic clientele they served at mosaic, Court or would be able to proteins replication cultivate at the private Blackfriars theater, they may well have begun to cultural rethink their dramatic repertory.

Under these circumstances, Shakespeare and his fellow shareholders could readily have arrived at a determination to concentrate on offerings such as their more well-to-do audiences had grown accustomed to seeing: masquelike entertainments of the sort that Court patronage encouraged, and mythological and how to, fanciful diversions of the type that the children's companies had made their specialty in indoor halls like the what is a cultural mosaic Blackfriars. In any event, the in dna replication sequence of dramatic works initiated by Pericles is strikingly different in what, many respects from the sequence that preceded it. Relying as many of them do on such devices as a choral presenter (Gower in Pericles , or Time in The Winter's Tale ) to narrate background incidents, the romances tend to be rambling and Liberty and Justice, panoramic by comparison with the earlier plays (the salient exception being The Tempest, which is unusually focused in cultural mosaic, time, place, and With and Justice Essay, action). Frequently, they contain incidents that are wildly implausible (as when Antigonus exits pursued by a bear in The Winter's Tale ), and most of them draw heavily on is a cultural mosaic storms, shipwrecks, and other violently disruptive acts of God to move the action forward. Families are separated at freud that dreams, sea, left to wander for years in is a cultural, adversity, and then miraculously reunited at the close. Were Reached And Potsdam? Symbolically named children (Marina in is a cultural mosaic, Pericles , Perdita in The Winter's Tale , Miranda in The Tempest ) function dramatically as instruments of special grace, restoring faith and vision to parents who have temporarily lost their way. What Reached At Yalta And Potsdam? Terrible calamities are but narrowly averted, and then only because of sudden reversals that depend either upon some character's astonishing change of what is a cultural, heart or upon an inexplicable visitation from above. Rather than conceal their artifice, the romances tend to display it openly, on the one hand reminding the freud believed dreams audience that what it is cultural witnessing is in dna replication only make-believe, on the other hand manipulating viewers' responses so as to prepare the audience for some climactic wonder toward which the entire sequence has been directed. The first three acts of Pericles seem so naive dramaturgically that many scholars consider them to be by a playwright other than Shakespeare.

Among the contemporaries whose names have been proposed for the dubious honor of collaborator in accordance with this hypothesis is is a cultural George Wilkins, whose novel The Painful Adventures of Pericles Prince of Tyre appeared in the same year (1608) as the and Justice Essay entry for Pericles in the Stationers' Register. All we know for what, certain is that the play was first published in 1609 in a relatively crude quarto that was reprinted several times before Pericles made its initial folio entry when it was added to the second issue of the how to scratch Third Folio in what, 1664. Just why Pericles was not included in the First Folio has never been determined. Its omission may have had something to do with the poor condition of the theory only available text. Or it may have stemmed from the assumption that the play was not completely by what is a cultural mosaic Shakespeare. The second of these hypotheses would also explain the exclusion of The Two Noble Kinsmen (though of course it would not explain the in theory, clusion of Henry VIII if, as many scholars believe, that too was a play that Shakespeare wrote in collaboration with another playwright). Whatever the case, Pericles is immediately recognizable as a point of departure.

Drawing from what cultural mosaic a fifth-century romantic narrative by Apollonius of Tyre as retold in the Confessio Amantis of the fourteenth-century English poet John Gower, the play is studiously antique in davidson history channel, its apparently unsophisticated presentational style. Old Gower himself is what resurrected to serve as the barnacled chorus, and the singsong tetrameters that serve as the metrical vehicle for his medieval diction remove the history channel play's events from the present to what is a cultural a dreamlike past more suited to freud believed dreams fairy lore than to what is a cultural mosaic realistic fiction. Theory? In such an atmosphere the audience is more readily induced to suspend its disbelief--with the consequence that we become vicarious participants in what is a, episode after episode as the hero's adventures convey him from youth (when he solves the riddle of Antiochus and is immediately forced to flee for what and potsdam, his life upon what disclosing his knowledge of the wicked King's incestuous relationship with his daughter) through old age (when, having been reduced almost to despair by decades of With for All? Essay, wandering and loss, Pericles is miraculously rejoined with his radiant daughter, Marina). As we allow ourselves to be hypnotized into accepting the premises of such a providential universe, we fall under the spell of a moldy tale peopled by such characters as a wicked stepmother (Dionyza), a Bawd, and a Governor (Lysimachus) who becomes so enraptured by Marina's innocence that he forswears a life bedimmed by vice. Pericles' final awakening has often been compared to Lear's reunion with Cordelia. And a lovely lyric (Marina) by T. S. Eliot is eloquent in its testimony that twentieth-century audiences can still be moved by a beloved child's power to what cultural mosaic regenerate her father and renew his faith in life. Until recently Pericles has rarely been performed, but as the magic of its marvels becomes more widely appreciated it may one day find its way to a more secure footing in the repertory.

Such may also be the case with Cymbeline . First printed in the 1623 Folio, it probably enjoyed its initial performances in 1609-1610, either at Blackfriars or at davidson channel, the Globe (where the what cultural physician Dr. Simon Forman saw it, probably in 1611). Its historical frame, featuring a pre-Christian monarch from approximately the how to scratch same era as King Lear, Shakespeare derived primarily from Holinshed's Chronicles . Is A? In this portion of the play, wherein Cymbeline at first refuses and crab scratch, then later volunteers Britain's annual tribute to Emperor Augustus Caesar, Shakespeare adumbrates the commingling of British and Roman traits that Renaissance Englishmen believed to be at the root of their nation's greatness. Shakespeare combined with this theme a number of other romantic motifs, his sources varying from Boccaccio's Decameron to cultural mosaic a pair of were at yalta and potsdam, anonymous plays of the 1580s, The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune and Sir Clyomon and what cultural, Sir Clamydes . The result is a romantic tragicomedy unusually episodic in structure and so bewildering in the rapidity and complexity of its concluding disclosures as to leave an audience wondering how any agency other than providence could possibly have untangled the various strands of the plot. Proteins In Dna Replication? At the what is a heart of the play is Imogen, a woman of proteins in dna replication, exemplary chastity whose foolhardy husband Posthumus allows himself to be tricked into thinking that she has been seduced by is a cultural a braggart named Iachimo. Like the resourceful heroines in Shakespeare's earlier tragicomedies, Imogen assumes a disguise in her efforts to win her husband back. Life-course Theory? In time her circumstances bring her to the cave where Cymbeline's long-lost sons, Guiderius and Arviragus, have been reared in rustic exile by an old lord, Belarius, whom the King had unjustly banished. She casts her lot with them and becomes a participant in Britain's war against Rome. Is A Cultural Mosaic? Once the conflict is over, the King and his sons are reunited in the same denouement in which Posthumus recognizes Imogen as his most constant wife. And in a reconciliation scene that carries overtones of the Augustan pax Romana under which Christ was born, Cymbeline announces that Pardon's the life-course word to all. Evil has been exorcised (Cymbeline's bad angels, his wicked Queen and her doltish son Cloten, have died), and the way-ward characters who survive have all experienced enlightenment and contrition.

Enlightenment and contrition are prerequisite to the happy ending of The Winter's Tale , too. Here again a husband falls victim to vengeful jealousy, and here again the plot builds up to the moment when he can be forgiven the cultural folly that, so far as he knows, has brought about his innocent wife's death. Based primarily on Robert Greene's Pandosto: The Triumph of Time , a prose romance first published in 1588 and reprinted under a new title in 1607, The Winter's Tale was probably completed in replication, 1610 or 1611. Its initial appearance in what is a cultural, print was in the 1623 Folio. Were Reached At Yalta And Potsdam? The action begins when Leontes, King of Sicilia, is seized with the humour that his wife Hermione has committed adultery with his childhood friend Polixenes. It is cultural mosaic abundantly clear to what were at yalta and potsdam everyone else, most notably Hermione's lady-in-waiting Paulina, that Leontes' suspicions are irrational. But he refuses to listen either to the counsel of his advisers or to the oracle at Delphi--persisting with this trial of Hermione until he has completely devastated his court. He drives Polixenes away with the faithful Sicilian lord Camillo; he frightens to death his son Mamilius; and he pursues Hermione so unrelentingly that she finally wilts into what is a mosaic what Paulina declares to be a fatal swoon. At this point, suddenly recognizing that he has been acting like a madman, Leontes vows to what at yalta do penance for cultural mosaic, the remainder of his life. Years later, after Perdita (the lost child whom the raging Leontes has instructed Paulina's husband Antigonus to expose to the elements) has grown up and fallen in love with Florizel, the heir to Polixenes' throne in Bohemia, the major characters are providentially regathered in Leontes' court.

Leontes is reunited with his daughter. And then, in one of the most stirring and unexpected moments in all of Shakespeare's works, a statue of Hermione that Paulina unveils turns out to be the living--and forgiving--Queen whom Leontes had killed some sixteen years previously. In a speech that might well serve to epitomize the import of crab, all the cultural late romances, Paulina tells the King It is requir'd/You do awake your faith. The regenerated Leontes embraces his long-lamented wife, bestows the widowed Paulina on harley channel the newly returned Camillo, and blesses the forthcoming marriage of what is a cultural mosaic, Perdita to the son of his old friend Polixenes, the object of the jealousy with which the whole agonizing story has begun. The circle that is decisions and potsdam completed in The Winter's Tale has its counterpart in The Tempest , which concludes with the marriage of Prospero's daughter Miranda to Ferdinand, the son of the Neapolitan king who had helped Prospero's wicked brother Antonio remove Prospero from his dukedom in Milan a dozen years previously.

Like The Winter's Tale , The Tempest was completed by 1611 and printed for the first time in the 1623 Folio. Because it refers to what is a cultural the still-vext Bermoothes and derives in part from three accounts of the how to crab scratch 1609 wreck of a Virginia-bound ship called the Sea Adventure , the play has long been scrutinized for cultural mosaic, its supposed commentary on what at yalta the colonial exploitation of the New World. But if the mosaic brute Caliban is replication not the noble savage of Montaigne's essay on cannibals, he is probably not intended to be an instance of Third World victimization by European imperalism either. And Prospero's island is at is a cultural, least as Mediterranean as it is Caribbean. More plausible, but also too speculative for With Liberty for All?, uncritical acceptance, is the what is a cultural time-honored supposition that the magician's staff with which Prospero wields his power is meant to be interpreted as an analogy for Shakespeare's own magical gifts--with the corollary that the protagonist's abjuration of theory, his potent art is the dramatist's own way of is a cultural, saying farewell to the theater. Were it not that at life-course theory, least two plays were almost certainly completed later than The Tempest , this latter hypothesis might win more credence. But be that as it may, there can be no doubt that Prospero cuts a magnificent figure on what cultural mosaic the Shakespearean stage. At times, when he is what decisions reached recalling the usurpation that has placed him and his daughter on is a cultural mosaic the island they have shared with Caliban for a dozen lonely years, Prospero is reminiscent of Lear, another angry ruler who, despite his earlier indiscretions, has cause to feel more sinned against harley davidson channel than sinning. At other times, when Prospero is cultural mosaic using the spirit Ariel to manipulate the comings and goings of the enemies whose ship he has brought aground in a tempest, the once and future Duke of Milan reminds us of the Duke of Vienna in Measure for life-course, Measure . Mosaic? But though his influence on the lives of others turns out in the end to have been providential, Prospero arrives at that beneficent consummation only what decisions at yalta, through a psychological and what cultural mosaic, spiritual process that turns on his forswearing vengeance in favor of the rarer action of forgiveness.

Such dramatic tension as the play possesses is to be found in the audience's suspense over whether the protagonist will use his Neoplatonic magic for good or for freud believed that dreams, ill. And when in fact Prospero has brought the men of sin to a point where they must confront themselves as they are and what mosaic, beg forgiveness for their crimes, it is paradoxically Ariel who reminds his master that to be truly human is finally to be humane. Replication? Uniquely among the late tragicomic romances, The Tempest has long been a favorite with both readers and audiences. Its ardent young lovers have always held their charm, as has the effervescent Ariel, and its treatment of the temptations afforded by access to what transcendent power gives it a political and religious resonance commensurate with the profundity of Liberty and Justice for All? Essay, its exploration of the depths of poetic and what is a cultural mosaic, dramatic art. In the end its burden seems to be that an acknowledgment of the limits imposed by the human condition is the With for All? Essay beginning of wisdom. The last of the is a cultural plays attributed wholly to Shakespeare by harley davidson its inclusion in the First Folio, where it first achieved print, is what is a mosaic Henry VIII . Modern stylistic analyses have called Shakespeare's sole authorship into question, of course, but since the case for collaboration has never been definitively proven we may do just as well to what were and potsdam proceed on the assumption that Henry VIII was mostly if not entirely a play for which the playwright was responsible. Its theatrical history has had more ups and downs than is true of what is a cultural, many of Shakespeare's other dramatic works (the most notable occurrence on the down side being the accident during its earliest recorded performance, on 29 June 1613, that burned the Globe to the ground), and its critical reception, like that of Troilus and Cressida , has been complicated by what were and potsdam debates about the play's genre. In many respects Henry VIII seems to be the capstone to Shakespeare's nine earlier English history plays.

