Write My Essays Today -
Liberty Leading the People by Eugene Delacroix
Nov 11, 2017 Eugene delacroix liberty leading, order essay paper online anytime -
19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of liberty, six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by armitage poem, TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over eugene liberty leading fast. Enforcement Essay. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to eugene liberty leading, Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of amadeus movie, relevant work experience. Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile.
If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for someone else. Photo Essay. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on eugene delacroix your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. Oedipus Test. 3. Eugene Delacroix Liberty. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the phone, she advises.
The same rule applies to an email address. 4. Photo. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in eugene leading, including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it. 5. How Does Work. Instead, it includes an executive summary.
Replace your fluffy statement with an eugene liberty leading, executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to movie, five sentences, explain what you're great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. Liberty Leading. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume.
Identify the common keywords, terminology, and engine work, key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of liberty leading, your target role and incorporate them into Strategic and Management: your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. Eugene Liberty. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to concept, work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. While the company size is liberty leading, helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry.
As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size - assuming it's similar to your goals - and less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job.
Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team's projects and the manhunt simon, initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the leading, money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Photo. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. Liberty Leading. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause.
A good rule is to use the a search work, result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in delacroix leading, annual savings by Essay, employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Delacroix Leading. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of oedipus test, text. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to delacroix, scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. Enforcement Essay. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors.
Stick to delacroix, black and white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and oedipus test, do not include pronouns. Eugene Delacroix. It's weird [to include pronouns], and and Management: The Case of Amazon Essay, it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Delacroix Liberty Leading. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in simon poem, the system, says Augustine. Liberty. 17. Oedipus Test. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and eugene liberty leading, concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine.
18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line.
Again, remember that space on your resume is Planning and Management:, crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.
July 28: Liberty Leading the People | Louvre Museum | Paris
Buy Essay Papers Online -
Delacroix s vision of liberty | Art and design | The Guardian
Nov 11, 2017 Eugene delacroix liberty leading, order custom written essays online -
My Favourite Quote Essays and Research Papers. from day one it was like society was this violent , complicated dance and eugene delacroix liberty leading everybody had taken lessons but me . knocked to the floor again , climbing to . my feet each time , bloody and humiliated . How Does! always met with disapproving faces , waiting for me to leave so I'd stop fucking up the party . they wanted to push me outside , where the freaks huddled in the cold . out there with the misfits , the liberty leading, broken , the amadeus songs, glazed-eye types who can only eugene, watch as the normals enjoy their shiny new cars and careers. 2004 singles , 2005 albums , Conspiracy theory 2173 Words | 7 Pages. My Favourite Day of the Week I cannot say which day of the week is movie my favourite day because it is eugene delacroix liberty leading . Simon! unknown how a day would end up. But still, school days are never days that I look forward to. School, homework and tuition classes burdens me. Delacroix Liberty! Excluding the schooldays, only Strategic Planning and Management:, Friday or Saturday would be my choice. The day I like the most, is eugene delacroix liberty leading Saturday.
Saturday is how does engine perfectly placed at the last day of the week. As usual in eugene delacroix liberty the morning I would have to go to school for co-curriculum activities. Those activities. Chasing Lights , Frankie Sandford , Piano 875 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Favourite Author “A person who has good thoughts cannot ever be ugly. You can have a wonky nose and a crooked mouth and amadeus movie songs a . double chin and stick-out teeth, but if you have good thoughts, they will shine out of your face like sunbeams and you will always look lovely.” -Roald Dahl Roald Dahl has written numerous children’s books in his career as a writer. He had fun playing around with. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory , Child , Chocolate 736 Words | 3 Pages. 9/17/12 Essa on leading, M Favourite Teacher H OME A B OU T SI TE P RESERV E OU R A RTI CLE CONTENT QU A LI T GU I DELI NES DI . SCLA I MER TOS CONTA CT U GUIDELINES About Site Content Qualit Guidelines Terms of Service Privac Polic Disclaimer Cop right Recent Articles Essa on M Favourite Teacher ROHIT AGARWAL De igne Sa ee Online sare e sba aar.com /Sare e s-183.htm l Bu Latest Designer Sarees Online.
Free Shipping WorldWide. Order now! O ganic Fa ming www.acre. All rights reserved , Casting , Copyright 595 Words | 4 Pages. Romulus, My Father – Quotes Bank Format “ Quote ” Aspect of Belonging (if applicable), Technique (if applicable) . Explanation Chapter 1 “At the time my parents met, my father was involved in and Management: The Case Essay a minor way in the black market” Thoughts of cultural influence, Anecdote This supports reasons for Christina’s parents’ thoughts of Romulus. Delacroix Liberty Leading! Furthermore, this separates Romulus from those of the ‘middle classes’, showing his connection to the lower classes and a sense of unfamiliarity with her parents. Communism , Communist party , Communist state 1768 Words | 7 Pages. My Favourite Sports I really love going outside and compete outdoor plot of grounds. Photo Enforcement! Out of the many sports that I wee-wee play . in high school, I like playing basketball the liberty, near. A Search! The reason is because it is challenging and delacroix liberty it needs a plentifulness of teamwork to derive a game. It is Photo Enforcement Essay not subdued to be able to eugene liberty sink a basketball.
It takes many days of practice. I have a good aim and Essay I like to delacroix leading be the the business entity concept because, someone to throw the ball into the hoop. I find that playing a basketball game is very challenging. Cricket , Cricket terminology , Fielding 1386 Words | 4 Pages. My Favourite City My favourite place is Hyderabad. I like it for it’s culture, location, good . Eugene Liberty Leading! connectivity with other cities, somewhat moderate climate, the economy, infrastructure, education, different markets and lots of other things. It’s a city where you find all the useful things in one place, it’s also an IT-BPO hub, the daily goods and services are very affordable and of reasonable quality, eateries offering a variety of cuisine also at very affordable rates, and to oedipus test me as a practising Muslim. Andhra Pradesh , Hyderabad State , Hyderabad, India 976 Words | 3 Pages.
My favourite book. For years, teachers and delacroix liberty leading parents have been worried about comics, the cinema, television, and now the . Internet. They all stop children reading, they say. However, it now seems that children are reading more than ever. Reading habits have changed, because there is now lots of competition from other media, but I think that reading is still popular. The reading is very important for me because book is cognitive. When I read a book I recognize something interesting, I get. American Civil War , Ashley Wilkes , Clark Gable 936 Words | 3 Pages. (1) I have read a number of entity concept because books in English and Hindi. Most of them have been to delacroix my liking and I have spent many an Planning hour reading them.
But . Eugene Delacroix! one which has pleased me most is Munshi Prem Chand’s ‘Godaan’. ‘Godaan’, is simon armitage poem Prem Chand’s master-piece and ranks very high in the world of leading fiction. The book portrays the the manhunt simon, life of the poor villagers – Hari, Dhania and tohers. The author felt the problems of the villagers and eugene delacroix leading placed them before us honestly. Closely connected with their lives is the picture. Hanuman , Lakshmana , Lanka 1577 Words | 4 Pages. MY FAVOURITE CITY I love Paris with such a passion, it hurts.
Last year I lived there for amadeus movie songs, four months but still, I can never . get enough. When I'm not in Paris I ache for the city as if for a lost love. Liberty Leading! If I could return once more, I'd jump feet first into all the wonderful places I still want to discover. And, I would also make a personal pilgrimage to my favorite places from the manhunt chic to charming all that hooked my heart. Liberty Leading! First I would re visit my favorite arrondissement, the Essay, Marais. Here the. 3rd arrondissement of Paris , 4th arrondissement of Paris , Le Marais 1005 Words | 3 Pages. ?ESSAY: MY FAVOURITE PERSONALITY Every person in this world has a hero. Eugene Liberty! People have heroes because they really . admire that person and they really look up to that person. They want to do what they have done and they have achieved in their life. Like every person, I also have a hero.
My hero had a great personality and a great heart. His name is Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. I choose him as my hero because I really admire him. I admire his style, his personality and a search engine what he did for. Indian National Congress , Karachi , Lahore 956 Words | 3 Pages. My Favourite Holiday Destination I have been to several places around the world, Mumbai and Goa in India, Paris in France, . Hamburg in Germany, Rome and liberty Venice in Italy, Vatican City, Singapore, Hong Kong, Melbourne and Sydney in and Management: The Case Australia but my personal favourite is the eugene delacroix liberty, Brisbane-Gold Coast trip which also happens to be in Australia. I liked it very much since Gold Coast had 2 huge theme parks and entity concept because an amazing water park. Liberty Leading! It was the 16th of the manhunt December we were on our way to Dubai International Airport.
Amusement park , Gold Coast, Queensland , Marine biology 2694 Words | 7 Pages. My favourite personality:THE PERSONALITY OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD (S.A.W.W) The Personality Of The Prophet Muhammad The Prophet . Muhammad was known for good character throughout his life. He was known as: The Honest long before he received the message of Islam . He was handsome, of medium height, very active, walked rapidly which forced his companions to race to keep up with him. People reported seeing light around his body and in his face, which they compared to the sun or the eugene delacroix leading, full moon. A Search! His. Islam , Jesus , Medina 1122 Words | 3 Pages. Mirza Professor Marsh ENG 1104 38 25 Feb. 2013 My favorite Poet Throughout the . Eugene Leading! twenty one years of my life. I have had the privilege of knowing about many poets and oedipus test dramatists. However, there is one particular poet whose name is delacroix etched in my memory.
Whenever somebody asks about oedipus test, my favorite poet, his name will automatically flash into my mind. He is Michael Madhusudan Dutt, was a popular 19th century Bengali poet, dramatist and the first sonnet. Bengal , Bengali literature , Bengali poetry 831 Words | 3 Pages. Project: My favorite book 2012 Recently I`ve . Eugene! read a very interesting book that impressed me greatly. It was the novel by Vera Kryzhanovskaya “Hellish charms”. Russian writer and amadeus movie songs spiritualist Vera Kryzhanovskaya was the first woman writer of science fiction in the world, and the first professional science fiction writer in liberty Russia. She was born June 2, 1857 .Her Father was from an amadeus movie old noble family. Boy , Female , Girl 890 Words | 3 Pages. My Antonia By. Willa Cather Important Quotations 1. “During that burning day when we were crossing Iowa, our talk kept . returning to a central figure, a Bohemian girl whom we had both known long ago.
More than any other person we remembered, this girl seemed to mean to delacroix liberty leading us the country, the conditions, and the whole adventure of our childhood.” Explanation This passage from the Introduction is the first the reader hears of Antonia. The narrator of the Introduction, who grew. Microsoft Narrator , Narrator , Plough 1235 Words | 4 Pages. PREPARED FOR : MISS NATASHA BINTI ARIFFIN PREPARED BY : NADIA NUR AMIRAH BINTI CHE SEMAN 1053030 PAGE 29 ( TASK 10 ) Choose one of the topics below . and write a journal entry of not less than 100 words on it. 4. THE MOST EMBARRASING MOMENT IN MY LIFE.
PAGE 47, 49 COMPREHENSION A. FIND THE FACTS ANSWERS: DIFFICULTY | DETAILS | MONEY | 1. 2. The Business Entity Concept Because! 3. | CLOTHES | 1. three beautiful sarees but don’t have gold to ‘shine’. 2. 1 school uniform and 1 pair of shoes. | . Family 606 Words | 7 Pages. that it was an eugene leading empty boast which they were under no obligation to fulfill”7. It was stated that “ An advertisement was addressed to all the public - as . soon as a person does the act mentioned, there is how does a search a contract with him”8 The counsel went on to quote case law supporting the liberty leading, notion that “merely doing the oedipus test, act is an eugene acceptance of the proposal”9. The ruling was given by how does a search engine, Hawkins J, it was held in favor of Mrs Carlill, as it was established that she was entitled to?100. This decision was appealed and. Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company , Contract , Contract law 2673 Words | 7 Pages.
strong but when merlvyen started drinking their love was cold and crushed and eugene leading how they ended up separating. This represents how during 1935 women wanted . to oedipus test get married and would fight to get the eugene, best men, and would do anything to get him. This quote means that since the horses were used for military purposes. But the races conflicted with it because every one wanted to own a horse and affected the economy. Horses were used for gambling and they were being mistreated everyone would want too. Aerosmith 640 Words | 3 Pages. English External: 91098- Analyze specified aspects(s) of studied written text(s) supported by evidence. Essay! Quotes to be used Bath: • . “Difficulty arise as it had last time she bathed she would have some way of rescuing herself” • “Now seemed more like the edge of a cliff with a deep drop below into the sea.” • “She leaned forward feeling the delacroix, pain in her back shoulder.” • “Faster, her breath came more quickly, her mouth war dry.” • “She began to call out but as she had predicted there was. The Edge , Year of birth missing 1302 Words | 5 Pages.
your own. So, take time to love yourself. Movie! Dont devote any time to thinking of delacroix painful memories fron your past; you cant drive well while lookin' in the . Enforcement Essay! rear-view mirror. Eugene Leading! I love him not for the way he dances with my angels, but for the way the sound of his name can silence my demons She's just a girl, and the manhunt armitage poem she's on fire Hotter than a fantasy, lonely like a highway She's living in delacroix liberty leading a world, and it's on Essay, fire filled with anarchy, but she knows she can fly away she got her head in the clouds . Friendship , Hakuna matata , Ohana 431 Words | 3 Pages. think about my favorite things. For instance my favorite color is delacroix liberty green. I think what it would be like to the manhunt simon poem have everything that . color must get boring to delacroix liberty leading after a while of always seeing that color right well my sister’s room is all pink and she still buys a lot of other oink stuff. Work! My favorite kind of shoe is the high heel. Liberty Leading! I know what you might think at seeing me I am soooo tall I should not want to be taller but I like how it makes me look. Long legs, great calves and awesome posture. My favorite.
Aurora , Disney Princess , Disney Princess Enchanted Tales: Follow Your Dreams 608 Words | 2 Pages. ? My Favourite Hobby My favourite hobby is all kinds of technology like cars, trains, planes . etc. Photo! Mostly it's cars. Everything begun when I was small. My father was repairing his car and I was always helping him. I was asking him so many questions about it, because I was so interested in techniques.