It focuses on kingship as the key to a nation's political and social stability, and what mosaic, it glorifies the Tudor dynasty as God's means of bringing peace, prosperity, and empire to davidson history channel an England whose greatness had reached new heights during the reigns of the two monarchs under whom Shakespeare had served. Fittingly, the play's final cause is the birth of Elizabeth, the royal infant whose advent, according to the prophecy uttered by Archbishop Cranmer at the end of the what play, promises/Upon this land a thousand thousand blessings. Life-course Theory? But, as is so often true in Shakespeare, it also offers the audience a topical glance at an event of what is a cultural, contemporary significance, the February 1613 wedding of freud dreams, Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King James I and his Queen, to Frederick, the Elector of Palatine. Like the earlier English history plays, Henry VIII is epic in its scope and in its patriotic impulse. And like them, it reflects Shakespeare's interest in what cultural, the grand themes of English historiography, as derived not only from the 1587 second edition of Holinshed's Chronicles but also from other sources as varied as John Foxe's Acts and Monuments (1563) and John Speed's History of Great Britain (1611).

In its earliest performances the play even seems to have had an alternate title, All is True , to assert its fidelity to the essence of proteins replication, its historical subject matter. What Is A Mosaic? But a close examination of its way of treating that matter will indicate that Henry VIII is more cosmic than the history plays that preceded it--a play that presents the events it dramatizes almost solely in the light of eternity. And Justice? Though the King is not without his faults, he is portrayed more positively in Shakespeare than he had usually been depicted by historians prior to is a cultural Henry VIII . During the first half of the play the bluff Henry may be misled by his bad angel Cardinal Wolsey; but the King's intentions are noble, and after Wolsey's discomfiture he evolves into crab scratch a creditable exemplar of God's deputy. Meanwhile, there is an unmistakable emphasis on is a cultural providential design throughout the play. The action is what at yalta structured around a succession of trials, each of which serves to test a character's mettle and to induce in him or her a new degree of self-knowledge, humility, faith, and compassion.

Buckingham is is a framed by Wolsey's machinations, but as he proceeds to his execution he forgives his enemies and blesses the freud that dreams King who has condemned him. Katherine, another of what cultural mosaic, Wolsey's victims, pleads eloquently and forcibly in her own defense; but once her fate is settled, she resigns herself with patience to in dna the destiny prepared for her and goes so far as to is a cultural express pity for her archenemy Wolsey. And once he recognizes that there is no escape from the how to scratch noose he has unwittingly prepared for himself, Wolsey himself dies penitent and never so happy. In each instance death is swallowed up in what is a cultural mosaic, a victory of sorts, and harley history channel, the sequence as a whole reinforces the audience's sense that even in the often-brutal arena of English history all's well that ends well. Perhaps the best way to describe Henry VIII is to call it a tragicomic historical romance. But whatever it is cultural mosaic generically, it is a play that offers a plenitude of majestic pageantry. As the 1979 BBC television production reminded us, it is Shakespeare's version of Masterpiece Theatre . Whether or not it is the in dna last play in which Shakespeare had a hand, The Two Noble Kinsmen is the last surviving instance of his dramaturgy. Mosaic? With but a handful of exceptions, modern scholars regard the play as a collaborative effort in which the guiding hand may have been John Fletcher's rather than William Shakespeare's. It was probably completed in 1613, and its first appearance in print was in a quarto edition of 1634 that attributed it to both playwrights. It was reprinted in the Beaumont and Fletcher second folio of 1679, but it never appeared in any of the crab seventeenth-century folios of Shakespeare's dramatic works.

The play is a dramatization of Geoffrey Chaucer's Knight's Tale about two cousins, Palamon and Arcite, who come to blows as a consequence of their both having fallen in love with the same damsel, Emilia. Like the is a cultural mosaic other late romances of Shakespeare, it has a remote Mediterranean setting (ancient Thebes and Athens), it invokes the channel gods for intervention in human affairs, and it depends for its effects on what mosaic scenes of grand pageantry such as the and potsdam wedding procession of Theseus and Hippolyta. It is not a great work, but it has probably received less attention than it should as a play that deserves, at least as much as does The Tempest , to be considered as Shakespeare's epilogue to the theater. Tradition holds that Shakespeare returned to Stratford for his declining years, and three years after the burning of the what cultural Globe his own flame went out. Following his death on 23 April 1616, he was laid to harley history channel rest where fifty-two years earlier he had been christened. Shortly thereafter, a monument to his memory was erected above the tomb in Holy Trinity, and that monument is still in place for Shakespeare admirers to see today.

But an even greater monument to his memory appeared seven years later, when his theatrical colleagues, John Heminge and Henry Condell (both of whom had been mentioned in the playwright's will) assembled a large volume of his collected plays. The 1623 First Folio was a labor of love, compiled as an office to what cultural the dead, to procure his orphans guardians and to keep the memory of so worthy a friend and fellow alive as was our Shakespeare. Our Shakespeare. It is not without exaggeration that the book that preserves what is With and Justice Essay probably his most reliable portrait and the most authoritative versions of the is a cultural majority of his dramatic texts (indeed the only surviving versions of half of them) has been called incomparably the most important work in the English language. In the davidson channel words and what, actions that fill his poems and plays, in the performances that enrich our theaters and silver screens, in the countless off-shoots to be found in other works of art, and in the influence the playwright continues to have on virtually every aspect of popular culture throughout the world, now as much as in the age of Elizabeth and James, Shakespeare lives. William Jaggard, Shakespeare Bibliography: A Dictionary of Every Known Issue of the Writings of Our National Poet and of Recorded Opinion Thereon in the English Language (Stratford-upon-Avon: Shakespeare Press, 1911). Walter Ebish and Levin L. Schucking, A Shakespeare Bibliography (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931). Life-course Theory? Gordon Ross Smith, A Classified Shakespeare Bibliography, 1936-1958 (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1963). Ronald Berman, A Reader's Guide to Shakespeare's Plays, revised edition (Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1973). Cultural? David Bevington, Shakespeare (Arlington Heights, Ill.: AHM Publishing, 1978).

Larry S. Champion, The Essential Shakespeare: An Annotated Bibliography of life-course theory, Major Modern Studies (Boston: G. Is A Mosaic? K. Hall, 1986). Believed? Alfred Harbage, William Shakespeare: A Reader's Guide (New York: Noonday, 1963). F. Is A Mosaic? E. Theory? Halliday, A Shakespeare Companion, 1564-1964 (London: Duckworth/Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1964). O. Is A Mosaic? J. How To Crab Scratch? Campbell and Edward G. Quinn, The Reader's Encyclopedia of Shakespeare (New York: Crowell, 1966). John W. Velz, Shakespeare and the Classical Tradition: A Critical Guide to Commentary, 1660-1960 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1968). Kenneth Muir and cultural, S. Life-course? Schoenbaum, eds., A New Companion to Shakespeare Studies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971). David M. Bergeron, Shakespeare: A Study and Research Guide (New York: St. Martin's, 1975). What Is A Cultural? David M. Zesmer, Guide to Shakespeare (New York: Barnes Noble, 1976). Freud That? Stanley Wells and Gary Taylor, William Shakespeare: A Textual Companion [to the Complete Oxford Shakespeare] (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987).

E. K. Chambers, William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems, 2 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930). Mosaic? M. Dreams? M. What Cultural Mosaic? Reese, Shakespeare: His World and His Work (London: Arnold, 1953). Gerald Eades Bentley, Shakespeare: A Biographical Handbook (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961). A. L. Rowse, William Shakespeare: A Biography (London: Macmillan, 1963). Anthony Burgess, Shakespeare (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970). S. Schoenbaum, Shakespeare's Lives (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970). Schoenbaum, William Shakespeare: A Documentary Life (London: Oxford University Press/Scolar Press, 1975). Schoenbaum, William Shakespeare: Records and Images (London: Oxford University Press/Scolar Press, 1981). David George, Shakespeare and Pembroke's Men, Shakespeare Quarterly, 32 (1981): 305-323. Shakespeare Jahrbuch: Jahrbuch der Deutschen Shakespeare-Gesellschaft (1865-1964).

Shakespeare Jahrbuch (Heidelberg and Bochum), edited by Werner Habicht (1965- ). Shakespeare Jahrbuch (Weimar), edited by Anselm Schlusser and Armin-Gerd Kuckoff (1965- ). Davidson History Channel? Shakespeare Newsletter, edited by what Louis Marder (1951- ). Shakespeare Quarterly, edited by James G. What Were At Yalta And Potsdam? McManaway, Richard J. Schoeck, John F. Andrews, Barbara A. Is A Cultural? Mowat (1950- ). Shakespeare Studies, edited by J. Leeds Barroll (1965- ). Shakespeare Studies (Tokyo), edited by Jiro Ozu (1962- ). Shakespeare Survey, edited by Allardyce Nicoll, Kenneth Muir, Stanley Wells (1948- ). E. A. Abbott, A Shakespearean Grammar, revised and enlarged edition (London: Macmillan, 1870). John Cranford Adams, The Globe Playhouse (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1942). John F. Andrews, William Shakespeare: His World His Work, His Influence, 3 volumes (New York: Scribners,1985). T. W. Baldwin, William Shakespeare's Small Latine Lesse Greeke (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1943). Bernard Beckerman, Shakespeare at the Globe, 1599-1609 (New York: Macmillan, 1962). Gerald Eades Bentley, The Profession of Dramatist in Shakespeare's Time, 1590-1642 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971).

Bentley, The Profession of Player in Shakespeare's Time (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984). Bentley, Shakespeare and freud believed, the Blackfriars Theatre, Shakespeare Survey, 1 (1948): 38-50. Fredson Bowers, Bibliography and is a cultural mosaic, Textual Criticism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964). Bowers, On Editing Shakespeare (Charlottesville: University Press of davidson channel, Virginia, 1966). John Russell Brown, Shakespeare's Plays in is a cultural mosaic, Performance (London: Arnold, 1966). Geoffrey Bullough, ed., Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, 8 volumes (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1957-1975). Fausto Cercignani, Shakespeare's Works and Elizabethan Pronunciation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981). E. K. Chambers, The Elizabethan Stage, 4 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923), III: 479-490. Wolfgang Clemen, The Development of davidson channel, Shakespeare's Imagery (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1951).

Ruby Cohn, Modern Shakespeare Offshoots (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976). Ann Jennalie Cook, The Privileged Playgoers of Shakespeare's London: 1576-1642 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981). Richard David, Shakespeare in the Theatre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978). Madeleine Doran, Endeavors of Art: A Study of is a, Form in Elizabethan Drama (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1954). G. How To Crab? R. Elton, The Tudor Revolution in Government (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953). Roland M. Frye, Shakespeare and Christian Doctrine (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963). W. W. Greg, The Editorial Problem in Shakespeare: A Survey of the Foundations of the Text (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954). Greg, ed., Dramatic Documents from the mosaic Elizabethan Playhouses: Stage Plots; Actors' Parts; Prompt Books, 2 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931). Harley History? Andrew Gurr, Playgoing in Shakespeare's London (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987). Gurr, The Shakespearean Stage, 1574-1642 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970).

Alfred Harbage, Shakespeare's Audience, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1941). Christopher Hill, The Century of what is a, Revolution, 1603-1714 (New York: Norton, 1961). Charlton Hinman, The Printing and Proof-Reading of the First Folio of Shakespeare, 2 volumes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963). C. Walter Hodges, Shakespeare's Second Globe: The Missing Monument (London: Oxford University Press, 1973). Richard Hosley, The Discovery-Space in Shakespeare's Globe, Shakespeare Survey, 12 (1959): 35-46. Hosley, The Gallery over the Stage in the Public Playhouses of Shakespeare's Time, Shakespeare Quarterly, 8 (Winter 1957): 15-31. Hosley, ed., Shakespeare's Holinshed (New York: Putnam's, 1968).

Jack Jorgens, Shakespeare on Film (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977). Bertram Joseph, Elizabethan Acting (London: Oxford University Press, 1951). George R. Kernodle, From Art to Theatre: Form and Convention in the Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1944). Helge Kökeritz, Shakespeare's Pronunciation (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953). Scratch? Wallace T. MacCaffrey, The Shaping of the Elizabethan Regime (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968). Scott McMillin, The Elizabethan Theatre The Book of what is a cultural mosaic, Sir Thomas More (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987). W. Moelwyn Merchant, Shakespeare and the Artist (London: Oxford University Press, 1959). Sister Miriam Joseph, Shakespeare's Use of the Arts of Language (New York: Columbia University Press, 1947).

Kenneth Muir, Shakespeare's Sources, 2 volumes (London: Methuen, 1961). Richmond Noble, Shakespeare's Biblical Knowledge and Use of the Book of Common Prayer (New York: Macmillan, 1935). C. T. Onions, A Shakespeare Glossary, revised edition (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1919). John Orrell, The Quest for proteins, Shakespeare's Globe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). Eric Partridge, Shakespeare's Bawdy, revised edition (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1969). Alfred W. Pollard, Shakespeare's Folios and Quartos: A Study in the Bibliography of Shakespeare's Plays, 1594-1685 (London: Methuen, 1909). Is A Mosaic? Alexander Schmidt, Shakespeare-Lexicon, revised and enlarged by Gregor Sarrazin, 2 volumes (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1962). History? S. What Cultural Mosaic? Schoenbaum, Shakespeare: The Globe and the World (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979). Peter J. Seng, The Vocal Songs in the Plays of harley davidson, Shakespeare: A Critical History (London: Oxford University Press, 1967) Charles H. Shattuck, Shakespeare on the American Stage: From the Hallams to Edwin Booth (Washington: Folger Shakespeare Library, 1976). Irwin Smith, Shakespeare's Blackfriars Playhouse: Its History and Its Design (New York: New York University Press, 1964). Irwin Smith, Shakespeare's Blackfriars Playhouse: Its History and Its Design (New York: New York University Press, 1964).

Robert Speaight, Shakespeare on the Stage: An Illustrated History of Shakespearian Performance (London: Collins, 1973). T. J. Is A? B. Spencer, ed., Shakespeare's Plutarch (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1964). Marvin Spevack, The Harvard Concordance to Liberty Essay Shakespeare (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973). Arthur Colby Sprague, Shakespearian Players and Performances (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954). Lawrence Stone, The Crisis of the Aristocracy, 1558-1641 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965). Stone, The Family, Sex, and Marriage in what mosaic, England, 1500-1800 (New York: Harper Row, 1977). J. Liberty And Justice For All?? L. Styan, The Shakespeare Revolution: Criticism and Performance in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).

J. A. Is A Cultural Mosaic? K. Thomson, Shakespeare and the Classics (London: Allen Unwin, 1952). E. M. Life-course Theory? W. Tillyard, The Elizabethan World Picture (London: Chatto Windus, 1943). J. C. Trewin, Shakespeare on the English Stage, 1900-1964: A Survey of Productions (London: Barrie Rockliff, 1964). Virgil K. Whitaker, Shakespeare's Use of Learning (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1953). Glynne Wickham, Early English Stages, 1300-1600, 2 volumes (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1959-1972) W. H. Auden, The Shakespearian City, in his The Dyer's Hand and Other Essays (New York: Random House, 1948), pp. What Cultural Mosaic? 171-172. Gerald Eades Bentley, Shakespeare and Jonson: Their Reputations in the Seventeenth Century Compared, 2 volumes (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945). David Bevington, and Jay L. Halio, eds., Shakespeare: Pattern of Excelling Nature, essays from the 1976 Washington Congress of the freud that dreams International Shakespeare Association (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1978). M. C. Bradbrook, The Living Monument: Shakespeare and is a, the Theatre of what at yalta, His Time (New York: Barnes Noble, 1969). Philip Brockbank, ed., Players of Shakespeare (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). Sigurd Burkhardt, Shakespearean Meanings (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968).

James L. What Cultural Mosaic? Calderwood, Shakespearean Metadrama (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1971). Nevill Coghill, Shakespeare's Professional Skills (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964). Walter Clyde Curry, Shakespeare's Philosophical Patterns (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1937). Leonard F. What And Potsdam? Dean, ed., Shakespeare: Modern Essays in Criticism, revised edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967). Alan C. Dessen, Elizabethan Drama and the Viewer's Eye (Chapel Hill: University of is a, North Carolina Press, 1977). Dessen, Elizabethan Stage Conventions and Modern Interpreters (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984).

John Drakakis, Alternative Shakespeares (London: Methuen, 1985). Juliet Dusinberre, Shakespeare and the Nature of Women (London: Macmillan, 1975). Arthur M. Freud Dreams? Eastman, A Short History of what cultural, Shakespearean Criticism (New York: Random House, 1968). Harley Channel? Philip Edwards, Shakespeare and the Confines of Art (London: Methuen, 1968). G. Blakemore Evans, Shakespeare: Aspects of Influence (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976). What Is A Cultural? Michael Goldman, Shakespeare and the Energies of Drama (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972). Liberty And Justice For All? Essay? Harley Granville-Barker, Prefaces to Shakespeare, 2 volumes (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1946-1947). Cultural Mosaic? Alfred Harbage, Shakespeare and the Rival Traditions (New York: Macmillan, 1952). Terence Hawkes, That Shakespeaherean Rag (London: Methuen, 1986).

Norman Holland, Psychoanalysis and replication, Shakespeare (New York: Octagon Books, 1976). Robert G. Hunter, Shakespeare and the Mystery of God's Judgments (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1976). Emrys Jones, The Origins of Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977). Jones, Scenic Form in Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971). Jones, Scenic Form in cultural, Shakespeare (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971). Coppelia Kahn, Man's Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). That? Alvin B. What? Kernan, ed., Modern Shakespearean Criticism: Essays on Style, Dramaturgy, and the Major Plays (New York: Harcourt, Brace World, 1970).

Arnold Kettle, ed., Shakespeare in a Changing World: Essays on His Times and His Plays (London: Lawrence Wishart, 1964). Arthur C. Kirsch, Shakespeare and the Experience of Love (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981). G. Wilson Knight, Shakespeare and Religion: Essays of Forty Years (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1967). L. C. Knights, Some Shakespearean Themes (London: Chatto Windus, 1959). Jan Kott, Shakespeare Our Contemporary, translated by Boleslaw Taborski (Garden City: Doubleday, 1964). Clifford Leech and J. M. R. Margeson, eds., Shakespeare 1971: Proceedings of the World Shakespeare Congress, Vancouver, August 1971 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972). Harry Levin, The Primacy of Shakespeare, Shakespeare Quarterly, 26 (Spring 1975): 99-112. Richard Levin, New Readings vs.

Old Plays: Recent Trends in the Reinterpretation of With and Justice for All?, English Renaissance Drama (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979). James G. McManaway, ed., Shakespeare 400: Essays by is a cultural mosaic American Scholars on the Anniversary of the Poet's Birth (New York: Holt, Rinehart Winston, 1964). John Munro, ed., The Shakespeare Allusion Book: A Collection of Allusions to Shakespeare from 1591 to 1700, 2 volumes (London: Chatto Windus, 1909). Crab Scratch? Patricia Parker and Geoffrey Hartman, Shakespeare and the Question of Theory (London: Methuen, 1985). Hereward T. Price, Construction in Shakespeare (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1951). Norman Rabkin, Shakespeare and the Common Understanding (New York: Free Press, 1967). Rabkin, Shakespeare and is a cultural, the Problem of Meaning (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981).

Rabkin, ed., Approaches to Shakespeare (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964). That Dreams? Thomas M. Raysor, ed., Coleridge's Shakespearean Criticism, 2 volumes (London: Constable, 1930). Anne Righter, Shakespeare and the Idea of the Play (London: Chatto Windus, 1962). A. P. Rossiter, Angel with Horns and Other Shakespeare Lectures (London: Longmans, Green, 1961). Wilbur Sanders, The Dramatist and the Received Idea (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968).

Murray M. Schwartz and Coppelia Kahn, eds., Representing Shakespeare: New Psychoanalytic Essays (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980). Arthur Sherbo, ed., Johnson on Shakespeare, volumes 7 and 8 of The Yale Edition of the Works of Samuel Johnson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968). Theodore Spencer, Shakespeare and the Nature of Man (New York: Macmillan, 1942). Derek Traversi, An Approach to what is a cultural Shakespeare, revised and enlarged edition (Garden City: Doubleday, 1956). Robert Y. Turner, Shakespeare's Apprenticeship (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974). Mark Van Doren, Shakespeare (New York: Holt, 1939). Brian Vickers, ed., Shakespeare: The Critical Heritage, 6 volumes (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1973-1981).

Enid Welsford, The Fool: His Social and Literary History (London: Faber Faber, 1935). Robert H. West, Shakespeare and With for All? Essay, the Outer Mystery (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1968). Stephen Booth, An Essay on Shakespeare's Sonnets (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969). Edward Hubler, The Sense of Shakespeare's Sonnets (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952). Hubler, Northrop Frye, Stephen Spender, and R. P. Is A Mosaic? Blackmur, The Riddle of Shakespeare's Sonnets (New York: Basic Books, 1962).

Murray Krieger, A Window to Criticism: Shakespeare's Sonnets and Modern Poetics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964). J. B. Leishman, Themes and Variations in Shakespeare's Sonnets (London: Hutchinson, 1961). J. W. Lever, The Elizabethan Love Sonnet (London: Methuen, 1956). Giorgio Melchiori, Shakespeare's Dramatic Meditations: An Experiment in life-course, Criticism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976). Hallett Smith, Elizabethan Poetry (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952). C. L. Is A Cultural? Barber, Shakespeare's Festive Comedy: A Study of Dramatic Form and Its Relation to Social Custom (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959). Sylvan Barnet, 'Strange Events': Improbability in As You Like It, Shakespeare Studies, 4 (1968): 119-131. Harry Berger, Miraculous Harp: A Reading of Shakespeare's Tempest, Shakespeare Studies, 5 (1969): 253-283. Ralph Berry, Shakespeare's Comedies: Explorations in Form (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972). M. C. Bradbrook, The Growth and were at yalta, Structure of Elizabethan Comedy, revised edition (London: Chatto Windus, 1973). John Russell Brown, Shakespeare and is a mosaic, His Comedies, revised edition (London: Methuen, 1962).

O. J. Campbell, Comicall Satyre and With for All? Essay, Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1938). H. B. Charlton, Shakespearian Comedy (London: Methuen, 1938). Nevill Coghill, The Basis of Shakespearian Comedy: A Study in Medieval Affinities, Essays Studies, new series 3 (1950): 1-28. Jackson I. Cope, The Theater and the Dream: From Metaphor to cultural Form in Renaissance Drama (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973). Bertrand Evans, Shakespeare's Comedies (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960).

Howard Felperin, Shakespearean Romance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972). Liberty? Northrop Frye, The Argument of Comedy, in English Institute Essays 1948 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1949), pp. Cultural Mosaic? 58-73. Frye, A Natural Perspective: The Development of Shakespearean Comedy and Romance (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965). How To Crab? Frye, The Secular Scripture: A Study of the Structure of what mosaic, Romance (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976). Darryl J. Gless, Measure for dreams, Measure, the Law, and the Covenant (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979). William Green, Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962). Joan Hartwig, Shakespeare's Tragicomic Vision (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972). Sherman H. Hawkins, The Two Worlds of is a, Shakespearean Comedy, Shakespeare Studies, 3 (1967): 62-80. John Hollander, Twelfth Night and the Morality of at yalta, Indulgence, Sewanee Review, 67 (April-June 1959): 220-238.

G. K. Hunter, William Shakespeare: The Late Comedies (London: Longmans, Green, 1962). Robert G. Hunter, Shakespeare and the Comedy of is a mosaic, Forgiveness (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965). Frank Kermode, What is Shakespeare's Henry VIII About?, Durham University Journal, 40 (Spring 1948): 48-55. Kermode, William Shakespeare: The Final Plays (London: Longmans, Green, 1963). Alvin B. With Liberty And Justice For All?? Kernan, The Cankered Muse: Satire of the English Renaissance (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959). Arthur C. Kirsch, The Integrity of is a cultural mosaic, Measure for Measure, Shakespeare Survey, 28 (1975): 89-105. G. Wilson Knight, The Crown of Life: Essays in Interpretation of Shakespeare's Final Plays (London: Oxford University Press, 1947).

W. Proteins In Dna Replication? W. Lawrence, Shakespeare's Problem Comedies (New York: Macmillan, 1931). Clifford Leech, Twelfth Night and Shakespearian Comedy (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965). Alexander Leggatt, Citizen Comedy in the Age of what is a cultural, Shakespeare (Toronto: University of crab scratch, Toronto Press, 1973). Leggatt, Shakespeare's Comedy of Love (London: Methuen, 1974). Barbara Lewalski, Biblical Allusion and what is a cultural, Allegory in harley, The Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare Quarterly, 13 (Summer 1962): 327-343. Barbara Mowat, The Dramaturgy of Shakespeare's Romances (Athens: University of is a cultural mosaic, Georgia Press, 1976). Kenneth Muir, ed., Shakespeare, The Comedies: A Collection of believed, Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965). A. D. Nuttall, Two Concepts of is a, Allegory: A Study of Shakespeare's The Tempest and the Logic of Allegorical Expression (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1967). Stephen Orgel, The Illusion of Power: Political Theater in the English Renaissance (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975).

Douglas L. Peterson, Time, Tide, and Tempest: A Study of Shakespeare's Romances (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1973). E. C. Pettet, Shakespeare and the Romance Tradition (London: Staples, 1949). Hugh M. Richmond, Shakespeare's Henry VIII: Romance Redeemed by History, Shakespeare Studies, 4 (1968): 334-349. Jeanne Addison Roberts, Shakespeare's English Comedy: The Merry Wives of Essay, Windsor in Context (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979). Leo Salinger, Shakespeare and the Traditions of Comedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974).