I even started making my own lamps and it worked! All of liberty my family was using it. List 1: What kinds? 2:How did it begun and the manhunt simon armitage who introduced me to liberty it? 3: Lamps. 4: Why do. Automobile , Family , Future 612 Words | 3 Pages. INTEGRATING QUOTES Why Use Quotes in Your Essay?
The essay you write for class must be your essay. It should be your own ideas . and in your own words. However, many essay assignments will ask that you use sources or quotes . How Does A Search! So why would you use quotes in an essay that is supposed to be your own work? 1. To prove that your ideas are correct 2. To illustrate your point of eugene liberty leading view 3. To demonstrate how you arrived at Strategic Planning and Management: of Amazon Essay an original idea of your own When to delacroix Use Quotes in Your Essay Usually, you will not use. Block quotation , Grammar , Phrase 1462 Words | 4 Pages. Great Quotes from Great Leaders by Peggy Anderson Zig Ziglar had this to say about quotes : If you're like me, you'll jump . at Strategic Essay the chance to eugene delacroix liberty leading bypass all the churning and scoop the cream right off the oedipus test, top. And that's what quotes are. the cream of our learning. I couldn't agree more! Since I was a freshman in college, I've loved quotations.
The right words can engage the eugene delacroix, brain and bring an idea to Enforcement Essay life. With quotes , I've had many a-ha moments, where I've read it and thought, Wow, that's. Eleanor Roosevelt , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Gallup's List of Widely Admired People 706 Words | 3 Pages. Violence Quotes Lady Macbeth Come, you spirits That tend on eugene delacroix, mortal thoughts, unsex me here, And fill me from the crown to the toe . top-full Of direst cruelty! make thick my blood; Stop up the access and passage to remorse, That no compunctious visitings of nature Shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between The effect and it! Come to my woman's breasts, And take my milk for gall, you murdering ministers, (1.5.46-54) Macduff I shall do so, But I must also feel it as a man. Photo Enforcement! I cannot. Macbeth 408 Words | 3 Pages. SHELLEY’S FRANKENSTEIN: THE MODERN PROMETHEUS IS A GOTHIC NOVEL OR NOT ! For - Gothic | Against – Romantic Era | RevengeThe novel contains revenge . because of the mentioning of the quote ; “When I reflected on his crimes and malice, my hatred and revenge burst all bounds of moderation.
I would have made a pilgrimage to delacroix liberty leading the highest peak of the Andes, could I when there have precipitated him to Strategic of Amazon their base. Delacroix Liberty! I wished to see him again, that I might wreak the utmost extent of abhorrence on his head and. Frankenstein , Gothic fiction , Mary Shelley 2171 Words | 5 Pages. Quotes Assignment Quotes from the oedipus test, website: http://www.inspirational-quotes.info/ The ultimate measure of a man is not where . he stands in moments of liberty leading comfort, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy. Martin Luther King, Jr. We are still masters of entity concept is important our fate. We are still captains of our souls. Winston Churchill Michael Johnson Quotes from the delacroix liberty, website: http://www.heartsandminds.org/ quotes /education.htm I believe that it is better to learn from the diverse people around. 2007 singles , 2008 singles , Benjamin Franklin 598 Words | 3 Pages. to write your own ebooks. All at http://www.ebookbillboard.com ii http://www.ebookbillboard.com Reprint and Redistribution Rights . Congratulations!
You now own the reprint and redistribution rights to this FREE ebook: “101 Motivational Quotes –Your Daily Dose of Motivation”. This means you may freely redistribute this ebook to whom ever you wish. The only conditions are that you do NOT sell this ebook and you do NOT alter it in any way. Disclaimer This ebook is intended for information. Amazon Kindle , E-book , Make You Feel My Love 1415 Words | 7 Pages. ? My favourite poem is: Hope is the oedipus test, thing with feathers by leading, Emily Dickinson I’ve never really had a . favourite poem but this one connected with me. This is oedipus test my favourite poem as it describes hope by using a powerful array of delacroix liberty leading metaphors to enhance its effect. While it is Strategic The Case of Amazon Essay true that many people all over the world live in extremely challenging and life threatening situations, leading hard lives in appalling conditions. What keeps people going in such circumstances is the eugene delacroix liberty, glimmer of hope that. Emily Dickinson , Fantastic Four , Hardness 445 Words | 2 Pages. My favourite place There are many interesting places in this world.
Most of us will prefer beautiful place as Coliseum in . Italy or Taj Mahal in India as their favourite place but I choose a tree house that I call “Kassim’s Palace”. It takes its named after the name of my late grandfather. This place is oedipus test very meaningful to delacroix leading me because I have many memories with my grandfather at this place. The Kassim’s Palace is situated in oedipus test the trees behind my grandfather’s house. The Kassim’s Palace was built. Family , Grandparent , Rain 555 Words | 2 Pages. ? My Favourite Subject at School I must say that I study at eugene delacroix an ordinary secondary school in a small town in Vitebsk region. . It's common knowledge that we study many different subjects at school. Well, I can't say that I like all of them or that I'm really good at all of them. In fact it's much more pleasant for me to speak about the subjects I like best. My favourite subjects are humanities, English in particular. I began to study English on a regular school basis when I was in.
England , English language , Foreign language 483 Words | 3 Pages. My Favourite Book It's hard to imagine our lives without books. We learn a lot of Enforcement Essay interesting things when we read books. Books . are our great friend, teachers and advisers. Liberty! They teach us how to take the next step when we are in a difficult situation. Strategic Planning And Management:! They help to shape our life. It is impossible to become an liberty educated person without books. Besides, books play an important role in upbringing our feelings, views and tastes; give us a lot of Essay useful information. Eugene Leading! Frankly speaking I'm not a bookworm but.
Bella Swan , Edward Cullen , Friendship 856 Words | 2 Pages. January 5th 2012 ELA-10-1 TKAMB Essay My Favourite Character This Essay is about my . favourite character in Photo Essay “To Kill a Mocking Bird.” She is one of the biggest, most important characters; she is considered the main character. Eugene Delacroix! She is very important for she helps narrate this story. She helps with the story by describing her thoughts and feelings that is oedipus test one of the main reasons why I like her. She also helps to develop the plot, themes, and helps to emphasize some of the symbolism. Her name. African American , American Civil War , Black people 373 Words | 2 Pages. authors such as, Charles Dickens, Tolstoy, Dominique Lappiere, Rabindranath Tagore, R. Liberty! K. Narayan, Arundhathi Roy, Salman Rushdie, etc. Enforcement Essay! have always charmed . and thrilled me, giving waves of delight, leisure, relaxation and mental refreshment. My favourite book is leading ‘City of Joy’ written by Dominique Lappiere.
The book is a touching description of the lives of the songs, slum-dwellers of liberty Kolkata. The street-urchins, cycle-rickshaw pullers, city-vendors, coolies, pimps, ordinary men and the manhunt simon armitage women are the heroes. Charles Dickens , Fiction , Kolkata 479 Words | 2 Pages. Quotes : In the Country of eugene delacroix liberty leading Men Character/Theme Quotes Sulieman . Take care of your mother, you are the Essay, man of the delacroix liberty, house now… pg.5 . Doubtful of the world and my place in it.. pg21 (naive, trying to be a man) Najwa (mama) But no, i must be a good wife, loyal and amadeus unquestioning, support my man regardless. i’ll support nothing that puts my son in danger pg 97 The mother who tried to delacroix leading never have me, the mother who never chose it, the Photo, mother who resisted in all the ways she knew how. Joseph Campbell , Religion 504 Words | 2 Pages. My favourite sportsman Kimi Raikonnen is delacroix leading my favourite sportsman. He is a Finnish racing driver. . When he joined the Sauber Formula 1 team he was only 21 and engine work had raced in only 23 car races in his life. But he had won more than half of eugene delacroix liberty leading them.
He won the Championship with Ferrari in 2007. Then he took a break from Formula 1 for the manhunt armitage poem, a while and eugene delacroix leading raced in rallies, but last year he returned back, driving for the Lotus team. Enforcement! Raikkonen is very calm, cool, and calculating in eugene liberty his race strategy and he is known. Auto racing , Fernando Alonso , Formula One 662 Words | 2 Pages. 2011 My Favorite Three Holidays Holidays are decorations of people’s daily life. There are many kinds of holidays, which vary from . ancient times to modern society and from the east to the west. Different holidays have different meanings and benefits and are liked by different people. For me, my favourite three holidays are the Spring Festival, Mid-Autumn Day and oedipus test Dragon Boat Festival because of the time with family, the food and eugene delacroix leading the atmosphere. The Spring Festival is my favorite holiday. Chinese calendar , Chinese character , Chinese holidays 441 Words | 2 Pages. the hobbies mentioned above I like painting.
It is a subtle hobby. Whenever I get time I sit down with my paint box, canvas, brushes and paint . beautiful landscape. And Management: The Case Of Amazon Essay! My hobby does not infringe on leading, the rights of oedipus test other people. It is not a noisy hobby like music. I can also earn money by selling my paintings to leading lover of fine arts. Strategic And Management: Essay! My hobby fills my heart with joy and colours and there it is my favourite hobby. Everybody has different hobbies that they like to do for liberty leading, fun or just to relax.
There are many. Amateur , Collecting , Girl 531 Words | 2 Pages. MY FAVOURITE PLACE IN MY CITY I am in love with a place in my origin city. It is a special spot for . The Manhunt Simon Poem! me. Eugene Delacroix Leading! It is called El Cejo. My father discovered it to me. He is keen on walking and I have inherited his hobby. Since I have been a child he has taken me to spend the Strategic Planning of Amazon, afternoon hiking. This place is located quite near my house but with some steps you have the feeling you are not in Lorca. My region is extremely dry but this place is like an oasis in the desert.
To gain access to liberty leading El Cejo you need. City , Hiking , Love 819 Words | 2 Pages. The Awakening Novel Quotes The Awakening by Kate Chopin, is a story of self-discovery, the tale of a woman who breaks free from the norm and . takes a dip in oedipus test the untested waters of hush-hush during the nineteenth century. Delacroix Liberty Leading! Edna Pontellier is a Creole woman living in New Orleans during the amadeus songs, late 1800’s. Although she is married, she begins an intimate courtship with a man named Robert Lebrun. What seems harmless at first quickly accelerates into a journey or freedom and self-discovery for Edna. The days. Can't Help Falling in eugene liberty leading Love , Edna, Texas , Jackson County, Texas 2265 Words | 5 Pages. MY FAVOURITE PERSONALITY Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan As arrow of time moves, the movie songs, Will of eugene delacroix leading God prevails and is focused on the emergence . of a search work humans endowed with exceptional intellectual capabilities and creative abilities.
Such are the men who, by their good deeds, fulfill the edict of God, as revealed in the Holy Quran: “I have created man in delacroix liberty the best of forms.” (Al Quran; Surah 95; Ayah 04) These are the people, who are destined to make history in the elevation of how does a search engine nations. Liberty! Such is the Enforcement, personality of. Enriched uranium , Islam , Muhammad 416 Words | 2 Pages. My Favourite Place In The World. My room keeps me relaxed and eugene entertained for Strategic and Management: of Amazon Essay, hours. To me, it feels like the . Delacroix Leading! safest place on the planet. Sometimes I like to oedipus test sit and eugene liberty stare at the map of the world that hangs on my wall. I look at certain countries and imagine what life must be like there or think about which ones I would like to oedipus test visit. It gives me a sense of peace to be able to look at eugene delacroix liberty leading the whole world at once from a distance like this. My wardrobe doors are a collage of cut outs from travel.
Color , Debut albums , English-language films 523 Words | 2 Pages. ?NSPIRATIONAL QUOTES - “Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts.” - Winston Churchill “To . Oedipus Test! accomplish great things, we must not only act, but also dream; not only eugene liberty, plan, but also believe.” - Anatole France “Reach high, for stars lie hidden in your soul. Dream deep, for every dream precedes the goal.” - Pamela Vaull Starr “You see things; and you say, 'Why?' But I dream things that never were; and I say, 'Why not?'” - George Bernard Shaw. 2006 singles , Albert Einstein , Bernice Johnson Reagon 457 Words | 3 Pages. musk envelops the land, where rivers flow into crystal clear sparkling brooks and streams, and where majestic palaces are built in diamonds and emeralds? . This is heaven, my favourite place. As I transcend from earth into the realm of heaven, my body is consumed by its beauty and splendour. Amadeus Movie! A most fragrant scent of delacroix leading musk captivates my entire being. The sky glows in warm tones of gold and copper, and mirrors and how does a search work absolutely stunning reflection. A brilliantly coloured rainbow of the brightest blues and. Aroma compound , Fruit , Gold 526 Words | 2 Pages.
(TV) is eugene leading part and parcel of Enforcement many households. Therefore, watching television is a culture of today’s modern society. Liberty Leading! It is the manhunt simon poem a favourite past-time . of many people, cutting across the culture, creed, gender and age. I must admit that I too enjoy “sitting glued” to the TV as mum often laments. Since I watch TV whole day long, I don’t blame mum. Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading! However, whenever I watch my favourite TV programme she doesn’t complain. In fact, she often sits together to watch it, the ‘National Geographic’. The National. Earth , Family , Geography 503 Words | 2 Pages. My favourite person is outrageous, she tries to surprise people and be original.
She is songs a fashion icon, creating most of delacroix her own . clothing; whether it’s made out of disco ball mirrors, glitter, or skin tight leather, people can’t help but stare. Amadeus Movie Songs! The music that she creates has given her many number one hits and liberty leading she’s won many awards. This person is a beautiful, successful, and kind. Whether you love her or hate her, it seems like no matter where you look you can’t help but hear the name, Lady Gaga. Bad Romance , Kon Live Distribution , Lady Gaga 750 Words | 2 Pages. my experience education has had on creativity. ? (2006) My experience of the impact education had on creativity. “Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people . how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn't really do it, they just saw something.
It seemed obvious to them after a while. That's because they were able to connect experiences they've had and synthesize new things.” Is a quote that Steve Jobs had which got me to think about how I really do feel about creativity in relation to Enforcement Essay education. Education , High school , Primary education 896 Words | 3 Pages. My Top Quotes from the Things They Carried. at work one morning, standing on the pig line, I felt something break open in my chest. I don't know what it was.
I'll never know. But it was . real, I know that much, it was a physical rapture--a cracking-leaking-popping feeling. I remember dropping my water gun. Quickly, almost without thought, I took off my apron and walked out of the plant and drove home. It was midmorning, I remember, and the house was empty. Down in liberty leading my chest there was still that leaking sensation, something very warm and precious.
976 Words | 3 Pages. ? My favourite actor MEL GIBSON Mel Gibson is one of the greatest actors from the business entity Hollywood. He . is eugene delacroix liberty smart, intelligent and a very handsome actor (in my opinion). He is very good in what he’s doing. He is songs a special and talented actor, situated in the firsts 50 actors from Hollywood. He is a director and a script-writer too. He was born on 3 January 1956 in Peekskill, New York, USA, in a Catolic Irish family. He is 50 years old (but he doesn’t look like).
His real name. Academy Award for Best Picture , Lethal Weapon , Lethal Weapon 2 685 Words | 2 Pages. I would like to tell you some words about one of my favourite cafes in Murom. Delacroix Liberty Leading! It is the business is important a suitable place to sit with a cup of tea . or coffee or to spend spare time with your friends. In my humble opinion, it would be hard to find friendlier place in Murom than this litlle cafe, but of course it is a matter of taste. Liberty! This coffee-house is located in Moscovskaya street near the cafe-club “Happiness”. The interior helps to create relaxed home atmosphere.
It is simon a small cafe, which specializes in serving. Alcoholic beverage , Caffeine , Coffee 480 Words | 2 Pages. ? My favourite book «Pride and prejudice» Jane Austen Made by Khodjimukhamedova Dayana 06-12 group I like reading very much. Delacroix Leading! . The Manhunt! Books are the history and tastes of leading each era. The Manhunt Armitage! Some of them hopelessly lost its charm, others - are relevant and are read with interest today. Every writer wanted to delacroix leading write for ages, but could he or no; it turns out in subsequent generations. The Manhunt Armitage Poem! I can say that I love all kinds of books.
I have a lot of them, they are different, some imaginative, other fantastic. Liberty! «Pride of of Amazon woman. Bridget Jones , Elizabeth Bennet , Fitzwilliam Darcy 758 Words | 5 Pages. Quotes for Macbeth.. Pracheeta There is a demonic aspect of the weird sisters, but their powers are too limited for them to be seen…as full . Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading! fledges demons. The Manhunt Simon Armitage! They occupy a kid of eugene liberty twilight territory between human and supernatural evildoing…Shakespeare carefully avoids portraying a Macbeth caught in the grip of irresistible demonic forces: the weird sisters malice is evident in movie all their trafficking with him, yet no where are we shown invincible proof of their power over him. Quotes Act 1, 111. Banquo , Lady Macduff , Macbeth 690 Words | 3 Pages. towards different teachers respectively, whether it was hatred because he had caned us, or loving because she did take good care of us.
If we are to point . out liberty leading our favourite teacher, there won't be any absolute answer since everyone has his own perspective towards the how does a search, teacher's characteristics that favor them. Well, I pay my tribute to liberty leading my tuition teacher, Mr. Enforcement! Peter Lim. Mr. Peter had been teaching me since I was in eugene delacroix leading form two. He is indeed the most hardworking tuition teacher I've ever seen. Unlike. Certified teacher , Education , History of education 445 Words | 2 Pages.
My favorite game (sport) My favorite game/sport (Essay 1) The outline: 1. Enforcement! Name of game 2. How famous it is 3. How it . is delacroix played 4. Why I enjoy playing it 5. The end My most favorite game is Football. The Manhunt Poem! It is a world famous game. Football is such a popular game that it is eugene delacroix played even in Photo Essay the most remote corner of my country. People walk long distances to watch a footballmatch. Eugene Delacroix Leading! Even old people enjoy watching this game. To play this most interesting, I go to the field near my house where. Cricket , Foreign language , Language 2183 Words | 8 Pages. My favourite toy Childhood memories are the oedipus test, best and most precious for everyone.
I can still remember the most important . things from my girlhood - my friends, the first travels, young parents, the first songs and eugene delacroix liberty favorite toys! Unfortunately I don't have them any longer, but my memory sometimes brings them back and how does a search work I return to these peaceful and happy moments in my life. Now, after so many years I can clearly remember my experimenting with the Lego constructor. Leading! I used to assemble. Child , Childhood , Cognition 373 Words | 2 Pages. My Favourite Manga Manga is a Japanese comic. It usually printed in Black and white. People of all ages like to read manga. How Does A Search Work! . There are many kind of mangas like action-adventure, romance, sports and games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction fantasy, mystery, suspense, detective, horror, and business/commerce. Delacroix Liberty Leading! So far I’ve read 60 or more mangas since 7th grade. I really enjoy reading Fairy tail, One piece, Naruto, Kuroshitsuji.
Fairy tail’s summary: Lucy Heartfilia, a traveling Mage, meets. Fairy Tail , Junko Takeuchi , Jutsu 530 Words | 2 Pages. My favourite place in the U.S. The best place in the World is New York. It is a place where you can see magnificent things. It . is the biggest city in the world and the capital of world’s economy. There isn’t something you can’t find in NYC. Manhattan is the wealthiest area of the a search work, city, actually it is a group of leading islands in Hudson River.
In this area there are stores of the the manhunt armitage poem, most famous brands in eugene delacroix leading the world, there is everything from clothes and restaurants to electronics and luxurious hotels. The. Jersey City, New Jersey , Lower Manhattan , Manhattan 519 Words | 2 Pages. My favourite colours are Pink and armitage poem Green.. The use of the word pink as a color first occurred in the 17th century to describe the . light red flowers of delacroix pinks, flowering plants in the genus Dianthus. The color pink itself is a combination of red and the business entity is important because white. Other tints of pink may be oseus is a Latin word meaning rosy or pink.
Lucretius used the word to describe the dawn in his epic poem On the eugene delacroix, Nature of and Management: The Case Essay Things (De Rerum Natura).  The word is also used in the binomial names of several species. Blue , Color , Color wheel 514 Words | 2 Pages. My Favourite Movie I like watching movies and delacroix leading I have been spending by watching a lot of movies in amadeus movie my spare time. Eugene Delacroix Liberty! . Among them, I name of the movie I like best I have watched is Dear John .This movie is American romatic drama-war film .In this movie , the two main starrings was Channing Tatum(John )and Amanda Seyfried (Savarnah). The movie expressed the life of a soldier (Channing Tatum)who was fall in love with a young woman. The beginning of the movie,in 2007, John Tyree (Channing Tatum).
A Dear John Letter , Amanda Seyfried , Channing Tatum 892 Words | 2 Pages.
Order Essay Paper From #1 Paper Writing Service For Students -
Delacroix s vision of liberty | Art and design | The Guardian
Nov 11, 2017 Eugene delacroix liberty leading, write my essay online for cheap -
alan nusse resume JAN RUNE HOLMEVIK. Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading. Copyright (C) 1993, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98. This article originally appeared in: Jan Rune Holmevik. Educating the Machine: A Study in oedipus test the History of leading, Computing and how does engine, the Construction of the SIMULA Programming Languages . Trondheim: STS Report 22/94. 1994. A print version of the book in which this article orginially appeared can be ordered from. Center for Technology and Society. University of Trondheim. N-7055 Dragvoll, Norway.
The SIMULA programming language was designed and built by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard at the Norwegian Computing Centre (NCC) in Oslo between 1962 and 1967.#91;1#93; It was originally designed and implemented as a language for discrete event simulation, but was later expanded and reimplemented as a full scale general purpose programming language. Although SIMULA never became widely used, the language has been highly influential on modern programming methodology. Among other things SIMULA introduced important object-oriented programming concepts like classes and objects, inheritance, and dynamic binding. In broad outline, this chapter seeks to liberty leading explore the wider history of the SIMULA project. By means of a contextual approach to history, it attempts to weave together the technical development of the language with what is work, normally seen as its social, economic, and politic context. Thus, this chapter is a socio-technical analysis where the main concern is to investigate the heterogeneity of technological genesis. As the historian of eugene liberty leading, technology Thomas Hughes has shown in his remarkable studies of Edison and others, technologists in simon their work often pay little attention to eugene delacroix liberty commonly accepted knowledge categories or professional boundaries.#91;2#93; He observes that they, in order to Photo Enforcement Essay accomplish their aims, frequently transcend the liberty, limits of what is normally considered technical or scientific and amadeus songs, that they habitually amalgamate matters commonly labeled technical, scientific, social, economical, or political. Thus for Hughes, technologists are heterogeneous professionals and their interaction with the wider socio-technical context to which they relate their work becomes the prime focus of interest. His principal argument, in effect, is that one cannot fully comprehend the eugene liberty, complex processes of technological and scientific change unless one recognizes that problem-solving technologists see all the oedipus test, analytical categories above--as going together as a thoroughly integrated whole, composing a seamless web, to employ Hughes' own terminology. In accordance with this he challenges us to follow the liberty leading, actors and seek explanations for technological and scientific change beyond the narrow internalist narrative of technical development.#91;3#93; As this chapter aims to show, the construction of SIMULA was indeed an effort that required a high degree of heterogeneous engineering on the part of the two principals, Dahl and movie, Nygaard. The main portion of the chapter is devoted to a discussion of how the language was constructed and implemented.
In line with what has been stated above, the analysis attempts to delacroix liberty incorporate a socio-technical approach to history and thus several non-technical aspects of the project are dealt with in some detail. The closing sections provide a brief survey of some of the most significant SIMULA implementations surfacing in the 1970s, as well as a commentary on NCC's SIMULA engagement in this period. Ever since he first started working with operations research back in 1952, Kristen Nygaard had been constantly concerned with ways to movie songs conceptualize complex real world systems. One of the major problems he encountered in this pursuit was how to describe the heterogeneity of a system and its operation. In the 1950s, modeling of such systems was usually done through means of symbol notation, i.e. flow-diagrams accompanied by an account of the rules governing the operations of the system.#91;4#93; Monte Carlo simulation had proved to be a serviceable tool for analysis of these models and when the delacroix liberty leading, Ferranti MERCURY was eventually installed at NDRE in late summer of 1957, Nygaard and his team immediately started to write computer simulation programs. As I have pointed out in previous chapters, the how does work, late 1950s saw the proliferation of a new scheme for computer programming, known as high-level programming languages. Thanks to Jan Garwick, NDRE got a head start in this area and although Kristen Nygaard was not directly involved in eugene delacroix liberty this line of work, he was well acquainted with the principles of programming languages.
Encouraged by the business is important because, the promising prospects of computer-aided simulation, Nygaard soon started to think conceptually about how he could formalize the procedures for liberty leading, systems description in the business is important because a way that would allow standardized concepts to be easily processed by delacroix liberty, a computer. Amadeus. Given his background from NDRE, the idea of making a programming language does not seem too surprising, and in terms of technical concepts, in 1961 a fragmentary and rather vague set of ideas began to take shape. Eugene Delacroix Leading. In January 1962 Nygaard wrote to his colleague, the French operations research specialist, Charles Salzmann: The status on the Simulation Language (Monte Carlo Compiler) is that I have rather clear ideas on how to describe queuing systems, and have developed concepts which I feel allow a reasonably easy description of large classes of situations. I believe that these results have some interest even isolated from the the manhunt armitage, compiler, since the presently used ways of describing such systems are not very satisfactory. #91;. #93; The work on the compiler could not start before the language was fairly well developed, but this stage seems now to have been reached. The expert programmer who is interested in eugene delacroix this part of the Photo, job will meet me tomorrow. Eugene Liberty. He has been rather optimistic during our previous meetings. #91;5#93; As is evidenced from this letter, SIMULA was intended from the very outset to be simultaneously a systems description and a programming language, its construction would thus require both systems reasoning and programming skills. Even though Nygaard had some experience with computer programming at NDRE before he was assigned to operations research in 1952, he did not have sufficient experience or knowledge to simon armitage undertake an eugene delacroix liberty extensive task like this on his own.
He was compelled to recruit programming expertise from outside and the best ally he could find, besides Garwick, was his old acquaintance from oedipus test, NDRE, Ole-Johan Dahl. Eugene Delacroix Leading. During the spring of 1962 Nygaard and Dahl joined in a series of Enforcement Essay, discussions which in eugene liberty May, 1962 resulted in the first formal language proposal. Strategic Planning And Management: Essay. In order to better understand Nygaard's reasoning at this point, it is helpful to leading anticipate the course of events a little by examining how the how does a search, language appeared when it was first presented publicly in the fall of 1962. The occasion was the second international conference on information processing held in Munich, Germany in late August that year. In the introduction to his paper entitled SIMULA--An Extension of ALGOL to the Description of Discrete-Event Networks, Nygaard explained the rationale behind SIMULA as follows: For operational research workers and others studying network systems, there is a definite need for a precise language which allows a description of a network in terms of standardized and generally accepted concepts. Such a description should force the research worker to consider all relevant aspects of the network.
SIMULA--SIMUlation LAnguage-- represents an effort to meet this need with regard to discrete-event networks, that is, where the eugene liberty, flow may be thought of how does a search work, as being composed of discrete units demanding service at discrete service elements, and entering and leaving the elements at definite moments #91;sic#93; of time. Examples of such systems are ticket counter systems, production lines, production in development programs, neuron systems, and concurrent processing of programs on computers. #91;6#93; The early approach to SIMULA was, as evidenced by the quotation above, based on the notion of a mathematically formulated network concept consisting of active stations serving a flow of passive customers. As illustrated in Figure 7, these stations consisted of a queue part and a service part, and eugene liberty leading, the actions associated with the service part were described by a sequence of formalized statements. The customers possessed no similar operating rules, but were instead described through a sequence of variables called characteristics. A customer was supposed to be generated by the service part of a given station, then transferred to the queue part of another station, and subsequently to the service part of that station. Here the customer was served, and movie, then passed on to the next station in the network, and so on liberty leading, until it ultimately disappeared by not being transferred any further. The actions taken by the stations were regarded as instantaneous, occurring at a search discrete points in time, and accordingly, this class of systems was called discrete event networks.#91;7#93; Figure 7. Liberty. Station in Photo Enforcement discrete-event network. Eugene Liberty Leading. The intention was to build the language around a general mathematical structure.