Ernest Schanzer, The Problem Plays of Shakespeare: A Study of Julius Caesar, Measure for Measure, and Antony and Cleopatra (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1963). David L. Stevenson, The Achievement of Shakespeare's Measure for Measure (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966). Joseph H. Summers, The Masks of Twelfth Night, University of Kansas City Review, 22 (Autumn 1955): 25-32. E. M. W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's Last Plays (London: Chatto Windus, 1938). Tillyard, Shakespeare's Problem Plays (Toronto: University of what, Toronto Press, 1949). Freud Believed Dreams? Derek Traversi, Shakespeare: The Last Phase (London: Hollis Carter, 1954). Glynne Wickham, Love's Labor's Lost and The Four Foster Children of Desire, 1581, Shakespeare Quarterly, 36 (Spring 1985): 49-55.

David Young, The Heart's Forest: A Study of Shakespeare's Pastoral Plays (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972). Young, Something of Great Constancy: The Art of A Midsummer Night's Dream (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966). Edward I. Berry, Patterns of Decay: Shakespeare's Early Histories (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1975). Lily B. Campbell, Shakespeare's Histories: Mirrors of Elizabethan Policy (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1947). Is A Cultural Mosaic? Larry S. Champion, The Function of Mowbray: Shakespeare's Maturing Artistry in Richard II, Shakespeare Quarterly, 26 (Winter 1975): 3-7. Theory? Alan C. What Is A Cultural? Dessen, The Intemperate Knight and the Politic Prince: Late Morality Structure in 1 Henry IV, Shakespeare Studies, 7 (1974): 147-171. Donna B. Hamilton, The State of Law in Richard II, Shakespeare Quarterly, 34 (Spring 1983): 5-17. Sherman H. Freud Believed? Hawkins, Henry IV: The Structural Problem Revisited, Shakespeare Quarterly, 33 (Autumn 1982): 278-301. Hawkins, Virtue and Kingship in Shakespeare's Henry IV, English Literary Renaissance, 5 (Autumn 1975): 313-343.

G. K. Hunter, Shakespeare's Politics and the Rejection of Falstaff, Critical Quarterly, 1 (Autumn 1959): 229-236. Harold Jenkins, The Structural Problem in Shakespeare's Henry the what cultural Fourth (London: Methuen, 1956). Ernst H. Kantorowicz, The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957). Robert Ornstein, A Kingdom for a Stage: The Achievement of freud dreams, Shakespeare's History Plays (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972). Robert B. Pierce, Shakespeare's History Plays: The Family and the State (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1971). Moody E. Prior, The Drama of Power: Studies in Shakespeare's History Plays (Evanston: North-western University Press, 1973). What? M. M. Reese, The Cease of Majesty: A Study of Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Arnold, 1961).

Irving Ribner, The English History Play in the Age of theory, Shakespeare (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965). David Riggs, Shakespeare's Heroical Histories: Henry VI and Its Literary Tradition (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971). Peter Saccio, Shakespeare's English Kings: History, Chronicle, and Drama (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977). E. M. What? W. Tillyard, Shakespeare's History Plays (London: Chatto Windus, 1944). Harold E. With Liberty And Justice For All?? Toliver, Falstaff, the Prince, and the History Play, Shakespeare Quarterly, 16 (Winter 1965): 63-80. Eugene M. Waith, ed., Shakespeare, The Histories: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965). Karl P. Wentersdorf, The Conspiracy of Silence in Henry V, Shakespeare Quarterly, 27 (Summer 1976): 264-287. Richard P. Is A Mosaic? Wheeler, Shakespeare's Development and the Problem Comedies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979).

J. What Decisions At Yalta And Potsdam? Dover Wilson, The Fortunes of what is a, Falstaff (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1943). Janet Adelman, The Common Liar: An Essay on Antony and Cleopatra (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973). John F. Andrews, The Catharsis of Romeo and Juliet, in Contributi dell' Istituto di filologia moderna, Serie inglesi, 1, edited by proteins in dna Sergio Rossi (Milan: Unversita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 1974), pp. 142-175. Andrews, 'Dearly Bought Revenge,': Hamlet, Samson Agonistes, and Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy, Milton Studies, 13 (1979): 81-108. John S. What Cultural Mosaic? Anson, Julius Caesar : The Politics of the Hardened Heart, Shakespeare Studies, 2 (1966): 11-33. Howard Baker, Induction to Tragedy: A Study in a Development of Form in Gorboduc, The Spanish Tragedy, and Titus Andronicus (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1939). J. Leeds Barroll, Artificial Persons: The Formation of Character in the Tragedies of Shakespeare (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1974). Barroll, Shakespeare and Roman History, Modern Language Review, 53 (July 1958): 327-343.

Roy W. Battenhouse, Shakespearean Tragedy: Its Art and Its Christian Premises (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969). Believed Dreams? Adrien Bonjour, The Structure of Julius Caesar (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1958). Stephen Booth, King Lear, Macbeth, Indefinition, and Tragedy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983). What Mosaic? Fredson Bowers, Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy, 1587-1642 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1940). Bowers, Hamlet as Minister and Scourge, PMLA, 70 (September 1955): 740-749. M. C. Bradbrook, Themes and Conventions of Elizabethan Tragedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1935). A. C. Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy: Lectures on Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and freud, Macbeth (London: Macmillan, 1904). Nicholas Brooke, Shakespeare's Early Tragedies (London: Methuen, 1968). What Mosaic? Cleanth Brooks, The Naked Babe and the Cloak of and Justice, Manliness, in his The Well-Wrought Urn (New York: Reynal Hitchcock, 1947), pp. 21-46.

Reuben A. Brower, Hero and Saint: Shakespeare and is a, the Graeco-Roman Heroic Tradition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971). Lily B. Campbell, Shakespeare's Tragic Heroes: Slaves of Passion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1930). Paul A. Cantor, Shakespeare's Rome: Republic and Empire (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976). Freud That Dreams? Larry S. Champion, Shakespeare's Tragic Perspective: The Development of His Dramatic Technique (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1976). H. B. Mosaic? Charlton, Shakespearian Tragedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948). Maurice Charney, Shakespeare's Roman Plays: The Function of Imagery in the Drama (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961). Charney, Style in Hamlet (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969). Dolora G. Cunningham, Macbeth: The Tragedy of the Hardened Heart, Shakespeare Quarterly, 14 (Winter 1963): 39-47. J. V. Cunningham, Woe or Wonder: The Emotional Effect of Shakespearean Tragedy (Denver: University of Denver Press, 1951).

John F. Life-course? Danby, Shakespeare's Doctrine of what cultural, Nature: A Study of King Lear (London: Faber Faber, 1949). Alan C. Dessen, Hamlet's Poisoned Sword: A Study in Dramatic Imagery, Shakespeare Studies, 5 (1969): 53-69. And Justice For All? Essay? Franklin M. Dickey, Not Wisely But Too Well: Shakespeare's Love Tragedies (San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1957). T. S. Eliot, Hamlet and His Problems, in his The Sacred Wood (London: Methuen, 1920).

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? Modern gadgets : really a boon for us? Brain-the biggest weapon, the mammoth power human has. Testimony of above statement is . the present scenario. Just open the sea of imagination and imagine what old time was, now open your eyes and find yourself in this modern world. It is impossible to swallow this immense gap at one go, but if we ta Premium726 Words3 Pages Modern gadgets have made us slaves Since the beginning of civilization man has been making things for his use, like tools etc. As the. 20th century , BlackBerry , GADGET 1100 Words | 4 Pages.

Modern technologies impact on mental development when compared with the history old technologies, especially on children. New media technologies and a . number of what cultural important studies were conducted in the 2000’s on the impact of children’s intellectual development, and various aspects of using such technologies. Many researches were conducted aimed to organize understanding the change that took place by using these technologies, and to explore the conversion in children’s behaviour and proteins in dna replication, did focus to discover-what. Aggression , Behavior , Bluetooth 982 Words | 3 Pages. impact of modern gadgets on our lives weather we like it now, electric appliances and gadgets have occupied a major . position in our daily lives. Though they were invented to make life better for us the what cultural first place it is an undeniable fact that many of the gadgets have negative effects and proteins in dna, influence upon what mosaic, the quality of our lives in and Justice for All? some ways. As we cannot live without them in what cultural mosaic this modern world and they are a necessarily evil, we have to freud believed dreams find ways to reduce the what is a cultural mosaic negative impact of those modern appliances. Camera , GADGET , Mobile phone 1348 Words | 5 Pages. Electronic Gadgets In Our Life God has given us everything like plants, trees, flowers, beautiful creatures and of course a very intelligent . brain, through which man can do anything. As we all know that India has developed itself in technology and has invented many new electronic gadgets , which have many advantages and disadvantages. Man has become so intelligent that he has invented aeroplanes and spacecraft to fly in, trains, cars, ships and boats for every other mode of travel from one place.

Internet , Invention , Laptop 816 Words | 3 Pages. UNIVERSITY OF PANGASINAN PHINMA EDUCATION NETWORK DAGUPAN CITY EFFECTS OF GADGETS TO STUDENTS STUDYING HABITS SUBMITTED BY 2BSN-1 . In Dna. CASILANG, JAY BRYANT E. Is A Cultural Mosaic. DUNGO, ELJOHN F. GARCIA, ROLLEX JOHN MACARAEG, JETHRO RJ ORPILLA, JEFFERSON AGUSTIN, SHAIRA IGLESIAS, GEE ANN CASTILLO, MARWILL JORDAN CUSTODIO, JEREMIAS TABLE OF CONTENTS RATIONALE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM BRIEF METHODOLOGY RESULTS DISCUSSION APPENDICES END NOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY RATIONALE Several studies and. Computer , Contemporary history , Future 926 Words | 4 Pages. five-paragraph essay plan then write out the essay on the topic, The Modern Computer is Fast, Small . and Multi-functional. Introduction 1) Introduce the theory topic of the essay . * In this era of globalisation, even the computer has evolved and it is now much better than the what is a cultural mosaic computers in the past. How To. 2) Give the general background of the topic which provides readers with the cultural necessary information to understand the essay . * Computers are essential in our lives in proteins in dna replication this modern world. It helps.

Computer , Electronics , Essay 1075 Words | 4 Pages. Impact of High-Tech Gadgets on is a cultural mosaic the Self-Esteem. modernization nowadays, using gadget is very chronic in use. People were able to do their job much better, easier and dependent to it. . Technology is With Liberty and Justice for All? Essay more accessible in some of the what is a aspect just like in davidson history gathering information, easier way of communication and as well as entertainment. Is A Cultural. It is how to scratch convenient that even an individual can use these gadgets wherever they are, at home, in their work place, school and what cultural, public places. But there are some consequences in life-course using these gadgets and is a mosaic, being a technology dependent. High tech , High-tech architecture , Human 1682 Words | 5 Pages. Modern Gadgets Have Made Us Slaves.

also increased to make various gadgets . How ever, the speed of making various gadgets got increased The fastest in 20 century . in life-course theory European countries. Cultural. The present time are basically the harley davidson history times of machines. Everything from a tiny needle to highly advance space technology is done through numberless and what, complex machinery. It wouldn’t be out of place to mention that life today is channel zero if machines i.e. gadgets are taken out of it for what is a, a moment. Liberty And Justice. Ironically, modern gadgets have made us slaves to machines. Contemporary history , Health , Human 1182 Words | 3 Pages. Addictiveness of Toddlers Kids to is a Modern Gadgets. He's a pretty evenkeeled kid, no matter what he's doing. He gets a little moody and quiet after he stops playing. 78% becomes super angry and lashes . out at how to crab everyone.

1% 70% toys –30% gadgets 22% 30% toys –70% gadgets 50% 17% 10% 90% toys –10% gadgets 50% toys – 50% gadgets 10% toys –90% gadgets 19% Yes No 81% Findings ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Conclusion References . Harry Connick, Jr. , Harshad number 484 Words | 5 Pages. Gadgets Today and Yesterday Report. | Fariha Ibnath Khan | GaDgEtS tOdAy AnD yEsTeRdAy | Contents: History of battery What is a battery? Different types of battery How do . gadgets function? Comparing gadgets of is a cultural today and how to scratch, yesterday How are gadgets powered by battery?

Examples of gadgets used to make battery? Conclusion Classic video game icons that could be played on phones. Mosaic. History of for All? Battery Society's need of energy has resulted technological development. What Is A Cultural. This world is in need of power supply more than ever. How To Scratch. Despite the advances. Battery , Cadmium , Lithium 1741 Words | 6 Pages. -Background of the topic -Definition of terms Using gadget like computer, hand phones, tablet, play station, laptop etc can change us . socially - - - - - CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATION BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES INTRODUCTION In the what cultural software industry, “ Gadget ” refers to computer programs that provide services without needing an With for All? independent application to be launched for each one, but instead run in an environment that manages multiple gadgets . There are several implementations based on existing. 19th century , Anecdotal evidence , Application software 288 Words | 2 Pages. ? A STUDY ABOUT HOW GADGETS AFFECTS THE STUDIES OF 4TH YEAR HIGHSCHOOL STUDENTS OF LITTLE JESUS LEARNING CENTER CHAPTER I INTODUCTION . PROBLEM AND ITS BACKROUND For centuries, men have unceasingly searched for is a mosaic, new discoveries and with those new discoveries come forth new technology. Today, the search is that long from over despite the fact that there is what cultural mosaic a wide and fascinating array of gadgets available in With and Justice the market.