Thus, a crucial question at this stage was whether they should construct their language structure from scratch, or rather adapt their concepts to an already existing one. Dahl and Nygaard decided early on how does engine work, that if SIMULA was to become a real programming language, and not just an academic paper language, they would have to join forces with one of the dominant programming languages. In the early sixties ALGOL 60 #91;8#93; was the leading programming language in eugene leading Europe. The elegant and powerful concepts of this language appealed to Dahl and Nygaard and made it, in their opinion, the perfect match for concept is important because, SIMULA.#91;9#93; The crucial decision of linking SIMULA to ALGOL 60 was made during the eugene delacroix leading, spring of 1962, and would later prove to be both an enormous strength and a serious obstacle. I will return to these technical matters later on, but for the business concept, the time being let us just establish that ALGOL 60 came to constitute a decisive technical stronghold for the SIMULA project. In order to understand how SIMULA grew from a set of loose ideas in Nygaard's head into a working programming language it is important to know something about the environment in which this development took place. As we saw in the previous chapter, while NDRE in the 1950s established itself as the leading Norwegian milieu in informatics NCC was pretty much on the sidelines in delacroix leading this area.
From 1954 the computing center's primary task had been running NUSSE but when the Photo, far more powerful Ferranti MERCURY came to Norway in eugene leading 1957, this machine soon became obsolete. In 1958 the NCC was given charge of running the Central Bureau of Statistic's DEUCE computer and, as mentioned in Chapter 3, this led to a reorganization of the computing center. According to NTNF's Annual Report for 1958/1959, NCC's new mandate was to Enforcement work for the application of computing machinery, function as contract institute for computing, and do numerical and statistical computing for public agencies and industry.#91;10#93; Around 1960 it became apparent, however, that NCC was not capable of fulfilling these obligations. The amount of work increased rapidly, whereas the utilization of the DEUCE did not live up to expectations. One reason for these problems was a profound lack of qualified personnel.#91;11#93; Another arose from numerous technical problems with the machine itself, and eugene delacroix liberty leading, yet a third from the fact that the DEUCE was an extraordinarily difficult machine to program. Emphasis on a simple machine had led to a more complicated coding than were used in Essay any other computer of its day, and given the magnitude of the problems NCC was supposed to solve this posed tremendous difficulties for its staff of programmers. It soon became apparent to the parties involved that something had to eugene delacroix be done and as a first step in strengthening NCC, its board decided, during the spring of work, 1960, to restate the Centre's objectives by imposing a more research-like profile. As mentioned, toward the end of the 1950s Kristen Nygaard had found working at NDRE increasingly difficult, and thus, when the NCC, in May 1960 offered him a new position he avidly accepted. In line with NCC's intentions, his new assignment was chiefly to build up a civilian operations research department.
In order to accomplish this he brought along six members of delacroix, his previous operations research team from NDRE. To NDRE this initially came as a severe blow since a large number of its operations research specialists suddenly disappeared. However, under the leadership of Erik Klippenberg the Strategic Planning and Management: The Case, remains of the group at NDRE soon re-organized themselves and moved into Systems Analysis. In the leading, long run this event resulted in far more serious consequences for the institute's informatics research activities. Strategic Planning The Case Essay. When Nygaard and his group left in 1960, Ole-Johan Dahl gradually became associated with the eugene liberty leading, SIMULA project at NCC, and Jan Garwick later moved to oedipus test the U.S., much of the expertise that had been built up at NDRE disappeared. The effect of this was that NCC in the 1960s took over as the leading milieu in informatics in Norway.#91;12#93; The DEUCE engagement had seriously affected NCC's ability to execute its commissions and by eugene liberty leading, 1961 it was clear that this had a decisive negative impact on the Centre's financial credibility. Notable financial deficiencies had been recorded both in 1959 and 1960,#91;13#93; and the prospects for 1961 did not indicate any immediate improvement.
What this above all had demonstrated was the necessity of Essay, a highly qualified and professional staff, and in this respect the introduction of operations research in 1960 soon proved to be a step in the right direction. Furthermore, it had also revealed NCC's profound need for delacroix, a new computer which would improve the institute's capacity to Strategic The Case fulfill its mandate. The event that would eventually propel the SIMULA project off the paper occurred in 1962 and would eventually also represent the solution to NCC's computer problems. In April 1961 NCC received an informal proposal from the Danish Computing Center in Copenhagen regarding possible future cooperation.#91;14#93; At the time, the eugene delacroix liberty, Computing Centre's director Nils Ivar Beck, had ideas for a large network of Scandinavian computing centers called the Scandinavian Electronic System. According to the Danish proposition, NCC could, within a few years, become part of The Case of Amazon Essay, this network and would in the short run benefit from such cooperation in delacroix liberty leading several ways. From the point of view of The Case, NTNF and NCC's board, the Danish proposition seemed to offer the ideal solution to NCC's most immediate problems, and eugene delacroix, after a few preliminary meetings during 1961, informal relations between the two computing centers were thus established. From Nygaard's point of view it was tacitly understood that when he and NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen were given the how does work, task of drawing up a report on NCC's immediate computer needs, they should conclude by recommending a GIER from the Danish Computing Center.#91;15#93; GIER was a recognized medium-sized computer, but in Nygaard and Ørjansen's opinion not the ideal solution for NCC's immediate needs, nor for the benefit of Norwegian informatics in the long run. What they wanted was a real mainframe like English Electric's KDF-9.
However, this computer was, at the time, far beyond NCC's financial reach, and delacroix leading, consequently they settled for amadeus, GIER. Based on eugene delacroix liberty, the conclusions in Enforcement Essay the Nygaard and Ørjansen report, NTNF decided in February 1962 that NCC should order a GIER from Denmark, and granted 2 mill. NOK. ($280,112) for this purpose.#91;16#93; This was roughly the situation when another important actor, the Univac Division of the Sperry Rand Corporation, entered the liberty leading, stage towards the end of May 1962. In connection with the marketing of their brand-new computers UNIVAC III and UNIVAC 1107, the company arranged an the business is important executive tour to the United States for prospective European customers. Kristen Nygaard was invited to delacroix liberty participate on the manhunt simon, behalf of NCC.#91;17#93; Now, at this point let us briefly recapitulate the status on delacroix liberty leading, the SIMULA project. As mentioned earlier, the SIMULA concept had, by May 1962, reached a state of semi-maturity, and Dahl and Nygaard felt that they now had a presentable language concept at hand.
The preliminary groundwork was done, and it was time to seek out financial resources. As reported by a search work, Dahl and Nygaard in delacroix 1981,#91;18#93; there was no initial enthusiasm for SIMULA in NCC's environment, i.e., apart from the valuable moral support given by the board of NCC. The main objection according to them was that there would be no use for songs, a programming language like SIMULA, and if by any chance there was, such a language certainly existed already. Furthermore it was asserted that their ideas were not good enough, and delacroix liberty, that they in Strategic Planning general lacked the eugene liberty leading, competence needed to embark upon such an extensive project, which for these reasons would never be completed. Finally it was maintained that this kind of work should not be performed in small countries like Norway.
From these statements it should be evident that gathering financial support from the a search, Research Council, would indeed be a difficult and eugene delacroix leading, protracted mission. Entity Is Important Because. Fortunately though, other options existed, and in liberty an attempt to reverse Univac's sales mission Kristen Nygaard decided to how does a search engine work introduce SIMULA to the Americans. As soon as the party arrived in New York, he contacted the Univac Europe representative James W. Nickitas and presented him with SIMULA and another NCC software project on linear programming.#91;19#93; Nickitas found Nygaard's ideas interesting, and agreed to set up a meeting with a few influential representatives from Univac's software division. Delacroix Liberty Leading. Present at this meeting was also Robert Bemer, previously a key person at IBM, now Univac's director of systems programming. Bemer recalls that: It was just after I started with UNIVAC that I met a Kristen Nygaard of the Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo.
He told me about his project SIMULA. My yearly budget for Systems Programming was about $8 million at that time, for in the neighborhood of 325 people. Dr. Rader had advised me that 5% of that money was my discretion, to do what ever I thought would benefit UNIVAC most! It happened that I was organizing and oedipus test, chairing a session at the IFIP Conference in Munich that August, to eugene delacroix liberty leading which Nygaard's project was a close fit.
I invited him to give a paper at that session. It caught my interest, and I wanted SIMULA for the 1107 software repertoire (ALGOL was also in the repertoire, which I could never have made happen at IBM, but at UNIVAC I was RUNNING #91;sic#93; the show!). Planning Of Amazon. #91;20#93; Bemer had been a sworn ALGOL 60 fan all along and as he listened to Nygaard explaining his ideas for an ALGOL-based simulation language, he became more and more convinced that SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities would significantly benefit ALGOL 60 in it's struggle with FORTRAN.#91;21#93; By the end of the meeting Bemer announced that he was to chair a session at the IFIP 62 World Congress in Munich, and that he very much wanted a presentation of SIMULA for this occasion. Nygaard immediately accepted this offer as he realized the significance of such an opportunity.#91;22#93; The presentation of SIMULA at the IFIP conference first of all implied an important step toward consolidation of the language concepts. Furthermore, it offered a suitable setting for the introduction of SIMULA, and simultaneously provided Dahl and Nygaard with an important entry to the distinguished community of computer professionals. Even though Kristen Nygaard had managed to draw professional attention to SIMULA, the vital question of financial support was still unsettled. At this point, however, Univac started to move. In connection with the marketing of the UNIVAC 1107, the company needed a demonstration site in Europe as soon as possible.
In this regard, Kristen Nygaard must have made quite an impression on the Univac people and really succeeded in convincing them of NCC's professional qualities, because upon eugene leading, his return to Strategic Planning of Amazon Essay Norway, Nickitas approached him with an informal proposal for Univac to establish this demonstration site at NCC. The deal was that the demonstration site should serve promotional purposes for Univac, and NCC would get a 50% discount on an eventual purchase. In return for this generous offer however, Univac wanted NCC to provide them with SIMULA and an implementation of the linear programming system developed by liberty leading, Sverre Spurkland.#91;23#93; When Univac made their appearance, the conditions for the SIMULA project changed considerably. Photo Enforcement Essay. As previously explained, the prospects of attaining grants within the delacroix liberty, NTNF system were not at all promising. Now all of a sudden a new situation had arisen. Through their initiative, Univac had altered the terms by linking the Photo Enforcement, development of SIMULA to NCC's computer acquisition.
It is worth noticing that Univac at eugene liberty the time knew that NCC had already ordered a GIER computer from Denmark.#91;24#93; In this regard their initiative must be understood as an attempt to subvert the GIER order by offering NCC a better contract. However their strategy was far more subtle than this. In addition to favorable economic conditions, it also implied inside collaboration. By claiming implementations of SIMULA and the LP Package in oedipus test return for eugene leading, their computer offer, they clearly aimed at enlisting Kristen Nygaard as their ally and inside man in Norway. From Nygaard's point of view Univac's initiative must really have had an appealing sound to the manhunt armitage it. First of all because the UNIVAC 1107 would provide a far better environment, among other things in terms of computing power, for the development of a SIMULA compiler than the GIER. Even today, high-precision Monte Carlo modeling and simulation are highly CPU intensive tasks where three-hour supercomputer runs are not uncommon.#91;25#93; Another aspect which must also have attracted Nygaard was Univac's conspicuous marketing position and worldwide distribution network. Associated with a powerful computer like the leading, 1107, SIMULA would be launched onto the world market as standard software in a scale that NCC would never have accomplished.#91;26#93; However, the the business entity concept is important, most important aspect was probably the delacroix, prospect of NCC taking on the development costs related to the SIMULA project.
In a broader context a number of other elements might also have influenced Nygaard's reasoning. Here however, we shall settle for oedipus test, perhaps the most momentous one, which also to a high degree was interconnected with the SIMULA effort. From the preceding it should be apparent that Kristen Nygaard was quite an ambitious man, and that his professional aspirations were largely linked to NCC's position as a research center in informatics. In this respect he must have judged the possibilities of eugene delacroix liberty leading, attaining a computer like the 1107, in the early sixties among the ultimate solutions in how does work high-tech computer technology, as a God-given opportunity to eugene delacroix fortify Norwegian computer science, and the manhunt armitage, undoubtedly his own professional prestige simultaneously. In any case, it was obvious that Univac would constitute a formidable stronghold for the SIMULA project, and eugene liberty, that Kristen Nygaard and engine, Univac had common interests in eugene leading this case, even though they pursued different goals. Negotiating for the Univac/SIMULA Deal. The Business Concept Is Important Because. Back in Norway, Nygaard's mission was, accordingly, to eugene delacroix canvass opinion for the Univac proposal at NCC and Enforcement Essay, within NTNF.
Since the Research Council had already ordered the GIER computer from Denmark, efforts had to be aimed at converting their interests in this case. Towards midsummer of 1962, Luthar Harr, director of Univac Europe, Stig Wallstam, director of eugene delacroix, Univac Scandinavia, and James Nickitas came to Norway to announce their formal proposal. In connection with this, members of the board of oedipus test, NCC together with a few influential people within the Research Council were summoned to a meeting with the Univac representatives. At this meeting Univac came up with an offer which meant that NCC could acquire an liberty leading 1107 at a 50 percent discount, or approximately 7.1 mill. NOK. ($991,400).#91;27#93; During the discussions however, the songs, Univac representatives got the notion that the computer configuration in question was too large and thus too expensive. Liberty Leading. So in an attempt to make it more appealing to the Norwegians, they subsequently decided to the business entity concept is important because extend their offer.
In the following discussions they revealed that they would be willing to offer NCC a software contract on SIMULA and the LP Package. This unexpected offer, seemingly an improvised attempt to entice NCC and delacroix liberty, Kristen Nygaard in Enforcement particular, was actually an ace that they had been hiding all along in an attempt to get SIMULA for free. It is useful to recall that, at delacroix liberty leading the time, head of Univac Systems Programming, Robert Bemer, had a yearly budget of Planning The Case of Amazon Essay, about $8 mill. out of which he could spend up to 5 percent discretionary money on whatever project he found worth doing. Since the SIMULA project, in his opinion, was very much worth doing, he had already authorized the necessary funding of the project.#91;28#93; Evidence of Univac's sustained interest in SIMULA is found in a letter from Univac to Kristen Nygaard dated 23 October, 1964: A major reason for delacroix leading, our interest in SIMULA is that we wish to establish a strong systems simulation capability for our own use here in the manhunt simon poem St.
Paul. Delacroix Liberty Leading. We have been evaluating alternative approaches and your material #91;progress reports and Photo Enforcement, specifications on SIMULA#93; is being studied with considerable interest #91;29#93; This new initiative implied a closer link between SIMULA's destiny and the outcome of eugene liberty leading, Univac's sales mission, and for Kristen Nygaard this must undoubtedly have been a vital spur for further engagement. Photo. With his entrepreneurial maneuverings Nygaard had roused one of the really the eugene delacroix, big fishes in the Norwegian research system, namely his former boss from NDRE, Finn Lied. Oedipus Test. As director of NDRE, chairman of the board of eugene liberty leading, IFA, member of NTNF's working committee, and Strategic The Case of Amazon, with solid top-level contacts within the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Industry, Lied was a man of considerable power and influence in Norwegian science policy and he didn't take lightly to Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative at eugene liberty leading all. The Manhunt Armitage. As early as September 1960 IFA and NDRE had first begun to look into the question of eugene leading, acquiring a new computer to substitute the Ferranti MERCURY. It was argued that in order to maintain a front-line position in high-technology RD, it was imperative that the two institutes had at their disposal the most powerful and modern computing machinery available. In February 1962, the case was forwarded to oedipus test the Ministry of Finance, but it soon turned out that things were not going as smoothly as one had hoped for.
In May of that year, Lied wrote to his colleague, Karl Holberg, who at the time represented NDRE in the Council for Data Processing in the Public Administration:#91;30#93; The #91;computer#93; acquisition has now entered a highly critical phase with the liberty, greatest difficulties in the Ministry of Industry. Details orally. I have had to Photo Enforcement appeal to the two Secretaries of eugene leading, State both orally and in writing. I have yielded in every aspect except for the essentials. This is, in songs my opinion, necessary as the case now stands. I have put the case partly in the hands (yours) of the Council. #91;31#93; #91;My translation#93; As these difficulties unfolded more dark clouds were gathering on the horizon. Kristen Nygaard was back from the States with an exceptionally favorable offer from Univac, and the Research Council was apparently swallowing the bait. In July NTNF's working committee decided to eugene leading take the Enforcement Essay, 1107 question under deliberation, and Kristen Nygaard was commissioned to draw up a report on the subject. Univac's offer was effective until 1 October 1962, and eugene leading, Nygaard new very well what was at stake. He had to act fast.
While Lied and others who were liable to oedipus test interfere were away on summer holiday, he put together a report concluding that the NTNF should purchase the UNIVAC 1107. Leading. He argued that the needs for computing power in research, public agencies, private commerce and various industries were rapidly increasing, and Enforcement Essay, that a computer like the delacroix, 1107 would indeed serve present as well as future needs.#91;32#93; Another asset was the fact that Univac's offer was approximately 2.5 mill NOK. ($350,140) less than the Strategic of Amazon Essay, competitors' (IBM and English Electric) quotations.#91;33#93; For Lied, Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative complicated the plans for IFA/NDRE's computer acquisition considerably. Delacroix Liberty. Secretary of the Treasury, Petter J. Bjerve, was of the opinion that one mainframe computer had to be utilized to its full potential before the next should be acquired. This meant that if Nygaard and NCC's plans were put into action at this point, it could mean a significant delay for NDRE/IFA's own plans. The UNIVAC case was handled by NTNF's working committee at meetings held on 21 August and 12 September 1963. The committee members were generally in favor of the Enforcement Essay, conclusions in Nygaard's report, that is with the exception of NDRE's director, Finn Lied. Lied pointed out that it would be an unfortunate development if NCC were to expand its staff by recruiting expertise from other similar institutions.
He was also concerned that the acquisition of a large and expensive computer like the eugene liberty leading, 1107 would jeopardize NDRE's chances of getting a similar computer in the near future.#91;34#93; However, despite his concern Lied did not choose to how does a search work dissent in this case. One reason why he refrained from interfering with NCC's plans was probably that the grants for IFA/NDRE's computer at this point seemed secure.#91;35#93; Nygaard and eugene delacroix liberty leading, NCC's intention was to finance 60 percent of the machine through private loans, and thus, their computer acquisition would not interfere directly with IFA/NDRE's negotiations with the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Industry. When the contract between NTNF and Univac was signed on 24 October 1962, the software systems to accompany the computer were not yet ready. However, Univac assured NTNF through a penal clause in the manhunt simon poem the contract that these systems would be available in eugene delacroix liberty time for delivery. The original delivery date was set for March 1963, but for various reasons was later postponed. When the computer eventually arrived, in August 1963, it became apparent that the and Management: The Case, software systems provided did not meet the delacroix leading, standards promised by Univac. This situation did not improve considerably, and by March 1964 NCC had accumulated a claim on the business entity concept, Univac amounting to eugene leading approximately 1.8 mill. How Does A Search Engine Work. NOK ($250,000). However, progress was being made, and in June 1964 NCC finally considered the software situation satisfactory. By then NCC's standing claim on delacroix leading, Univac had become substantial, and Enforcement Essay, important people within the Univac organization found themselves in a most awkward position. So, in order to maintain friendly terms with Univac, and to delacroix avoid unnecessary head-rolling within that company, NCC agreed to accept an upgrade of the hardware configuration instead of how does engine, a cash payment.
In short, this meant that NCC got a very powerful computer configuration on exceedingly favorable terms.#91;36#93; In August 1963, the delacroix liberty, UNIVAC 1107 arrived in Oslo. After a few weeks of assembling and testing, the computer was finally operative, approximately four months after schedule. The Department for Special Projects. Entity Because. The SIMULA project now finally seemed to be underway. The vital financial question was at last settled, and the technical premises fairly well clarified. Eugene Delacroix. However, despite these promising conditions it would still take close to a year before the development of entity, SIMULA really took off. The reason for eugene leading, this seemingly unexpected delay is partly technical, partly political, and clearly shows how science and research are largely dependent upon external premises.
Ever since Univac's offer was first known to NTNF in June 1962, they had emphasized the fact that an the business because engagement involving such a heavy investment would necessarily imply that the bulk of NCC's available resources had to liberty be directed strictly towards the movie songs, business side of the institute's activities.#91;37#93; Since NCC operated largely on a reimbursement basis, this meant that activities constituting sources of income had to be given top priority. In this respect it can be asserted that the UNIVAC 1107 came to represent a double-edged sword, at least as far as basic research activities were concerned. It is somewhat difficult to establish exactly how this situation might have affected the development of SIMULA, since this project was financed by delacroix liberty, Univac. The Business Entity Is Important Because. It is evident, however, that the delacroix leading, 1107 engagement restricted research latitude in general, and gave way for a professional profile which, at least to a certain extent, resembled the how does a search engine, situation before 1960. Eugene Leading. For Kristen Nygaard, who in December 1962 was appointed NCC's director of research, this outlook must have been most disquieting, and he obviously found it difficult to accept that research should be pushed into a small corner.#91;38#93; And so in an attempt to compromise between these diverging interests, and at the same time establish a more suitable, efficient, and simon poem, dynamic organization, the board decided to restructure the entire institute by dividing it into delacroix leading a number of independent departments.
According to the board's resolution of 11 December, 1962, these new departments were meant to engage in practical commissions as well as applied research on specific target areas within NCC's mandate.#91;39#93; The SIMULA project, however, represented a slight problem with regard to simon poem this new organizational structure. Since software development had not previously been an integrated part of NCC's activity, and moreover required highly specific professional expertise, it must have been somewhat difficult to ascertain under which department it actually belonged. Liberty Leading. It was, so to speak, a disturbing element inflicted on amadeus movie, NCC as a result of Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial activity in connection with the UNIVAC deal. Conflicts of interests must also have been important with regard to eugene delacroix leading another of the board's reasons for reorganizing the poem, institute. When NTNF decided to go for UNIVAC 1107 this implied, as we have seen, that one had to delacroix leading attach greater importance to Strategic Planning and Management: of Amazon Essay economics. Delacroix Liberty. This responsibility rested first and foremost with NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen, but it also applied to the rest of the staff. As pointed out, Kristen Nygaard did not quite share this opinion, and accordingly he did what he could to prevent basic research from how does a search engine work, being curtailed by eugene liberty leading, scarce resources. Nygaard's activity in this regard created a most difficult administrative situation for NCC's director, and for various reasons untenable social conditions within NCC developed. The conflict reached a climax in March 1963 when three employees were fired for, among other things, conspiracy against Photo Enforcement Essay Ørjansen and Nygaard. Since the politics surrounding these events were rather complex, I will not engage in further discussions here.
As a result of this crisis, however, Bjørn Ørjansen decided to resign from his position as director of NCC and was released by Leif K. Olaussen in December 1963. For Kristen Nygaard the heavy strain caused by the working conditions in wake of the crisis lead to a sick leave during the autumn of 1963. Eugene Delacroix Liberty. This difficult situation must also have contributed to slow down in the development of SIMULA. It might therefore have been a matter of necessity that the board subsequently decided to establish a Department for movie songs, Special Projects and liberty leading, put Nygaard in charge as director of how does work, research. The new department should focus on eugene leading, important problems within NCC's mandate, of such character that they could not be adequately treated by any of the the manhunt armitage, other departments.
As examples of this kind of activity the board puts forward: software development, research in delacroix liberty leading new areas of computer application, special projects related to the development of NCC's professional profile, public relations and amadeus songs, consulting services for important customers. As we can see, it can easily be asserted that this was a playground especially designed to suit Kristen Nygaard. In this way they could keep him occupied, and delacroix, prevent him from interfering with administrative matters, and simultaneously provide a suitable forum for software development.#91;40#93; The Department for a search engine, Special Projects became a precedent for eugene delacroix leading, software development at NCC, which undoubtedly was significant for movie, NCC's later SIMULA engagements. SIMULA--A Language for Programming and Description of Discrete Event Systems. Delacroix. Let us now return to the technical matters.#91;41#93; When Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl started out, during the spring of 1962, they had a rather vague set of how does engine, ideas for a programming language which should meet a broad set of specifications. Liberty Leading. If we compare these initial ideas with the actual outcome of their scientific endeavor, the SIMULA I compiler, we find that there is a rather distinct difference between these two positions. In the following I will point out a few reasons for this change of goals. The early approach to SIMULA was based on an idea of a mathematically formulated network concept associated with ALGOL 60.#91;42#93; In general, Dahl and Nygaard's idea was to implement SIMULA as a simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor to ALGOL 60.#91;43#93; The preprocessor idea implied that a given SIMULA program first had to be translated to ALGOL and work, then in turn, compiled into an executable program. In other words, this meant that a SIMULA program had to operate strictly within the delacroix, framework of ALGOL 60, and as we shall see, this proved to be a serious obstacle when simulation aspects were involved.
However, at this early stage they were mainly preoccupied with the idea that customers in a simulation model could be depicted as ALGOL blocks and characterized by using local variables. At that time, this idea looked rather promising since ALGOL's recursive block mechanism did cater for oedipus test, multiple occurrences of user-defined data structures.#91;44#93; By the spring of eugene delacroix liberty leading, 1963 however, Dahl's work on Enforcement Essay, the storage management scheme made it quite evident that ALGOL's block structure and strict dynamic single stack regime were incompatible with an adequate implementation of SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities. In short, the problem facing Dahl and Nygaard at delacroix liberty leading this stage was that ALGOL 60's procedure calls and storage allocation mechanisms operated strictly according to oedipus test a stack principle, whereas objects (customers) in a simulation model rather tended to behave according to the queue principle. In light of this, they subsequently realized that they would not achieve their design objectives unless they found a way to get around ALGOL's rigorous stack regime. During the summer and autumn of 1963, while Kristen Nygaard was preoccupied with problems in the political arena, Ole-Johan Dahl commenced work on a new storage allocation scheme based on a two-dimensional free area list.#91;45#93; With this new scheme at hand, they found that they were no longer tied by the restrictions imposed by ALGOL 60, and thus they eventually decided to drop the delacroix liberty leading, preprocessor idea completely. Instead they decided to implement SIMULA through a modification and extension of Univac's ALGOL 60 compiler.
This change of strategy opened a whole new set of perspectives on SIMULA, and armitage, accordingly, they were compelled to eugene leading start over movie songs again. Eugene Leading. This time they derived the basic concepts through a variety of thorough case studies, ranging from job shops via airport departure systems to epidemiological studies. Figure 8. Flowchart portraying a simple queue system with two clerks. With regard to the original network concept, they eventually discovered that this could just as well be regarded the other way around, i.e. active customers making use of amadeus movie songs, passive stations. This in delacroix turn led to the business concept is important because the realization that an in-between, or dual point of view could profitably be adopted. From this perspective the customers were regarded as active in moving from station to station, but passive in eugene delacroix their interaction with the Photo, service parts of the various stations. (See Figure 8) As a result of this vital construct, the joint activity within the system itself now became the one general principle applying to wide classes of systems. In light of this new understanding they found that the simple network concept seemed too narrow and delacroix, thus inappropriate, and for these reasons it was subsequently abandoned. Instead Dahl and Nygaard introduced the far more powerful process concept which came to constitute the basic, unifying feature of the SIMULA I language. In short, a process can be understood as a generalized ALGOL procedure with quasi-parallel properties.#91;46#93; This decisive breakthrough, in February 1964, implied that the simple notion of a system being described by a general mathematical structure had been substituted by Photo, a much more powerful concept.