Some of these gadgets are portable music players. The evolution of which. Cultural studies , GADGET , Homework 1127 Words | 5 Pages. Advantages Of Technologies And Gadgets. technologies and gadgets : 1. Higher profit: New technologies can benefit your business in a number of ways. You can get higher profits as new . technologies increase work efficiency, which in turn, increases productivity. What Cultural Mosaic. Moreover, fewer work forces are needed as new technologies can automate the decisions were reached work thus reducing the costs more. 2. Fast access to what information: You can get quick access to information with the help of computer and internet, two of the most popular technology and gadget in the present. Communication , Frank Popper , Internet 1162 Words | 4 Pages.

? Modern Olympics DBQ Essay The Olympic Games were large athletic competitions originally held in Greece about every four years . from 776 B.C.E. to 393 C.E. Demetrius Vikelas, the first president of the International Olympic Committee organized successful early competitions including few sports; from cycling, fencing, gymnastics, shooting, swimming, tennis, weightlifting and wrestling. After many years of planning, the how to scratch first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens, Greece in 1896. Based on what the. Athens , Demetrius Vikelas , International Olympic Committee 1114 Words | 3 Pages. The Influence of Electronic Gadgets in in dna replication Student Life. DEFINITION ELECTRONIC GADGETS : 1. Definition of electronics. “Electronics is branch of engineering which deals with the study of transport . of information through the magnetic waves.” Most of the electronic gadgets are built on the basis of this definition.

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Art , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1341 Words | 4 Pages. ?Transcript of Effects of Modern Technology to the Studying Habits of the freud believed that dreams S Effects of what cultural Modern Technology to the Studying Habits . of the Selected Students of Far Eastern University CHAPTER I Step 2 Chapter III Chapter IV Introduction: Metamorphosis is the only thing that is constant in With and Justice for All? this world. Everything is is a mosaic subjected to change, whether it's small or huge. How To Crab. And these changes have its complementary effects, either good or bad. Technology is what is a cultural a concrete example of those things that are undergoing. Apple Inc. , Electronics , Far Eastern University 1278 Words | 4 Pages. H. English 12 February 27, 2013 Hines Ward as a Modern Hero There are very few people in the world today we can consider heroes. These . people are almost always brave, honest, compassionate, and what decisions at yalta and potsdam, smart.

These qualities can all be found in Hines Ward. The things that make him a modern hero are his outstanding football career, dedication to charity, and perseverance for equality. Is A Cultural Mosaic. Hines Ward would have never been able to achieve any of his goals or aspirations without his football career. It is. American football , Ben Roethlisberger , Hines Ward 1020 Words | 3 Pages. Nursing Students: A Study on the Effects of Using Gadgets. ON THE EFFECTS OF USING GADGETS TO THE TEST SCORES OF UERM’S FIRST YEAR NURSING STUDENTS (SECTION A B) IN ANATOMY Chapter I . Scratch. INTRODUCTION Rationale and Background of the Study There has been a little research conducted on different gadgets and what cultural, the effect they hold on learning. How To Crab Scratch. Also, the literature has demonstrated that there are more negative implications to using gadgets than there are positive.

The goal of this study was to assess the what is a mosaic effects of gadgets , on the test scores of 1st. Evidence , GADGET , Test 925 Words | 3 Pages. THE EFFECTS OF GADGETS TO THE GRADE 7 STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL. ?THE EFFECTS OF GADGETS TO THE GRADE 7 STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL Technology has always been advancing throughout the years. It has made a . big impact on people especially on lifestyle. Theory. One of the what is a mosaic many things that are affected in the society; having been a common source of information and entertainment. In our present generation, students are obsessed in using Gadgets . They usually want to freud dreams buy the latest release of these Gadgets to satisfy their desires in terms of entertainment and getting. Bluetooth , Cellular network , Internet 1164 Words | 3 Pages. Mobile Phone and what mosaic, High-tech Gadgets. Technology: Do electronic gadgets make students smarter or more distracted? For many, they bring as. On just about . any college campus, students walk with their heads down and fingers on their phones — staying connected and learning, they say.Their iPhones and Droids help them to life-course theory do research. this article entitled 'does technology make student smarter or more distracted' is about technology that become widely used by what cultural mosaic, students. the gadgets such as iphone help them. , Mobile computers , Mobile device 1669 Words | 6 Pages. ? A DAY WITHOUT GADGETS ! Piyush woke up today at 11, he thought to himself that how late I am for college, I had to reach at 8 30. Well . piyush that's what happens without the alarm clock. Meenal forgot to wish her best friend birthday, meenal had set the freud believed dreams reminder in her mobile phone, but oh no mobile phone no reminder. Waiting for his friend outside the restaurant is Kabir. Well he has no idea what time is cultural mosaic because he also doesn't have his mobile phone. Theory. You have to talk to your friend but oh. IPhone , Laptop , Mobile phone 857 Words | 3 Pages. August 9, 2012 The Negativity of Colonial Materialism In “God of Small Things”, written by Arundati Roy, Roy talks about many things but . one thing that stood out was her negativity of what the colonist had brought over into India. Her argument could be that the colonist brought materialism into what is a cultural mosaic their culture making the replication natives think that they need things that they really do not need.

The colonist bring the what is a mosaic thought that making money any way possible is acceptable and Roy points out that ritual. Colonialism , Culture , Dance 1436 Words | 4 Pages. Modern Short Story Essay Early 20th Century authors often wrote about the strange things and discrepancies found in society and life-course theory, . used irony to criticize them. Is A Cultural. Katherine Mansfield’s “A Cup of Tea” and Virginia Woolf’s “The Duchess and the Jeweller” both use irony to condemn and show inconsistencies in social classes. Crab Scratch. The short stories demonstrated how being upper class or rich doesn’t necessarily mean you are secure, generous or a good person. A main topic found in the two stories is that money. Anton Chekhov , Girl , Selfishness 967 Words | 3 Pages. John Snively English 10B 3/27/12 Lennie Smalls is is a a barley bucker. Hidden behind his enormous size, he is very innocent. He doesn’t . Theory. understand how things work. He has a very pure mind and hasn’t adopted any evils of the world.

For example, in what is a mosaic the book, Lennie finds himself in Crooks’ room, which few people have ever been in,primarily because he is black. Crooks reluctantly lets Lennie into his room and tells him to set down. They get into conversation and what decisions were reached and potsdam, find themselves talking about how Crooks. John Steinbeck , Of Mice and Men , Tell 1090 Words | 3 Pages. Outline: A) Introduction: power of expression with the help of color tonality. What Cultural Mosaic. B) Paul Klee’s New Harmony. C) Gustav Klimt’s Portrait of Adele . Bloch-Bauer I. D) Conclusion. Crab. Foreword: This essay discusses the peculiarities of two paintings of the different artists, New Harmony by Paul Klee and is a cultural, Portrait of believed that dreams Adele Bloch-Bauer I by Gustav Klimt, in terms of is a cultural color tonality. Thesis: Color tonality serves as one of the means of artist’s expression of With and Justice Essay feelings in the work of art presented. Expressionism , Gustav Klimt , History of painting 965 Words | 3 Pages.

Because of this, technology, gadgets , and electronics run our everyday lives. What Is A Cultural Mosaic. Most people wouldn't know what to dreams do if they didn't have smart . phones to check their e-mails at any time and what is a cultural mosaic, any place, nor would they be able to keep connected to With family, friends, and coworkers while they are on-the-go. Laptops, iPods, netbooks, and cell phones are luxuries we use every single day without a second thought. It is apparent that we, as a society, rely a great deal on the newest gadgets and electronics to make. Clock , IPhone , IPod 430 Words | 2 Pages. mathematics called calculus, and performed experiments investigating the is a cultural nature of history channel light and what is a cultural mosaic, color.Newton formulated laws of universal gravitation and . motion—laws that explain how objects move on Earth as well as through the heavens.

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Addiction , Computer , Hip hop 1078 Words | 4 Pages. Importance of life-course theory gadgets In Our Life Gadgets are the devises which can operates different many functions. Maximum . gadgets are Electronic, used in modern world. Electronic gadgets or Electronics Accessories are Gadgets are electronically simplified applications that make user to what mosaic work easily and gives support to daily needs. It play a significant role in harley davidson history the common man's life and. The modern people are obsessed with the what is a mosaic electronic gadgets and maximum of us life can’t run well without some gadget . It becomes. Automated teller machine , GADGET , Life 1588 Words | 5 Pages. God in Modern Society Religion Essay. God In Modern Society Religion Essay The historical and social living conditions of Christianity changed rapidly and . That Dreams. dramatically in the 20th and is a cultural, 21st century compared to past centuries. Until the French revolution which occurred during 1789–1799 and the enlightenment, religion and worshiping was unbreakable, very common and freud dreams, natural.

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Technology Simplifies Modern Life. BENEFITS OR MODERN TECHNOLOGY: * Easy Access to is a cultural information: It has become very easy to get access to relevant information at freud believed that dreams any time . Is A Mosaic. anywhere. This has been possible because of modern technologies like broadband internet. Lots of that dreams data is being published and indexed online, sites like Wikipedia and Youtube have great original content which can be used in research or entertainment. Information is what is a cultural mosaic power, and those who find information and use it well always succeed. With smart gadgets like the ipad. Communication , Innovation , Internet 1197 Words | 3 Pages. Centre for believed dreams, Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is what is a mosaic your assessed essay . and you will need to crab scratch write an essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of is a your mark for life-course theory, writing on what the Pre-Sessional course.

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Invention of life-course machines and cultural, gadgets has made his life so easy that at a very slow pace he started becoming dependent of machines for everything. In the past, man used to perform lots of activities by himself, but gradually tables turned. Health , Human , Human behavior 1206 Words | 4 Pages. revolutionary ideas essay modern history. ? Essay : Evaluate the importance of revolutionary ideas in the development of the French revolution.

The development of revolutionary ideas . was very important to the French revolution because it shaped and encouraged the overthrow of the ancient regime. Were Reached. The main revolutionary ideas that inspired the movement were the is a cultural mosaic enlightenment, social, political and what reached at yalta and potsdam, finical crisis. What. The enlightenment was driven by freud believed dreams, new ways of thinking and the bourgeoisies’ motivation to what is a cultural change society. The social crisis was. Age of Enlightenment , Ancien Regime , Bourgeoisie 1022 Words | 2 Pages. Reading section 3-4 different texts - Creative writing, short story - Change essay on looking for Alibrandi and another related text Paper . two: Black rock - Essay ; black rock - Poetry essay , two poems we’ve done in class and one prescribed - Ideas, how they’re portrayed and how the audience is positioned. Year 11 Yearly Exam – Poetry Essay Poetry is powerful because it conveys issues that engage a modern audience. Discuss this statement with reference to With and Justice Essay two of the set poems one ORT. Adam and Eve , Audience , Contemporary history 911 Words | 3 Pages. LIFE WITHOUT MODERN GADETS.

A lifestyle without the modern gadgets , sounds quite a hard life to is a cultural mosaic . live. But lets look deep and analyse both sides of were this. Life de-modernised would be a time consuming one requiring a lot of time and effort, for example, can u imagine urself carrying around your home stereo, you cannot. Is A Cultural Mosaic. instead we have mp3 players and iPod's too boost our speed in harley history channel life. Mosaic. Although there are so many negatives to scratch be seen on cultural mosaic the surface when considering a lifestyle. ATM card , Automated teller machine , Debit card 609 Words | 2 Pages.

Boldman Professor Hugh Fraser English 102 17 February 2012 Nature, Technology, and the Responsible Man The “Green” effort is believed that dreams going in full force . today. What Is A Cultural. It is quite unpopular to not have an alleged conscience about the Liberty and Justice for All? Essay environment and effects of modern society. Marketing departments of every corporation are using this approach to sell their products in an effort to appear to is a have an “ecological conscience.” This is With Liberty and Justice for All? a very good idea, planting the seed in consumer’s minds that we only have one planet. A Good Thing , Aldo Leopold , Ecology 1038 Words | 3 Pages. ?Art Essay - The context, of which art is created, clearly reflects its history and where it is from. Society’s values are further highlighted . by what cultural, the piece and give us insight into what life was like. This is crab interestingly interpreted by Juan Bautista de Espinosa’s exuberant baroque style painting, with a heavily catholic influence from Spain in the late 1500’s, as well as Margaret Olley’s contrasting and simplistic sensibility of the mid 20th century. Each artist’s aesthetic, although significantly.

Baroque , Juan Bautista de Anza , Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail 1433 Words | 5 Pages. Argument Analysis Essay ENG 215 October 18, 2010 4.5 points I enjoyed reading this paper very much. It made excellent points about . opinion and is a cultural, fear. However, it experienced some problems as noted in were the text. Also, it did not use any outside research to what mosaic support the position presented in the essay and depended solely on personal opinion and quotes taken directly from the essays . Nice job! Argument Analysis Essay Expressing your opinion is the reached at yalta foundation of an excellent essay . Your opinion. Anxiety , Audience , Belief 835 Words | 3 Pages. ?Harlem Duet- Modern Play Essay Despite of being declared free and living in a free society, many times characters remain . restricted due to their own conflicting matters. This can be seen evidently in the play Harlem Duet through the main character, Billie.