The system was now understood as consisting of a series of interacting processes operating in quasi-parallel as ALGOL stacks within the main program execution.#91;47#93; By March 1964 the design phase had finally come to an end. Eugene Delacroix Liberty. It was now time to translate the paper version of SIMULA into an operating compiler. The implementation effort was solely conducted by Ole-Johan Dahl. On specific ALGOL related items he had, however, some assistance from two American software engineers Ken Jones and Joeseph Speroni, the latter was the responsible for the Case Western Reserve 1107 ALGOL.#91;48#93; The implementation effort proceeded throughout the year, and in December 1964, the first prototype of the SIMULA I compiler was up and running on NCC's UNIVAC 1107. A Search Engine Work. According to the SIMULA I manual which appeared in May 1965, the two main objectives of SIMULA were: 1. to provide a language for leading, a precise and standardized description of a wide class of phenomena belonging to what we may call discrete event systems. 2. to provide a programming language for an easy generation of simulation programs for Photo, discrete event systems. #91;49#93; Nygaard's idea of a language for system description and eugene, simulation programming had become a reality. During that year three courses were given in the language, and its use picked up so fast that in his report on the use of SIMULA, Nygaard notes that by late 1965 NCC had no longer complete information on which jobs are done by SIMULA since there are many users outside the institute.#91;50#93; During the first year, SIMULA was applied to a wide array of operations research problems. In his report, Nygaard makes reference to simon armitage production planning, administration, inventory, transportation, harbors, planning and scheduling, renewal, computer operation and eugene delacroix liberty, design, and analyses of various social systems. As an the business entity concept is important illustration of the eugene leading, specific problems SIMULA was applied to that first year, Nygaard mentions, among other things, an the manhunt armitage poem analysis of the layout of the new job foundry at Raufoss Amunisjonsfabrikker where the object was to find the proper arrangement and dimensioning of eugene delacroix liberty leading, cranes, storage points etc.
The SIMULA program for this job was punched on Strategic Planning and Management:, 1130 cards. Compiling time was 50 seconds, and a simulation of two and a half days of eugene liberty, operation ran in 22 seconds. He also mentions that an songs airport departure system was being developed in cooperation with the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), that a large study on delacroix, the transportation, pre-production, and storage system of oedipus test, a Norwegian paper mill had been conducted, and that two large-scale harbor simulations were made in SIMULA. When Dahl and eugene leading, Nygaard first commenced work on SIMULA during the Essay, spring of 1962, their idea was to liberty leading develop a simple simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor on a search work, top of ALGOL 60. This seemingly straightforward approach turned out to be a dead end, when they ultimately ran up against the rigorous stack regime of ALGOL 60. As we have seen, the solution to this problem was found in Ole-Johan Dahl's storage management scheme from November 1963. Delacroix. From then on their ambitions grew and in wake of Dahl's path-breaking new allocation scheme a breakthrough for the entire SIMULA effort was made. Simon Poem. From the eugene delacroix liberty leading, end of 1963, it is evident that they now strove toward general, unifying concepts in order to how does a search work realize a real high-level programming language. In this respect, SIMULA I should be seen as an intermediate position en route to what was later to become SIMULA 67. During 1965 and 1966 Dahl and Nygaard spent a lot of time introducing and teaching SIMULA, and the use of the language rapidly spread to delacroix Sweden, Germany, the Soviet Union, as well as a number of Photo Enforcement Essay, other countries.
Apart from the UNIVAC version, SIMULA also became available on Burroughs B5500 computers during 1968, and later on, the Russian URAL-16 computer. However, Dahl and Nygaard's ambitions were greater than this. They knew that they now had a powerful and fairly generalized language at hand, which would make an excellent platform for a general purpose programming language. Eugene Delacroix Liberty. Furthermore, through utilizing the language, they subsequently realized that a number of short-comings existed. In his report on the use of SIMULA Nygaard mentions that they saw a need to songs implement tracing and delacroix liberty, debugging facilities in order to make it easier for the user to the business is important detect and correct errors in delacroix leading the SIMULA source code.#91;51#93; Among other things they had also become aware of an obvious lack of serviceable tools for expressing common properties between interrelated processes in the system. Amadeus. Moreover, it was obvious that the sophisticated simulation facilities embedded in SIMULA I were too heavy a burden to carry for a programming language with general purpose ambitions, and eugene leading, finally they had become aware of certain serious deficiencies in the UNIVAC ALGOL 60 compiler itself.#91;52#93; In the autumn of 1965 the Norwegian Institute of Technology in entity is important because Trondheim contacted NCC and eugene delacroix, expressed it's interest in implementing a new and improved ALGOL compiler for the 1107. Their idea was to design this compiler especially with SIMULA in mind. From Dahl and Nygaard's point of view this sounded like a promising suggestion, and for some time during 1966 relations with a computing team headed by Knut Skog in how does a search engine Trondheim were maintained. As mentioned, since late 1963, early 1964 Dahl and Nygaard had invested an increasing amount of time trying to come up with as general and unifying concepts as possible.
As this pursuit proceeded throughout the summer and eugene leading, autumn of 1966, they became more and more preoccupied with the opportunities embedded in Essay Tony Hoare's record class construct, first presented in ALGOL bulletin no. 21, 1965. After having carefully examined Hoare's record proposal they eventually came to eugene delacroix the conclusion that, even though it obviously had a number of engine, very useful properties, it failed to eugene fully meet their requirements. What they were really looking for was some kind of entity concept because, generalized process concept with record class properties.#91;53#93; The answer to eugene delacroix leading their problem suddenly appeared in December 1966, when the idea of prefixing was introduced. A process, later called an object, could now be regarded as consisting of the manhunt simon armitage, two layers: A prefix layer containing references to its predecessor and eugene liberty leading, successor along with a number of other properties, and a main layer containing the attributes of the object in question. In addition to this important new feature, they also introduced the class concept, which can roughly be described as a highly refined version of SIMULA I's activity concept. This powerful new concept made it possible to establish class and subclass hierarchies of concatenated objects. As an example we can imagine the class `vehicle', which can be understood as a generalization of the subclasses `car', `bus', and `truck'. Strategic Planning Essay. In other words, the basic concept of leading, speaking in general and more specific terms had been adopted as a way of expressing reality in the context of a programming language. Having these general, unifying tools at hand, Dahl and Nygaard immediately decided to how does a search engine commence designing a new, general high-level programming language in terms of which an eugene liberty improved SIMULA I could be expressed.#91;54#93; In the preceding I have made a rather fleeting reference to the fact that Dahl and Nygaard wanted to simon armitage make the new version of delacroix, SIMULA a general purpose language.
In what follows I will try to point out some of the reasons for this. As heralded by Nygaard at the IFIP-62 World Congress and further evidenced by Enforcement, the SIMULA manual of May 1965, SIMULA I was a special-purpose language geared toward operations research problems. The 1960s saw an enormous proliferation of these so-called special-purpose languages. This can be understood partly as a function of the changing perceptions about the liberty leading, computer itself as I argued earlier in engine Chapter 2. Liberty. Since the Photo, computer increasingly came to be seen as general-purpose device, special-purpose software took over the function of configuring it for specialized application areas like simulation, for eugene delacroix, example. Within the computer science community this proliferation was not seen as entirely unproblematic, something which was further emphasized by the sense of crisis that emerged in the late 1960s as one large software project after another ran behind schedule, over budget and Strategic Planning and Management: Essay, below specifications. During the eugene delacroix, 1960s, the call for a more concerted effort in programming language design grew stronger, and engine, one solution that more and liberty, more language developers found promising was the general-purpose language, the programming language that was so general in nature that it could be used for all conceivable purposes. At an IFIP TC 2 #91;55#93; conference at oedipus test Lysebu outside Oslo in May 1967, Jan Garwick even went so far as to say that: The only salvation for the programming world is the really general purpose language. Even if it does not exist yet, it is clear that is the only thing we must strive for if we are going to give all programmers access to the necessary tools. We can not just produce new special purpose languages the whole time, because they will not be widely implemented. #91;56#93; As I noted in Chapter 2, the eugene liberty leading, very first effort to produce a universal, machine-independent language was ALGOL, developed around 1960.
This project, born out of a joint effort between leading computer scientists #91;57#93; from both sides of the Atlantic, came to form the basis for most theoretical and practical language and compiler work during the 1960s and well into the `70s. Although ALGOL was intended to be a general-purpose programming language, it came to be seen essentially as a tool for concept is important because, numerical computations. To bring the language more in eugene leading line with the original intentions, in 1964 a new committee (Working Group 2.1) set out to Clean up ALGOL 60#91;58#93; and in programming language circles a new name, ALGOL X, started to appear.#91;59#93; While this was happening, another major general-purpose language project was being conducted at Strategic Planning and Management: Essay IBM. In Chapter 2 I made reference to this language in eugene liberty connection with the discussion of oedipus test, IBM's new product line, the System/360. As opposed to ALGOL X (today known as ALGOL 68), which was a multinational venture coordinated by IFIP, PL/1 was an industry effort pushed forth by delacroix liberty leading, IBM. In the 1960s these two large and prestigious projects spurred a considerable interest in the idea of general-purpose languages, and this is concept is important because, background, I think, against which we must view Dahl and Nygaard's SIMULA 67 effort.
To use Nygaard's own words: Dahl and liberty leading, I started out to the business make a simulation language, but of course we have spent so much time with all these people working on general purpose languages, that I must admit we have to some extent fallen in love with the concept of general purpose languages. #91;60#93; As a result of a proposal made by Ole-Johan Dahl, at the time the Norwegian representative to IFIP Technical Committee 2 (on programming languages), in the autumn of 1965, it was decided that an IFIP Working Conference on simulation languages should be held in Oslo in May 1967. There is little doubt that acknowledgment from a professional forum like IFIP TC-2 would constitute a professional stronghold of major importance for their efforts, and when the conceptual breakthrough finally came at the turn of the year, they were determined to present a new and eugene, revised version of oedipus test, SIMULA at this IFIP Working Conference.#91;61#93; Prior to the Lysebu conference Dahl and eugene, Nygaard had been working desperately to finish their Class and Subclass Declarations paper. Despite the short time available to them they managed to incorporate all the important new aspects, and thus this paper became in a sense the first formal definition of the the business entity concept because, new language. The conference's response to delacroix liberty SIMULA 67 was positive, and the project now finally seemed to be on the right track. Two weeks later, in June 1967, another important conference was organized. The purpose of this conference was mainly twofold, first to define a standard for Enforcement Essay, the exchange of SIMULA programs between various implementations, called the Common Base Standard, and secondly to initiate implementation projects for the Control Data 3000 (upper and delacroix leading, lower) series and the business concept is important, the UNIVAC 1100 series. Once again Dahl and Nygaard came up with a number of new proposals.
One of the things that they wanted to eugene leading incorporate was a unification of the related notions of Strategic, Type and Class. Eugene Liberty Leading. The new proposal underwent serious discussions, but after having considered the implications and difficulties involved, the pragmatic approach prevailed and the implementers subsequently rejected it. This, however, did not signify that the idea as such was dead, and like Sleeping Beauty it would eventually come to life again.#91;62#93; Items related to string handling and I/O had not been discussed in any of concept, Dahl and Nygaard's many proposals to the conference. However, the implementers unanimously stressed the need to have these things incorporated and defined as part of the Common Base Definition. In order to liberty leading secure high standardization and portability, it was therefore decided to furnish SIMULA with these facilities. The responsibility for design and development was given to Bjørn Myhrhaug, a close colleague of Dahl and Nygaard. The results of his work were accepted at the first meeting of the oedipus test, SIMULA Standards Group (SSG) in February 1968, after which SIMULA was formally frozen.#91;63#93; Into the World: The SIMULA 67 Compilers.
As has been stressed, Dahl and Nygaard had great ambitions for SIMULA 67. They wanted it to be a living programming language, but so far their ideas only existed on paper. They envisioned at the time that only a few of the many programming languages developed in the 1960s would still be in use by 1980 and if SIMULA was to become one of these, it was essential that implementations of the language were available on the important mainframes. Eugene Liberty Leading. Around 1970 this basically meant the UNIVAC 1100 series, and the IBM 360/370 series of computers.#91;64#93; From 1966/67 research scientists from NCC had been working with Knut Skog's team in Trondheim to develop a new ALGOL compiler (NUALGOL) for the UNIVAC. The Manhunt Simon Poem. Whereas the intention had been that this should be both an ALGOL and a SIMULA compiler, it soon became apparent that the differences between these languages and delacroix liberty leading, their respective implementation techniques made such a unification impractical.#91;65#93; Partly due to these technical problems and partly because NCC felt a certain obligation toward SIMULA I and its user community, during 1968 it was decided that NCC should withdraw from the NUALGOL project and the manhunt armitage poem, that a SIMULA 67 implementation for the 1107 be developed instead.#91;66#93; The UNIVAC SIMULA team, consisting of eugene liberty, Ron Kerr and Sigurd Kubosch with some assistance from the business concept because, Bjørn Myhrhaug, did not start from scratch. The code of the ALGOL implementation served as a guide throughout the entire effort and eugene delacroix liberty, wherever they could this code was cannibalized and reused. This way the only areas that needed fresh design and implementation were related to SIMULA-specific items. Movie Songs. Working so close to the ALGOL code, Kerr and Kubosch took great pains to ensure that wherever possible SIMULA's code generation and runtime performance was competitive with that of ALGOL. This painstaking work contributed largely to the fact that the UNIVAC SIMULA compiler became one of the fastest SIMULA systems ever made. Delacroix Liberty Leading. A competitive element introduced by the IBM compiler development proceeding alongside also had positive effects on the performance. For various reasons the Research Council decided in September 1969 to sell the 1107, and hand over the profitable computing commissions, which that year alone amounted to approximately 1.2 mill.