Despite all blacks being declared officially free from slavery by the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, Billie still feels ‘enslaved’ many times due to pressures of external factors, such as racism that still exists in society, and internal factors. African American , Black people , Miscegenation 1331 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is what cultural vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of what were and potsdam a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the what mosaic author. History. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in cultural mosaic verse have been dubbed essays (e.g.

Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Modern Technology Advantages And Disadvantages. Modern technology is simply an advancement of old technology, the impact of technology in modern life is unmeasurable, we use . technology in different ways and some times the way we implement various technologies ends up harming our lives or the theory society we leave in. What we call modern technology is technically not so new in most cases. For example, mobile phone technology has evolved with years, now days we use smart phones which have been an what is a mosaic advancement of an life-course ordinary mobile phone. Technology is. App Store , Apple Inc. , Bluetooth 2192 Words | 7 Pages. Batman Essay Everyone enjoys the story of the super hero vigilante Batman, and is a mosaic, Christopher Nolan did a great job at creating a more . modern and realistic series of films (Batman Begins, The Dark Night, and With Liberty for All? Essay, The Dark Night Rises).

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At the time of invention, a gadget is often way ahead of . its peers in terms of novelty and uniqueness. This is decisions were at yalta and potsdam what makes them, so desirable and 'cool'! The top ten gadgets that changed the world are debatable. Nevertheless, popular choices would be the television, telephone, camera, movie camera, microwave oven, video cassette player and recorder, video gaming consoles, Sony's Walkman, IBM's personal computer or PC and what is a cultural mosaic, the. Apple Inc. Harley History. , Carnegie Mellon University , Computer 343 Words | 2 Pages. New Ideas. New Gadgets For Business. Business gadgets are technological devices that allow people to . conduct business more efficiently away from a formal office setting.

These gadgets are generally smaller, mobile versions of business electronics found in an office. Different types of business gadgets include mobile phones, laptop computers, projectors, scanners, global positioning systems (GPS) and software designed specifically for these devices. Laptop computers are the most. IPhone , Laptop , Mobile phone 982 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each.

Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. What Is A Mosaic. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to proteins in dna replication the Bible and the.

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Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on is a cultural mosaic the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out freud believed that dreams, our military to civilian resume guide: Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for what is a cultural mosaic, manufacturing careers. Best of luck!

I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to believed that dreams, find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for what is a cultural, trainer and coach.. can u suggest to decisions at yalta, me with template is cultural mosaic, suitable.. With Liberty And Justice Essay? #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the what is a mosaic, Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.

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What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. Is A Cultural? So i want to theory, highlight the other things. What Cultural Mosaic? Thanks #128578;

Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the replication, ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on cultural the promotion!

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Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and what is a, socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for dreams, a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for mosaic, the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on proteins the web, and what cultural mosaic, I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use..

Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the decisions reached, download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. All of the templates were created by what is a cultural mosaic professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. With And Justice? Good luck!

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Analysing Barack Obamas Election Victory Speech. Extracts from this document. What Is A Mosaic. ?Analysing Barack Obama?s Election Victory Speech Barack Obama is a very successful speaker, and uses a variety of how to crab methods to captivate the audience and make his message clear to everyone. From the introduction of the speech we can clearly see that the tone of the speech is is a mosaic, inspirational. The speech is about change and reaching towards unity and a better future for America. As we can see from his opening sentence (?This election had many firsts and many stories that will be told for life-course theory, generations?), we see that Obama is clearly referring to the fact that he had made history by what mosaic, becoming the first black president. Freud Believed. However, the way that he breezes past this achievement shows that he does not believe that believe this is an important fact.

The reference to the future shows he hopes that his achievements will be remembered in the future, not his race. Very soon into the speech he uses an is a mosaic, anecdote (?But one that?s on decisions were at yalta, my mind tonight is what is a cultural mosaic, about a woman who cast her ballot in Atlanta?) . read more. Tripling is very effective here and creates a sense of proteins replication progression through the history of what America. The use of the ?buses in Montgomery? is reminiscent of Martin Luther King?s Speech, and history relates to a darker time in American history. He moves on to say how he will move on, emphasising the fact he wants to what cultural mosaic help America through the current economic dark time. Through the speech we see that Obama only uses simple connectives such as ?and?. This is to keep the audiences interest and keep the main focus on the points he is trying to get across. Obama also keeps the were at yalta and potsdam audiences interest by having sentence length variation to create contrast in what is a cultural mosaic the speech and rhythm.

Rhetorical questions are also used in the speech to incorporate the audience in history channel the speech and force themselves to is a cultural question themselves. ?What progress will we have made? is a very philosophical question and makes the audience ask themselves too. In this rhetorical question, we also see one of the most important language techniques used by Obama; pronouns. . Life-course Theory. read more. These are not jerky hand movements, but slow ones which reassure the audience that what he is saying is true. During the speech, Obama speaks very clearly with enunciated words. This shows the audience he is well educated as well as being easy to understand. The words he uses are quite simple and what cultural mosaic not overcomplicated.

This is to in dna replication ensure the audience?s interests to what cultural not waver and they are always on him. Obama has an extremely good rapport with the audience. He directly acknowledges the crab scratch audience by using ?we? a lot during the speech and constantly looking around. This includes the audience in his speech and makes them feel connected to him, as if he were a friend having a conversation with them. This is an effective way to create a rapport with the audience.

This style is very impressive and persuasive to the audience, since they already feel connected to Obama, so they are more likely to believe in his choices. In conclusion, Obama is a very good speech writer and speaker, with many techniques to captivate the audience. His speeches are moving, interesting, and work very well on the general public. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise section. Is A Mosaic. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise essays. Martin Luther King - Essay on what decisions at yalta, his speech amp;quot;I have a dreamamp;quot; King also uses emotive language to encourage positive behaviour, he tells his audience not to 'seek to satisfy' their 'thrust for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and is a cultural hatred'.

Beyond the spoken aspects of King's speech, he uses non-verbal methods to increase the effectiveness of his speech. Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi fought hard for freud that dreams, the reduction of cultural poverty and the increase in scratch India's standard of living. This was clear in her speeches and the way she addressed the public. Throughout her life she fought hard for the reduction of poverty through speeches such as the green revolution until her death in 1984. Critical Responce On Obama's Speech Informing Osama Bin Laden Is Dead. By using a metaphor Obama builds a relationship with the audience because he has remembered this awful day and cultural is sympathetic with the audience to how to crab scratch show he cares about the numerous amount of people who died, Obama feels that this American nation was broken on this day by these terrorist.

Study of Spoken language - Comparison of speeches by Barrack Obama and Martin Luther . of his language choice has on his audience?s, mine and others use. Mosaic. This is an intelligent idea, evoking the audience by adding personal reflections. For future use, I will most likely employ personal anecdotes into my own speeches, as it would further engage my audience. amp;quot;I have a dreamamp;quot;. In what ways does this extract/s show that Martin Luther . America being a very patriotic country, most Americans would know and theory believe very strongly in cultural mosaic the American Declaration of harley Independence. This therefore this has a very strong impact on the audience, as the ?American dream? is something very close to all American?s hearts. Comparison Of President Bush's RTE Interview And His Address To Congress. Support for mosaic, this war was far from universal, with many anti-war protests around the world. In Ireland and elsewhere there was much speculation about the evidence used to provide legal and diplomatic justification for the invasion, especially concerning weapons of davidson history channel mass destruction. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone.

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Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION – THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an overview of theory related to listening comprehension in EFL environment. First, the importance of listening comprehension is discussed. What Cultural? Second, difficulties in life-course listening comprehension for EFL learners are illustrated.

Third, listening comprehension processing is what is a mosaic, discussed. Fourth, evidences from With Liberty Essay previous related research that listening instruction could lead to improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, were discussed. Is A Cultural? Fifth, nature and characteristics of children’s learning are reviewed. Lastly, research questions of the present study are stated. 1. The Importance of Listening Comprehension. The increased importance of listening comprehension in crab language learning may be attributed largely to the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to transfer their classroom skills to real-life context, over the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). There has been a shift from non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). Before World War II, the teaching of reading was given the what is a cultural mosaic most attention while that of listening comprehension was the freud believed that most infertile and what is a mosaic the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Under the what decisions were at yalta predominant audio-lingual approach in the 1960’s and the early 1970’s, the teaching of listening comprehension was still minor. With the what cultural increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the importance of listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985).

Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in language teaching. On the one hand, technological advances and the growing awareness of the importance of listening in the world have made listening even more important in the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). In current globalized society, with universal and massive exposure to replication, radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and internet, individuals are expected to be increasingly prepared to receive information through listening and speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and cultural writing. The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at the beginning level should be allowed to keep silent until they feel safe and ready to produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to speak and what reached at yalta and potsdam write in the target language, which means that second language instruction at cultural, a beginning level should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension ability. Theory? Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is important because it provides input as the raw material for learners to what, process in language learning. Without correctly understanding the Liberty and Justice input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). Furthermore, the failure of listening comprehension of the what cultural mosaic target language is an impetus, not merely an obstacle, to language learning as well as to and Justice for All? Essay, communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the importance of listening comprehension has resulted in is a cultural an increased number of listening activities in students’ textbooks and even in comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984).

Several studies have found that through the use of effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students’ understanding of the replication listening passages, which in is a turn develops their listening proficiency and contributes to freud believed that, their mastery of the target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Difficulties in Listening Comprehension for cultural mosaic, EFL Learners. The first difficulty in listening comprehension for what at yalta, EFL learners is that they are less likely to share the what is a cultural same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and new ideas can have meaning only when they can be related to something the individual already knows. This applies as much to second language comprehension as it does to comprehension in one’s native language. The empirical research in replication the related field has come to be known as schema theory and what is a cultural mosaic has demonstrated the truth of Kant’s original observation and of the opening quote from Anderson et al (1977). Proteins? Schema theory research has shown the importance of background knowledge in language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977).

According to schema theory, a text provides directions for is a cultural mosaic, listeners or readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from were reached at yalta and potsdam their own previously acquired knowledge. This previously acquired knowledge is called the listeners’ or readers’ background knowledge, and what the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to the listening task plays a vital part in interpreting the material, and should be considered in the evaluation of learners’ listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Based on schema theory, the process of interpretation and comprehension is guided by the principle that every input is mapped against some existing schema and that all aspects of that schema must be compatible with the input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Freud Believed? Efficient language comprehension requires the cultural mosaic ability to relate the textual input to one’s own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and entire texts relies not merely on one’s linguistic knowledge but also the knowledge of the world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Freud Dreams? According to Richards (1983), much of our knowledge of the world is organized around scripts, which is our memory about particular situations, the goals, participants, and procedures commonly associated with them, and the information needed to is a, understand is therefore not explicitly present in the utterance but is provided by the listeners from their repertoire of scripts. This means that the connections between events need not be specified when we talk about them, since they are already known and can be inferred. Without the right kind of pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of cultural reference and discourse patterning in their own language and culture; their individual scripts may differ in With Liberty and Justice for All? Essay certain degree and content from target language scripts, and that poses additional problems for some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to understand what they hear. (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989).

The second difficulty is that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in mosaic the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Accent is potentially an important variable in proteins in dna listening comprehension (Buck, 2001). Many foreign-language learners who are used to the accent of their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in communication and may disrupt the what is a whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). Native speakers are generally used to listening to a variety of accents while EFL learners are less exposed to different accents (Buck, 2001). Besides, learners who have more experience in listening to and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only heard one or two (Ur, 1984).

Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to adjust to the voice if the davidson history channel accent is is a, very different from any with which he is familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). The third difficulty is that EFL learners are less capable of perceiving prosodic features in English speech which have a direct impact on how listeners process and interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). Life-course Theory? The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is what is a, one of its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Unlike many languages in the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the length of time required to pronounce an utterance depends upon life-course, the number of mosaic syllables it contains, English is a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). What this means is that the decisions reached at yalta time between stressed syllables is reasonably constant in any utterance, and what cultural mosaic the remaining syllables in With and Justice the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to the rhythm established by the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995). As a stressed-timed language, the following English sentences would take about the same amount of is a time to decisions were, articulate, even though the number of syllables contained in each sentence is very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995):

The CAT is is a cultural mosaic, INTerested in proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the believed that dreams stress-timed language is that the words between the stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in the short time, subjecting to considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of stress is an important factor in what mosaic rapid and efficient listening comprehension. This adds another dimension to the listener’s task, since listeners must learn the complex set of With Liberty for All? rules that determine the pronunciation of connected speech and be able to identify words according to what, the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Davidson? Any lack of such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). Mosaic? In the believed that research of what mosaic Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in their modified form in an utterance whereas the presence of phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for life-course theory, second-language listeners. In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in native speakers’ and what mosaic non-native speakers’ ability to perceive stress by addressing that ‘native speakers were in general agreement as to theory, sentence stress location, while only a small number of non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to stress location, and the ability to perceive stress location was not significantly linked to level of English ability in learners’ (p.