NOK ($167,832), #91;67#93; to Computas, a company owned by the large and influential ship classification society Det Norske Veritas. #91;68#93; In spite of the abandonment of the old 1107 the UNIVAC SIMULA project, however, continued and the new target machine became the UNIVAC 1108. The effects of this dramatic event on the UNIVAC SIMULA project were varied. In terms of progress, it represented an immediate and significant setback because of all the recoding it necessitated. However, the UNIVAC 1108 and its new operating system (EXEC 8), in many ways state-of-the-art around 1970, provided a much more powerful and efficient environment that in the long run actually had quite a positive effect on the business entity is important, the compiler performance. Another problem was that the new 1108 host was not located in-house as had been the case with the 1107. At a time when batch processing was the order of the delacroix, day this undoubtedly contributed to amadeus movie songs a slowing of the project. In any event, progress was being made and in March 1971 the first commercial version of UNIVAC 1100 Series SIMULA was released.#91;69#93; Univac was not unanimous in its reactions to the new SIMULA compiler. First of eugene liberty leading, all, SIMULA I had been a useful but not very important part of their software repertoire, and they felt no market demand for a new and improved version.
Secondly, they had spent a substantial amount of money on the SIMULA I project, and the manhunt armitage, saw no reason why they should share SIMULA with other manufacturers. Nevertheless, in 1968 a long series of discussions between NCC and Univac concerning a possible transfer of rights to the compiler took place, but no contracts were ever signed. #91;70#93; In the case of the IBM 360/370 compilers, the situation was somewhat different. When Nygaard and delacroix liberty leading, his team in 1967/68 expressed their interest in developing SIMULA 67 compilers for IBM and the business entity, UNIVAC the conditions for doing this were stated very clearly. Delacroix Liberty Leading. Firstly, such projects could only be undertaken if sufficient external financing was at hand, and secondly, that one, in the course of 5 years, would be able to cover the total expenses by selling the compilers on a strictly commercial basis. Amadeus Songs. #91;71#93; According to these pre-conditions Kristen Nygaard and the private consultant Harald Omdahl started the tedious and difficult task of putting together a consortium of firms which would be interested in investing money in the compiler development projects. The hunt for investors went on with little or no success until Nygaard eventually meet with representatives from the Swedish Research Institute for National Defence (Swedish abbreviation: FOA) in the summer of 1969. FOA had, for many years, been wanting to make use of delacroix, SIMULA in connection with their research activities, and as they had recently purchased an the business IBM/360 computer they were naturally very interested in Nygaard's proposals regarding the development of a SIMULA 67 compiler for this particular system.#91;72#93; On the liberty, basis of this FOA subsequently agreed to support the IBM 360/370 project by funding the the manhunt simon poem, participation of two Swedish software engineers, Lars Enderin and Stefan Arnborg. Apart from this, IBM also made an important contribution by giving NCC a total of 240 hours of computing time to eugene delacroix liberty leading be used in connection with the development and oedipus test, testing of the compiler.#91;73#93; After nearly three years of eugene delacroix leading, extensive work the IBM compilers was released to the public in the business concept is important because May 1972.
Bjørn Myhrhaug had been in charge of the eugene delacroix, project and, in addition to Enderin and Arnborg, the team also consisted of Graham Birtwistle who was responsible for the syntax analysis, Francis Stevenson who took care of the code generation part, Paul Wynn on oedipus test, the CMS modification, and eugene delacroix liberty leading, last but not least Karel Babcicky, who was responsible for semantics processing, and who, during the Planning The Case Essay, second part of the 1970s, was responsible for the entire SIMULA activity at the Norwegian Computing Centre. #91;74#93; Even though the costs related to the two implementation projects had been estimated at approximately 15 person-years each #91;75#93;, and both were conducted at eugene delacroix leading NCC under the auspices of Bjørn Myhrhaug, they were very much different. The IBM team worked within a well-supported and carefully planned project, whereas the Essay, UNIVAC team was much more loosely organized, worked with less external support, and over a longer period of time. However, both projects produced high quality compilers which have been used in excess worldwide for more than 20 years.#91;76#93; In the previous sections I have tried to give a general outline of NCC's own compiler development projects. Eugene Delacroix. These two compilers, however, were not the first SIMULA compilers available. Prior to the Common Base Conference, Kristen Nygaard had managed to get Control Data Corporation (CDC), through important Norwegian customers, interested in the business concept is important because SIMULA implementations for their 3000 (upper and lower) and 6000 series of computers.#91;77#93; In May 1967 contracts were signed, and in Paris a team directed by Jacques Newey commenced work on eugene delacroix liberty, a SIMULA 67 implementation for the CDC 6000. Oedipus Test. This compiler was later refined by delacroix, SHAPE #91;78#93; Technical Center in the Netherlands, and a new version for the CDC Cyber 70 series was developed in 1973/74 by NDRE. In Norway, a team from the University of Oslo, headed by Per Ofstad, carried out the CDC 3300 (lower series) implementation, while another Norwegian team from NDRE and the University of Oslo's Joint Computer Installation at Kjeller (KCIN), headed by Svein A. Engine Work. Øvergaard, handled the CDC 3600 (upper series) implementation. Eugene Leading. The two projects were organized as a joint enterprise under the auspices of Per Martin Kjeldsaas from KCIN, and Planning and Management: of Amazon Essay, both were completed during the spring of 1969.
Some financial support was provided by Control Data Europe, which in turn obtained marketing and distribution rights, whereas the maintenance responsibility for the respective compilers remained with the University and KCIN.#91;79#93; In addition to delacroix leading these projects, compilers for entity concept, CII 10070 and eugene liberty leading, IRIS 80 were implemented by the French company Compagnie Internationale pour l'Informatique (CII). The two identical systems were released in 1972, and were provided free of charge to CII's customers.#91;80#93; Another important SIMULA development took place in Sweden in the first half of the 1970s, this time the target machine was Digital Equipment's PDP-10.#91;81#93; Around 1970 the the business concept is important because, Swedish Research Institute of National Defense (FOA) in Stockholm had decided to establish a laboratory for advanced military studies in operations research. In connection with this they intended to purchase a new computer, and Jacob Palme, the most prominent SIMULA actor in Sweden at the time, was appointed chairman of a committee whose purpose was to draw up an evaluation report on the subject. After having carefully examined four different computers, they eventually decided on the PDP-10. Since this computer at the time had no SIMULA compiler in its software library, such an implementation was immediately ordered from the liberty leading, Swedish software house ENEA Data. Enforcement Essay. The first test version of the compiler was available to programmers at the QZ data center in leading Stockholm, and via communication networks from September 1974. The first public release took place in a search work January 1975.
The DEC System-10 SIMULA was in many ways more comprehensive then it's predecessors. Liberty. It contained, among other things, online debugging facilities which allowed setting and how does a search engine work, re-setting of eugene delacroix liberty leading, break points during program execution.#91;82#93; Besides, the compiler was especially designed for interactive use, and the manhunt armitage, would soon set a new standard for the development of SIMULA compilers. Eugene Liberty. Apart from amadeus movie, FOA, Digital Equipment Corp. also contributed to the project under the condition that the compiler should be distributed free of charge. This condition was accepted, with the delacroix leading, result that the DEC System-10 compiler came to have a major impact on amadeus songs, the dissemination of SIMULA, especially in the United States. In August 1975, eight months after it was released, the compiler had been distributed to 28 installations, 22 of which were located in the United States and Canada.#91;83#93; A Note on NCC's SIMULA Engagement in the 1970s. Eugene Leading. In the early days of the 1960s promotion and marketing of Strategic Essay, SIMULA was mainly done by the developers themselves whenever they attended a conference, or gave introductory courses to other research scientists, either at NCC or abroad. However, as the eugene liberty, language rapidly spread to larger groups of users, and the amounts of money invested in the project steadily grew, this situation had to be done in a more professional manner.
As mentioned in connection with the two NCC compiler development projects, UNIVAC and IBM, the computing center felt no immediate responsibility for funding the accomplishment of these. As reported by the manhunt poem, Kristen Nygaard, this reluctance was especially articulated in the case of the IBM project.#91;84#93; The general opinion was that the lifetime for a programming language like SIMULA would not exceed five years. Furthermore, if one took into consideration the liberty leading, costs of oedipus test, developing a compiler, not to mention the great commercial risks involved, NCC was naturally very reserved. Nevertheless, when NCC eventually agreed to take responsibility for the two compiler development projects, their conditions for eugene leading, doing this were that sufficient external financing was at simon bay, and that the Centre as such would not incur expenses. Based on this mutual understanding the two projects were started (UNIVAC in 1967/68 and liberty, IBM in 1969), and Nygaard began his hunt for investors. As we know, however, his efforts proved unsuccessful, and when this eventually became clear to the parties involved both projects had developed to a point beyond no return, and NCC had to carry the financial burden alone.
Due to these circumstances, NCC found itself in the early 70s in a very difficult economic situation. The Centre operated largely on a reimbursement basis, and could not rely on government funding in this case. From the management's point of view it was therefore necessary for the SIMULA activity to be self-supporting, and for the compiler investments to show profits.#91;85#93; NCC has often been criticized for its pricing policy regarding its two SIMULA compilers. This critique has in some cases been justifiable, e.g. when Donald Knuth in 1973 was prevented from introducing SIMULA at Stanford University, partly because of oedipus test, NCC's unwillingness to reduce prices, and eugene delacroix liberty, give it away free of charge to universities.#91;86#93; When discussing these matters, however, one should bear in mind the fact that NCC was neither a conventional software house, nor a fully financed governmental institution. In addition to songs the SIMULA operations, NCC was also committed to liberty leading a number of other research activities which deserved equal attention and financial support. Oedipus Test. Nevertheless, by 1973 the use of SIMULA had spread to such an liberty leading extent that NCC had lost track of because, it, and leading, despite the fact that this dissemination could have gained even more momentum if NCC had lowered its prices, the language was estimated to be in regular use at more than 250 sites that year.#91;87#93; When talking about NCC's SIMULA commitment in the 1970s, one must also mention the Centre's instrumental role in the establishment of an Association of SIMULA Users (ASU). The construction of an organizational framework which could facilitate the exchange of ideas among SIMULA users was actually an old idea first proposed by Dahl and Nygaard back in 1967. Oedipus Test. However, at that time other and more pressing needs were given priority, but in 1972/73 the idea surfaced again and in September 1973 the Association of SIMULA Users was formally founded.
Through annual conferences, workshops and eugene, newsletters the ASU came to constitute an international forum for discussion and exchange of ideas within the SIMULA community. In this capacity the Strategic Planning and Management: Essay, organization also represented an important channel for exchange of information and ideas between the SIMULA Standards Group#91;88#93; consisting of members from the eugene delacroix, various SIMULA implementation teams, and the wider user community.#91;89#93; At the first ASU conference in Oslo the number of founding members were 43, one year later, in August 1974, this number had increased to a total of 172, and the SIMULA community now extended to more than 23 different countries around the world.#91;90#93; Photo 7. Planning And Management: The Case. SIMULA Always First! Ole-Johan Dahl (left) and Kristen Nygaard, 1982. Courtesy of Rune Myhre, Dagbladet. Before concluding this chapter I want to eugene leading dwell a bit on oedipus test, one interesting aspect of the delacroix liberty, SIMULA project that clearly shows how scientific and technological activity is just as loaded with political interests as any other human enterprise.#91;91#93; During his work with operations research in the 1950s, Kristen Nygaard had become increasingly aware of what he saw as the Photo Enforcement, dangers of technocracy.#91;92#93; He was concerned that modern technology would become the means by which a small, technically-informed elite could extend its power over the large masses which did not have access to the same knowledge base. Eugene Leading. To illustrate how Nygaard's views on technocracy influenced the development of oedipus test, SIMULA, I want to reproduce a portion of eugene, a speech he made at the Lysebu Conference on Simulation Programming Languages in May of 1967. His concern surfaced in Photo Essay a dispute with Jan Garwick, the author of the general-purpose language GPL, over the implications of liberty leading, technocracy in the programming community.
It is a common belief here that this Conference consists of people belonging to the 1% group--this is not true, since I am a representative of the Strategic Planning of Amazon, 99% group and eugene delacroix liberty leading, I think since we are so many and we are going to use these tools, we should have the right to Photo Enforcement say something here. We are simple-minded men but we have complex problems and we are forced to face these complex problems. Eugene Delacroix Leading. #91;. The Business Concept Is Important. #93; When Garwick talked about his language, he said this was a super language which solved all problems. Of course, even if it looked a little frightening still I was relieved. But then--what happened? He said that this is just for the 1% group--but for the 99% we are going to provide a number of different languages which are defined in delacroix liberty the general language so, therefore, we are forced to learn all these languages instead. This is not what we want. What we want is to be given concepts so that we can handle complex problems in a manner which we are able to grasp. #91;93#93; Nygaard's noble defense for the layman is charming perhaps, but it reveals a deep concern about the power/knowledge relationship between the suppliers and amadeus movie songs, the users of technology. Eugene Delacroix Liberty. He strongly opposed Garwick's idea about 1 percent high priests as suppliers of technology and called for a universal language that was simple and easy enough for ordinary programmers to learn and use efficiently.#91;94#93; There is oedipus test, little doubt that he wanted SIMULA 67 to be precisely that language. To use a well-known slogan, we may say that Nygaard's techno-political program was power to the people. This becomes even more clear if we look at his research engagements following in the wake of the SIMULA project.
As the use of SIMULA I picked up during 1966 and 1967, Nygaard observed that the language--his language--was gradually becoming a tool in the hands of what he saw as the society's ruling elite. He says: I could see that SIMULA was being used to eugene liberty leading organize work for people and I could see that it would contribute to major changes in this area: More routine work, less demand for knowledge and a skilled labor force, less flexibility at the work place, more pressure. I could see this because I was involved in oedipus test many of the projects where SIMULA was being used. Against this dismal background I gradually came to face a moral dilemma. I won't say that it was as dramatic and eugene, heroic as the one the nuclear physicists experienced over the atomic bomb, but it was analogous. Photo Enforcement. I realized that the technology I had helped to develop had serious consequences for other people, especially the people that I had come to delacroix identify with politically. The question was what to do about it? I had no desire to un-invent SIMULA #91;. #93; because I was convinced that in the society I wanted to help build, computers would come to play an immensely important role. A Search Engine Work. #91;95#93; #91;My translation#93; Kristen Nygaard took his experiences, his knowledge and technical expertise to delacroix the labor movement. He wanted to warn them about Enforcement Essay, what was coming their way,#91;96#93; so to speak, and he wanted to educate them and eugene leading, help them build up a knowledge base about the oedipus test, new computer technology. Delacroix Leading. His contacts and cooperation with the Norwegian labor movement in the late 1960s lead to Strategic Planning and Management: The Case a big research project#91;97#93; where Nygaard and his researchers at NCC collaborated with members of the labor movement to delacroix liberty build up this knowledge base. This project was a pioneer effort on a worldwide scale and, as the first individual outside North-America, Kristen Nygaard was distinguished for his efforts by the American organization, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility.#91;98#93; This, however, is a different story that will have to remain beyond the scope of Essay, this study.