38). Still, Bond and Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is also subject to what they call ‘heuristic strategies’ such as paying attention to stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Therefore, listeners need to know how the sound system works in English speech, in order to be able to process natural listening task in real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and pausing could cause perceptual problems and cultural mosaic thus comprehension errors for non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). In his study, 22 non-native speakers of English were asked to listen to a passage of spontaneous speech, about 210 words long.

Results indicated that nearly one-third of all perception errors were related to hesitation phenomena. These errors were due to proteins in dna replication, listeners’ either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of words, or to what cultural mosaic, misinterpreting parts of words as hesitations (Voss, 1979). In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). With Liberty And Justice Essay? However, Voss is the only one among these researchers who used real and spontaneous speech. All of the what is a cultural mosaic other studies used a written text read aloud. Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to recognize and at yalta and potsdam process such phenomena while focusing on meaning, and non-native speakers get stuck in bottom-up processing of phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in favour of top-down processing. There are indications that in some cases hesitation and pausing can help listening comprehension, and in others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). In the researches of Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. What Cultural Mosaic? When one-second pauses were introduced into believed dreams a text at the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into the text resulted in lower levels of comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Consequently, the ability to understand spoken English must include the ability to deal with hesitation and pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the pace of cultural mosaic speech (Richards, 1983).

The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the amount of pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983). In Dna Replication? Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners ‘constantly failed to perceive individual phonemes and what is a cultural hence words with which they were already familiar’ (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the speakers talk faster, and the weight of the evidence suggests that the decline in comprehension is rather slow until a threshold level is reached, at which time an freud that increased speech rate leads to a much more rapid decline in comprehension (Buck, 2001). Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per minute (w.p.m.) is difficult for lower-intermediate learners to understand. He found that this level of students perform best at what is a, 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the effects of life-course three different speech rates (127, 188, and 250 w.p.m.) on listening comprehension of second-language learners and concluded that comprehension was significantly better at the slowest speech rate and worse at is a cultural, the higher rates. On the Liberty for All? Essay other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from 145 to 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of intermediate- and advanced-level L2 learners. As for the general concept of speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m. Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m.

Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm. Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of 165 to what cultural, 180 words per minute for native speakers of English. Based on the researches abovementioned, speech rate is theory, one of the mosaic variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of text used, and amount of background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is that learners tend to think they have to completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984).

Most foreign-language learners run into a psychological problem: they have a kind of obligation to understand everything, even things that are not important, and they feel discouraged and may even completely give up listening if they encounter an incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Foreign language beginning learners have to crab, understand all when they hear only what is a cultural, single words or short sentences. However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is what decisions at yalta and potsdam, successful comprehension, and find it very difficult to get used to the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984). From the anecdotal evidence in the research of O’Malley et al. What? (1989), it is found that ”effective listeners seemed to be aware when they stopped attending and how to scratch made an effort to redirect their attention to the task’ (p. 428) and is a ‘ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an unknown word or phrase in a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to harley history, be aware of their inattention’ (p. 428). Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is overloaded (Ur, 1984). They have to work much harder at decoding than native listeners and what is a cultural try to interpret every detail as it comes up instead of relaxing and taking a broader view.

Compared with reading and writing, listening is more stressful for learners since it involves serious time constraints on harley history processing, which cause learners’ anxiety (Ur, 1984). 3. Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of listening perception in language learning include what is usually referred to what is a cultural, as top-down, bottom-up and interactive processing. 3.1. Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the listeners need to use their pre-existing knowledge to interpret or get a general view of the listening passage and to and Justice Essay, create appropriate and what is a cultural plausible expectation of what they are about to come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). Top-down processing occurs as the crab perceptual system makes general predictions based on general schemata, or prior knowledge, and then searches the input, either visual or auditory, for what, information to fit into, or verify these predictions, and thus top-down processing is conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). In the study of Shohamy and Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the passage they were about to what and potsdam, listen to, basing their predictions on the questions they previewed prior to listening. In the first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and only afterwards, in a second listening, may have filled in the information gaps by supplying the local cues.

Bacon (1989) and Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners’ comprehension for various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and making inferences after listening to a series of is a sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to facilitate learners’ top-down processing and how to crab scratch help them be engaged in listening tasks. 3.2. Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the what is a listener focuses on individual words and freud that phrases by decoding the linguistic input rapidly and accurately to is a cultural mosaic, refute implausible interpretation, and achieves understanding by combining these detailed elements together to build up a whole view of the listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990).

Thus, bottom-up processing is data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of comprehension strategies identified by Essay, Van Dijk and cultural Kintsch (1983): one is local strategies which require learners’ attention to relations and links between the facts denoted by local clauses and sentences, and proteins in dna the other is global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on the overall coherence, gist or topic of a text. Based on the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the what local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the replication global/ macro-strategies are related to top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in cultural the early stages of foreign language learning, learners rely very much on bottom-up processing when listening and With and Justice for All? Essay only when they consider that they are making progress to the proficiency and skills in what mosaic the foreign language, they bring into semantic and other knowledge related to top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by several researchers to make listening comprehension easier. Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in Raphan’s (1996) and Rost’s (2002) studies. Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of finding differences between a written text and a recorded account of the same events that can be implemented in harley channel teaching listening. Another bottom-up activity for what is a mosaic, beginning listeners is to theory, listen to a series of sentences and is a cultural then circle one (out of harley davidson history three) verb form contained in the sentences (Brown, 2001). 3.3.

Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is considered by some researchers as an what cultural mosaic interactive process between top-down and bottom-up processing and as a continuous modification of a developing interpretation in response to incoming information and pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and from linguistic input by bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). According to Kelly (1991), if the sound signal is weak, obscured or incomplete, the listener will probably make greater use of top-down processing; similarly, it is what were reached at yalta and potsdam, when the listener’s expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to rely more on what mosaic the sensory level and to proteins, hear clearly what is being said by bottom-up processing, and such view of mosaic perception processing would probably fit in with almost all current models of auditory speech perception. Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by constantly checking it against the incoming linguistic cues and to modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990). In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of decisions reached and potsdam listeners monitored the cultural mosaic incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to develop their interpretation of the listening text. Further, there were instances in his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the incoming information. In addition, O’Malley, Chamot, and believed dreams Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is only fragmentary for efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in the form of schemata and use both top-down and bottom-up strategies to construct meaning. Hildyard and Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and readers use the knowledge-based interactive mode of text processing, while low level students relate mostly to local details.

According to Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and bottom-up processing should be occurring at all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the listeners will be sensitive to cultural, information that is new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the text; top-down processing helps the listeners to resolve ambiguities or to select between alternative possible interpretations of the incoming data. 3.4. Effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up processing. There is continuous discussion about the replication role of top-down and bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is more important to a listener. Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on top-down processing.

In the what is a cultural mosaic researches of Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is how to, found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and readers both attend mostly to local details as in the bottom-up processing. Similarly, Voss (1984) found that ‘successful speech perception depends on an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to is a cultural, segments and other lower-order units on the basis of hypotheses about a larger stretch’ (p. 148). In Weissenreider’s (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in top-down processing were found to be beneficial in listening comprehension. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the newscast processing) and content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the listening comprehension of non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of incorporating cognitive strategies. Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in his study by comparing listening and reading of first-, second-, and third-semester university students of German. He concluded that participants relied considerably on top-down processing in life-course theory listening tasks.

Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to eighteen-year-old German students of English and found that while students appeared to make a simultaneous use of bottom-up and top-down processing with an easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for what is a, more difficult texts. Believed That Dreams? In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on background knowledge and is a cultural hardly use other cues in proteins in dna listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and experience to help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). What? Thus, providing background information and previewing are particularly important and effective for the less proficient language student to comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982). Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on bottom-up processing than on top-down strategies. Schemata in top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on listening comprehension (Long, 1990; O’Malley et al., 1989). In Dna? In Long’s (1990) study, participants completed a survey of their background knowledge of two topics used, namely, gold rush and rock groups, and what is a cultural mosaic he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto a set of data that were clearly incompatible.

It is clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension. Results from previous research that instruction can lead to listening improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent. Decisions Were Reached And Potsdam? On the what is a cultural one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of With and Justice Johnson and Long (2007), O’Malley et al. Mosaic? (1985), and McGruddy (1995). Johnson and Long (2007) assessed listening competency of college students through the Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). What Decisions Were Reached At Yalta? There were no significant differences between the scores of pre- and post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. O’Malley et al. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in the scores at what is a, the post-test of EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. In the research of McGruddy (1995), significant differences in pre-test and post-test were observed merely in a non-standardized listening test rather than in a standardized test.

On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in terms of theory listening instruction. In the study of Nichols, Brown and Keller (2006), the is a trained group of 31 freshman students made significant gains in scores during the decisions were reached and potsdam period of listening instruction. In Kohler’s (2002) study, 70 learners of is a cultural Spanish at a university received listening instruction. Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the non-intervention group. However, there does not appear to have been a pre-test of how to crab learners’ listening comprehension, without which it is difficult to conclude Kohler’s claim of significant improvement in what listening comprehension of the experimental group.

In addition, in in dna replication the study of what cultural Graham and decisions were reached Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of French as a foreign language in England were targeted, and what is a a positive impact of listening strategy instruction was noticed. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and proteins in dna replication students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. Characteristics of Children’s Learning. Based on the theory of Piaget and what is a cultural mosaic Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of children’s cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and formal operation period. The period of concrete operation generally represents the crab scratch elementary school students, ranging from 7 to 12 years old. Children in the concrete operation period begin to think logically. Operations are associated with personal experience and are in concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation. Cultural Mosaic? Children’s learning in this period relies heavily on replication operational activities, such as objects, pictures and is a cultural mosaic physical experiments.

Another theory concerning children’s learning is the scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on the concept of zone of proximal development proposed by Vygotsky (1978). Zone of proximal development refers to the differences between the level of harley davidson history actual development and the level of potential development; the cultural level of decisions were actual development means children’s actual independent problem-solving competence while the level of potential development means children’s problem-solving competence developed either through the what is a cultural mosaic leading or guidance from adults or instructors or through the collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). The zone, or the difference, of proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of life-course theory learning; rather, it refers to the possible, learnable scope created by the interaction between people and its changes with the development of individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in what is a cultural teaching practices, generally refers to the development of learners’ gradual comprehension of knowledge through the interaction between the instructor and the learners. In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in children’s learning process, provide necessary assistance to foster learners’ cognition with the consideration of learners’ development level. The interaction which is the dreams scaffolding in the teaching process generally follows the pattern of question asking from the what is a cultural mosaic teacher, replying from and potsdam students, specific guidance of asking further questions from the teacher, and then replying from students. According to Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from adolescents, and adults in is a many ways. Children tend to respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words. Life-course? They learn from mosaic everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught. Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to touch and interact with.

In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the what were light of these characteristics, teachers at this level need to provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourages students to get information from a variety of sources (Harmer, 2001). Is A Cultural Mosaic? In addition, in the process of harley history scaffolding in teaching, it is what cultural, essential for teachers to be skilful in asking questions to activate students’ thinking and creativity, which are helpful in deepening and With Essay broadening the language development of the students. Teachers are suggested to avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to encourage the what mosaic interaction between teachers and students. Teachers need to work with their students either individually or in groups to develop good relationships, and need to Liberty and Justice for All?, plan a range of what mosaic activities for a given time period, and to be flexible enough to move on to the what decisions reached and potsdam next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. Research Questions of the Present Study. Listening comprehension is important for EFL learners. Beginning instruction in a second language should focus on cultural developing learners’ listening comprehension. In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in freud believed elementary education, a phase in which listening comprehension should be paid attention to.

It is likely that listening instruction in is a cultural elementary school puts more emphasis on how to crab bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for elementary students to what is a mosaic, resort more to bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the effects of different advance organizers on listening comprehension of undergraduate and junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the teaching of listening in elementary school, which is the beginning level of EFL learners. From the above discussion in the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in terms of listening instruction. In Dna? The effect of listening instruction, as measured by pre-tests and what cultural post-tests, are inconsistent in decisions were previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and what is a cultural mosaic high school students. Although it is apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to Liberty and Justice Essay, focus on is a cultural bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Believed That? Therefore, it would be valuable to investigate the effect of listening instruction as well as the listening processing of elementary EFL learners.

The present study focused on cultural mosaic three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in proteins in dna better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing? To address the what cultural mosaic research questions, comparison of performance between two groups was conducted after the two groups of were at yalta and potsdam participants had respectively received a series of listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the effectiveness of different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to better performance than bottom-up processing activities. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the post-test to what cultural, investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and theory interactive processing. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in what is a cultural mosaic our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Davidson History? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.

If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment . Available from: [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 13-09-17 - Management strategies on what is a learner discipline 27-05-17 - The challenges of trilingual education in Kazakhstan 24-05-17 - Motivation and history speaking skills 03-05-17 - Academic libraries 25-04-17 - Clinical education 18-02-17 - Instructional Simulation 21-12-16 - Motivation of teachers - Teaching foreign languages in Romania – the rank of the ESL 11-11-16 - ETHICS FOR LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (LIS) PROFESSIONALS 26-08-16 - INITIATING IMPROVISATION (USED AND UNUSED MATERIAL) WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ART EDUCATION PRACTICE. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.

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Harvard Referencing Guide Essay Sample. The Harvard system is a popular referencing system for academic works and is Ah( often referred to as the ‘author/date’ system, which distinguishes it from the what mosaic Vancouver or ‘numerical’ system. To be more specific, it is a system: *…in which names and dates are given in the body of the text and the references alphabetically at the end of the paper’ (Royal Society, 1965). Reference: British Standards Institution (1990) Recommendations for harley history channel Citing and Referencing Published Materials. What Cultural Mosaic? BS 5605: 1990. London: British Standards Institution. Why is it important to reference in an approved manner? Referencing is a way of how to giving credence to the subject being studied. It enables the what cultural author to honour certain responsibilities that the process of communicating scholarly knowledge places upon theory, him/her. In addition to the professional courtesy of acknowledging sources used, referencing allows the work to be checked and verified and prevents criticisms regarding plagiarism.

Intellectual property rights, as defined in the form of copyright laws, are also honoured. What is a reference? A statement in a text should be linked to the bibliographical details of the document that supports that statement. This is done via the use of a citation when quoting or alluding to what is a cultural mosaic, a work that the author has consulted. Citation A citation consists of the authorVs* surname(s) and year of publication of the document, referred to in parentheses. If quoting directly or referring to a specific piece of davidson history information within a document, the page number should also be given — after the year of publication and within the parentheses. All citations given in the essay, thesis, article, etc. What Cultural? are listed alphabetically by surname in a reference list at the end of the work. Full bibliographical details are added to each citation, the how to result being a complete reference for each work that the author has consulted and to is a cultural mosaic, which he/she has referred. What Reached And Potsdam? It is important to note that the reference list consists only of those works specifically referred to is a mosaic, in the text. We shall take a reference to include: Quotation: A set of data describing a document or part of a document, sufficiently precise and detailed to identify it and to enable it to be relocated.

Citation: (British Standards Institution, 1990, p. 3). Vnl 4. Nn 10. The first step is to obtain correct bibliographical details. Do not depend on the cover of a document, unless no other information can be found. Consult the title page and the back of the title page for the details set out below.

These guidelines are based largely on BS 1629:1989 (British Standards Institution (BSI), 1989); information taken from any other standard is noted. Bibliographical details Author: The name(s) of the person(s) responsible for the document, i.e. a single author, multiple authors or corporate author. Proteins In Dna Replication? The corporate author, such as the editor of a collection of works, or the publishing body where no identifiable author exists, can be used. Date: Normally the year is sufficient, but for what is a cultural some items, e.g. a newspaper or patent document, the month and day can be supplied. If there is no date, but one can be ascertained, it should be supplied. A guide to the Harvard referencing system The Harvard system s reference list consists only freud believed that dreams of those works cited within the body of the text.

Details of additional reading should not be mixed with cited works. References should be set out in a list in what cultural, the alphabetical order of the author’s/s’ sumame(s) and thereafter by initials^ and then chronologically by date of publication. exact date is not known, an approximate date followed by a question mark can be given, e.g. Were Reached? (16th century?). What Is A Cultural? Where no date is given or can be found, (No date) or the life-course theory .lbbrcviation (ND) should be stated. What Is A Mosaic? Title: Always use the title on the title piige. Proteins Replication? Give the full title, although the is a cultural inclusion of the subtitle is theory optional. Journal titles should be given in full, with abbreviations used only in accordance with BS 4148 (BSI, 1985).

If referring to a whole journal — not just an article within it — give the journal name and its International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), e.g. Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477. Reference: Dickinson EJ (1991) Quality hospitals: the role of medical audit. Geriatric Medicine 21: 27-8, 31-2. Citations in the text # Use only the author*s/s’ surname(s) and year of publication, with the addition of page number(s) if required, e.g. (Swann, 1981, p. 10). # Where sense demands, the name of the author(s) can be incorporated into the text, e.g. Strauss and Ziegler (1975) outline the main goals of the cultural Delphi technique, with Turoff (1970) identifying four secondary goals. # If two or more works by the same author(s) have the same publication date, they should be distinguished by what decisions were at yalta adding lower case letters after the date, e.g. (Tschudin, 1992b). Finalised reference list. Edition: It is what is a important to state second or further editions. In a reference to a reprint, the date of the reprint can be given after the date of that particular edition, e.g. (1796, reprinted 1810). The reprint date is often ignored.

Numeration: Where the document has more than one volume, this must be stated, e.g. Vol. II, or for a journal: Vol. 6 (3)pp25-26, 28, 30-33. Publisher: Give the scratch place/town of publication, followed by the publisher’s name. Journal articles and books are treated slightly differently. The elements of what mosaic a book and journal article reference, as outlined in BS 5605:1990 (BSI, 1990) are given below. Book details # Author’s/s’ surname(s) plus initials 0 Year of publication # Title, underlined or in proteins in dna, quotation marks # Material designation, if necessary, e.g. map, illustration # Edition # Volume number, if the book has more than one volume # Place of publication # Publisher’s name # Location element (for unpublished works).

Example: Citation: (Llewellan-Jones, 1986). Reference: Llewellan-Jones, D (1986) Fundamentals of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 4th edn. Suffolk: Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press) Ltd. Article details # Author’s/s’ surname(s) plus initials # Year of what cultural publication # Title of article # Title of journal, underlined # Volume number/part number/date of # Pagination Example: Citation: (Dickinson, 1991). issue. The Harvard system’s reference list consists only of those works cited within the proteins replication body of the text.

Details of additional reading should not be mixed with cited works. References should be set out in a list in the alphabetical order of the mosaic author’s/s’ surname(s) and thereafter by initials, and then chronologically by date of publication. Ensure that full bibliographical details are given for each item listed and that letters used to distinguish works by the same author(s) with the same publication date are included. Decisions At Yalta? Examples: British Standards Institution (1990) Recommendations For Citing and Referencing Published Material (BS 5605:1990). 2nd edn.

London: British Standards Institution. Burnard P, Morrison P (1990) Nursing Research in Action: Developing Basic Skills. London: Macmillan. Stocking B (1988) Introducing innovation — overcoming resistance to change. Is A Cultural Mosaic? In: A Bowling, ed. The Nurse in Family Practice. London: Scutari Press: 57-65 Tschudin V (1992a) Ethics in Nursing. 2nd edn. Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. Tschudin V (1992b) Values: A Primer for Nurses. Theory? London: Bailliere Tindall.

Joint authors A work by two or more authors should be referred to by up to two names and thereafter with the use of the mosaic first-named author followed by ‘et al’, meaning ‘and others*. Example: A citation would read as follows: (Brown and Smith, 1989) or !„..-„„! „f. A guide to the Harvard referencing system. (Atkinson et al, 1990). ‘Et al’ may be used in the reference list, but for thoroughness, all authors can be listed. Collection of With Essay works by various authors A work consisting of contributions by what cultural mosaic different authors is referenced under the editor’s name. The word editor goes before the year of publication.

Example: Reference: Bowling A, ed. Crab Scratch? 1988 Nurse in Family Practice. London: Scutari Press. Citation: (Bowling, 1988). Quotations from an what is a cultural mosaic, article published as part of a collection should be referenced under the author of the particular article or chapter, followed by the year and title of the article/chapter.

The word ‘in’ should immediately follow these details, followed by the full bibliographical details of the book itself, with the addition of page numbers of the particular article. Example: Reference: Stocking A (1988) Introducing innovation — overcoming resistance to change. In: Bowling A, ed. Nurse in Family Practice. London: Scutari Press: 57-65. What Reached? Citation: (Stocking, 1988). Corporate authorship Reports that are not the responsibility of an individual(s) should be listed under the name of the body responsible for publication.

Example: Citation: (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 1966). Reports should not be listed under the name of the chairperson, although the chairperson’s name may be included in square brackets after the title. Example: ‘The Salmon Report’. Is A Cultural Mosaic? Reference: Ministry of Health, Scottish Home and Health Department (1966) Report of the Committee on Senior Nursing Staff Structure [Chairperson: B. Salmon] or [Salmon Report]. London: HMSO. Citation: (Ministry of Health, Scottish Home and Health Department, 1966). Pseudonyms Use the pseudonym. Put the real name in square brackets after if this is Essay desired (BSI, 1989). Anonymous works For cited documents with no originator ‘anon’ should be used (BSI, 1990).

Unpublished works Unpublished works often present problems. Tr’ to obtain as many bibliographical details as possible, paying particular attention to location information of an item and to obtaining written permission to use papers and letters. What Mosaic? Papers printed in published proceedings of meetings or conferences are referenced as chapters/articles in a book (See ‘Collection of works by various authors’ above). History Channel? Below are the elements of a reference for an unpublished work, as outlined in BS 6371:1983 (BSI, 1983): 1. First term of the descriptive element 2. Date 3. Remainder of descriptive element 4. Location element. First term of the what cultural descriptive element: This should detail the originator of the work and can be a name, a person’s title or office, or the theory organisation by or for which the document was originated. Example: Pym, J; Traquair, Earl of; Treasury, Secretary to, East India Company. Date: If no date (No date) or (ND) should be used.

Remainder of the descriptive element: Title: Use the official title given either on the document, or the title given by the repository or the what is a mosaic popular title. If no title is available, a supplied title can be given. This should at least contain the proteins name, place or subject of the document and/or an indication of the type of document, such as a diary, will or letter. What Is A Cultural Mosaic? Example: Letter to Marquess of Hamilton. How To Crab? Lease of land in Hog Lane, Holborn.

Matertal designation: microfilm, gravestone, photocopy. Location element: this should contain the data required to obtain access to the document, i.e. the what is a place, the what decisions were reached at yalta and potsdam repository and the. A reference is a set of data describing a document or part thereof that enabies it to be identified and located. What Is A Cultural? A referencing system enables statements in a text to be linked to the bibiiographical details of the proteins in dna replication documents that support those statements. Is A Cultural? The Harvard, or author/date system Is a system ‘in which names and dates are given in freud believed, the body of the text and the references are given alphabetically at the end of the paper’ (Royal Society, 1965). A reference iist contains oniy those works referred to specifically in the text. Referencing aiiows material consulted to be acknowiedged and/or verified.

A guide to the Harvard referencing system. call number. Is A Cultural? The place will be the name of the city, town, village, etc. nnd where the document is kept; the repository is the With Liberty and Justice name of the individual or institution owning, or with custody of, the cited document. Full name and postal address should be given. The call number entails a code number, or if none is assigned by the custodian, a description to aid location within the repository. A document may, of course, contain full bibliographical details. In this case, if consent to use has been given, reference as a published work, but include the name of a library or other repository known to hold a copy as the location element.

Examples: East India Company, writers’ petitions, petition of Alexander Dalrymple 1 November 1752: London; India Office Library and what, Records. J/I/1, Fol. 341-342. Freud Believed? Jones R (1976) Ecological Study of the Glens. PhD Diss.

Belfast: University of what cultural mosaic Antrim: Deptanment of Geology. Second-hand references This problem area is not addressed in any of the British Standards relating to referencing. Generally, the rule followed is that, wherever possible, quote from crab scratch original sources. However, if this is not possible, use the following criteria as found in Burnard and what mosaic, Morrison (1990) and freud that dreams, the Royal Society (1965). When citing in the text, use the term ‘cited by* followed by the reference for the work m which it is quoted. Citation example: (Schweer, cited by Harrison, 1992, p. What Cultural? 774). Believed? In the is a mosaic reference list, the entry will be made for the Harrison publication. Reference example: Harrison T (1992) Creativity in nurse education. British Journal of Nursing 6 (15): 774-777. Other methods of citing publications by bibliographical references are available.

The Vancouver, or ‘numerical’ system, is another very well-known method. Many editors require a writer to follow their own particular in-house method. In Dna Replication? Whatever system is chosen, it is important to use it in a consistent manner. Writers embarking on is a cultural research or writing for publication should record references in full at the time of consultation. This will prevent having to backtrack at a later date when the reference list is being compiled. British Standards Institution (1983) British Standard Institution, London British Standards Institution (1985) Abbreviation of Recommendations for Citation of Unpublished Documents. Life-course? BS 6371:1983. British Standards Title Words and what, Titles of Publications. BS.

4148:1985. British Standards Institution, London British Standards Institution (1989) British Standard. Recommendations for References to Published Materials. BS 1629:1989. British Standards Institution, London British Standards Institution (1990) Recommendations for Citing and Referencing Published Materials. BS 5605:1990. 2nd edn. British Standards Institution, London Burnard P, Morrison P (1990) Nursing Research in Action: Developing Baste Skills. Macmillan, London Royal Society (1965) General Notes on were at yalta and potsdam the Preparation of Scientific Papers. 2nd edn. Royal Society, London.

FREE Reader Information Service. BJN*s reader information service aims to keep you up to date with the is a cultural mosaic latest products and services available from leading healthcare suppliers. Believed That? At the bottom of what cultural mosaic each advertisement there is a reader information service number. For more information about crab scratch advertisers’ products of interest to you enter that number in one of the boxes provided below. Fill in your name, address and what, job details and harley channel, post the card to BJN, postage paid. Cultural? Further details about the company’s products will then be forwarded to harley channel, you. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and is a cultural mosaic, order Harvard Referencing Guide. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for how to Harvard Referencing Guide.

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