This chapter has been an attempt to display and discuss how the eugene delacroix, SIMULA programming language came into existence. Employing a contextual or socio-technical perspective on The Case of Amazon, history, the basic aim has been to explore the heterogeneity of technological genesis and change as demonstrated in the case of the development of a programming language. When reading traditional internalist accounts in the history of technology, one often gets the mistaken impression that technologies, as it were, evolve in a technical or scientific vacuum. Eugene Liberty Leading. This flawed notion of the nature of technological change stems, as many writers have repeatedly criticized,#91;99#93; to a large extent from the absence of a wider context to which one can relate the oedipus test, technical narrative. As this chapter has aimed to leading show, the the business is important because, construction of SIMULA was by no means a self-contained technical and scientific enterprise, and the outcome of Dahl and Nygaard's efforts was largely dependent on what is usually considered external or contextual premises. As examples one can but mention the UNIVAC 1107 which significantly improved the environment for the development of SIMULA, and eugene, the Department for Special Projects which in many ways came to constitute an ambiance of armitage, major importance for software engineering at NCC. Another, but nonetheless significant aspect of the problem addressed above is the parthenogenic myth that technologies, like Athena from Zeus' head, spring to life fully-grown in a sudden flash of eugene delacroix liberty leading, insight by genius minds like Charles Babbage, Alan Turing or John von Neumann.
However, as should be fairly evident from the preceding, such was not the case with SIMULA. From a simple simulation procedure package associated with ALGOL 60, the language was painstakingly constructed, shaped, and transformed, via SIMULA I, into the SIMULA 67 high level programming language we know today. This genesis involved, as has been stressed, a high degree of heterogeneous engineering on the part of Dahl and how does engine, Nygaard. Delacroix. Apart from their constant strive toward ultimate technical solutions, their activities also had ramifications into the manhunt armitage poem areas not normally deemed technical or scientific. Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial role in connection with the Univac/SIMULA deal, and Ole-Johan Dahl's persistent work on language design and leading, implementation as well as his instrumental role within IFIP TC-2 are representative examples of the kind of the manhunt simon poem, heterogeneous engineering I have been trying to eugene delacroix leading illuminate in this chapter. #91;1#93; This chapter is revised from an article published in the Annals of the History of Computing . Vol. 16(4), 1994; pp. 25-37. I gratefully acknowledge the many helpful comments and suggestions on earlier drafts offered by among others William Aspray, Martin Campbell-Kelly, Paul Ceruzzi, Michael S. Mahoney, Arthur L. Norberg, Nils Roll-Hansen, Knut H. Sørensen, and the referees of the Annals of the movie songs, History of eugene, Computing . Concept Is Important Because. #91;2#93; See for eugene liberty leading, instance: Hughes (1983) and Hughes (1989). #91;3#93; See Hughes (1986) and amadeus movie, Latour (1987). #91;4#93; A Status Report on SIMULA - A Language for the Description of Discrete Event Networks. 13 July, 1963. NCC. Eugene Delacroix Liberty. #91;5#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 441. #91;7#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the Enforcement, SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit. #91;8#93; ALGOL 60 represents a milestone in the history of programming languages, and during the 60s and eugene delacroix liberty leading, 70s this language was the prime source of most theoretical work related to how does a search engine work compiler design and development. #91;9#93; Interview with Ole Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;10#93; NTNF's Annual Report 1958/59, p.82. Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading. #91;11#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May 1961.
NCC. #91;12#93; The preceding account is primarily based on interviews with Kristen Nygaard 28 November, 1992, Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992, and Enforcement Essay, Finn Lied 6 March, 1992. #91;13#93; NCC's Financial Accounts 1959, 1960. #91;14#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May, 1961. NCC. Delacroix Liberty. #91;15#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;16#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. Please note that all US $figures in this chapter are based on the business entity concept is important because, US-Norwegian exchange rates listed in delacroix leading Historical Statistics 1978 , p. Oedipus Test. 513. #91;17#93; Note from NTNF's director Robert Major. 19 July, 1962. NTNF. Eugene Liberty Leading. #91;18#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 442. #91;19#93; This project was based on a new and promising algorithm for linear programming, denoted parametric decent, developed by Sverre Spurkland at NCC. Even though the project was based on the business concept is important, a very powerful concept, and later on was to receive substantial financial support from Univac, it was never completed. #91;20#93; Letter from Robert W. Bemer to the author. 15 July, 1994. Delacroix Leading. #91;21#93; Telephone interview with Robert W. Bemer, 14 April, 1992. #91;23#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 455. #91;25#93; Donald MacKenzie: The Influence of the Los Alamos and movie songs, Livermore National Laboratories on the Development of Supercomputing Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.13(2), 1991. #91;26#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;27#93; Sperry Rand Univac's offer to NCC regarding UNIVAC 1107, 26 June, 1962, and Agreement made 1st. day of June by delacroix liberty, and between Sperry Rand Corporation (Univac) and the Royal Norwegian Council for scientific and industrial research . Engine Work. 1 June, 1963. NTNF. #91;28#93; Telephone interview with Robert Bemer, 14 April, 1992, and letter from Robert Bemer to the author, 29 July, 1992. #91;29#93; Letter from A. Leading. A. Cohen, Staff Scientist of the Data Processing Division to Kristen Nygaard.
23 October, 1964. NCC. #91;30#93; Rådet for how does engine, elektronisk databehanding i staten. My translation. #91;31#93; Memo from Finn Lied to Karl Holberg. 11 May 1962. NDRE. Leading. #91;32#93; His conclusion was largely drawn from a survey of computing needs in the Oslo area. How Does Engine Work. In this survey Nygaard contacted a number of institutions that had previously benefited from his OR services and asked how they would make use of an eventual mainframe computer in the Oslo area.
These were Aftenposten, Det Norske Veritas, Direktoratet for Statens Skoger, H. EEG Henriksen A/S, Kontroautomasjon A/S, Norsk Produktivitetsinstitutt, Oslo Kommune/ kommunikasjons-rådmannen, Oslo Kommune/ Likningskontoret, M. Petterson Sønn A/S, Sentralinstituttet for Industriell Forskning, and Vegdirektoraet. Source: Forslag om anskaffelse av en stor elektronisk regnemaskin til Norsk Regnesentral. September 1962. NTNF. #91;33#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. #91;34#93; Lied referred to a meeting with Secretary of State Gudmumd Harlem where Harlem had expressed that if the acquisition of two computers was proposed at this stage this could lead to delacroix leading significant delays for both. Source: Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962. NTNF. #91;35#93; Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962.
NTNF. How Does. #91;36#93; Note from NCC's director Leif K. Olaussen: Oversikt over forholdet mellom Norsk Regnesentral og Univac angående levering av den elektroniske regnemaskinen UNIVAC 1107 og tilhørende programmeringssystemer, 15 January, 1965, and eugene delacroix liberty leading, interview with Robert Major, 29 November, 1991. #91;37#93; Letter from NTNF's director Robert Major to NCC's director Bjørn Ørjansen, 21 July, 1962. NTNF. #91;38#93; Note from Kristen Nygaard to Enforcement the board of eugene delacroix liberty leading, NCC, 22 January, 1964. NTNF. #91;39#93; Resolution from the board of NCC: Organisasjonsplan for Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and interview with Karl Holberg, 5 March, 1992. NTNF. #91;40#93; Resolution from the board of movie, NCC: Organisasjonsplan for Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and interviews with: Bjørn Ørjansen 25 November, Sverre Spurkland 27 November, Robert Major 29 November, 1991, and Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992. NTNF. Eugene Delacroix Leading. #91;41#93; The title for this subsection is taken from Dahl, Ole-Johan and Nygaard, Kristen. SIMULA: A Language for Programming and Description of Discrete Event Systems. Introduction and User's Manual. Oedipus Test. May 1965. NCC. #91;42#93; It should be added, that even though Dahl and Nygaard at this stage asserted that SIMULA should be ALGOL-based, they did not rule out a later version based on FORTRAN, using the eugene liberty, same basic concepts. #91;43#93; Dahl O.-J. and Nygaard K: Preliminary presentation of the SIMULA Language (as of May 18th, 1963) and some examples of network descriptions.
NCC: May 1963. #91;44#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.-J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 447-448, and interview with Ole-Johan Dahl 7 November, 1991. #91;45#93; Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Storage Allocation Scheme. Strategic Planning. NCC Document no. 162, November 1963, and an interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;46#93; Interviews with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991 and eugene liberty leading, 4 March, 1992, and Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;47#93; Quasi-parallel process execution implied that a main program could switch control from one process to another during a program run according to special sequencing statements. In SIMULA this sequencing was determined by the Hold statement, in addition to how does a search engine local reference variables in each inactive process, identifying where the eugene delacroix leading, control should resume operation the next time the process was activated. (Source: Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Data Structures, NCC Document, February/ March 1964). #91;48#93; Letter from how does a search engine, Ole-Johan Dahl to the author, 10 April, 1992. #91;49#93; Dahl and Nygaard (1965, p. Liberty Leading. 2).
#91;50#93; Nygaard, Kristen. Report on the Use of Enforcement Essay, SIMULA up to December 1965. December 1965. NCC. #91;52#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 459-461. #91;53#93; Interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 4 March, 1992. #91;54#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the liberty leading, SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p 459-461. Strategic Planning Of Amazon Essay. #91;55#93; International Federation for Information Processing's Technical Committee 2 was a committee especially dedicated to programming languages. #91;57#93; I use that term even if didn't exist in the 1950s and early `60s. Back then these people were mathematicians and the field they were working in was commonly referred to as applied mathematics. #91;58#93; F. G. Duncan and A. Eugene Delacroix. van Wijngaarden. Cleaning up ALGOL 60. ALGOL Bulletin , AB16.3.3, May 1964. #91;59#93; For further reference, see: C. H. Lindsey. A History of Algol 68. ACM/SIGPLAN Notices , Vol.
28(3), March 1993; pp. 97-132. A Search Engine Work. #91;61#93; Dahl O.-J., and Nygaard K: Class and eugene liberty, subclass declarations. Armitage Poem. NCC Document, March 1967. #91;62#93; After having designed the systems descriptions language DELTA (1973-1975), in eugene delacroix the second half of the 1970s, Kristen Nygaard together with research scientists from the University of Århus and the University of Ålborg Denmark, embarked upon yet another language development project called BETA. The basic idea behind this project was the oedipus test, very same that was turned down by delacroix liberty, the Common Base Conference ten years earlier. Very roughly, one can say that the BETA project was an attempt to generalize and refine the related notion of because, classes, records, types and procedures into one basic construct upon leading, which a new programming language could eventually be designed and implemented. The effort proved successful, and the BETA team came up with a new construct called Super Pattern. Based on this highly general concept, a DELTA compiler was later developed at the University of Århus. The Manhunt Simon. Source: Birger Møller-Pedersen: How did SIMULA make us Think of BETA . Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at Essay TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: November 28, 1991. #91;63#93; Myhrhaug Bjørn: Proposal for string handling and input/output definition in leading SIMULA 67 Common Base. Preliminary presentation January 1968. NCC publication No.
212. #91;64#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the oedipus test, SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 471. Eugene Delacroix Leading. #91;65#93; Letter from Ron Kerr to the author, 17 March 1993. #91;66#93; Interview Drude Berntsen, 6 November, 1991. #91;67#93; NTNF's annual review 1969, p. 69. #91;68#93; The running of the UNIVAC 1107 was, in the second half of the 1960s, one of NCC's most important sources of income, and a cornerstone in the Centre's research activities. When the Research Council's decision was known this naturally gave rise to speculations concerning NCC's future, and rightfully so since there were strong reasons to believe that central forces within the Research Council wanted to Planning and Management: of Amazon shut down the entire Centre, and transfer it's operations to other NTNF institutes. In a reaction to this, NCC employees organized themselves and launched a counterattack on NTNF. The conflict reached its climax in January/ February 1970, after which NCC was reorganized and the situation returned to normal. Source: Interview with Sverre Spurkland, 27 November, 1991. #91;69#93; The account of the development of eugene, UNIVAC SIMULA is based on movie songs, an interview with Sigurd Kubosch, 5 March, 1992, correspondence with Ron Kerr 1993 and SIMULA Newsletter: Vol.
1, No. 1, May 1973. #91;70#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen, 6 November 1991, and Draft outline for a SIMULA 67 agreement between UNIVAC and the Norwegian Computing Centre, September 1969. #91;71#93; Nygaard K. and eugene leading, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 470. How Does A Search Engine. #91;72#93; Interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August, 1992, and Jacob Palme: Are Simulation Languages Convenient for Military Simulations?. Research Institute for National Defence, Operations Research Centre Sweden, April 1968. #91;73#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. #91;74#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992. #91;75#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. #91;76#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Talk presented at; SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March. 1992. #91;77#93; Agreement on delacroix, implementation of the SIMULA 67 language between Control Data A/S Norway and the business concept because, the Norwegian Computing Centre. Oslo 23 May, 1967. NCC.
#91;78#93; SHAPE is an abbreviation for: Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. #91;79#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 473 - 474. #91;80#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Oslo, September 24 - 25, 1973. #91;81#93; The following account, describing the eugene liberty, development of the Swedish DEC-10 SIMULA compiler, is based upon an interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August 1992. #91;82#93; SIMULA Newsletter , Vol. Engine. 2, No. 3, August 1974. #91;83#93; DEC System-10 SIMULA Gazette , Vol. 1, No. 2, August 1975. #91;84#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. #91;85#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen: 6 November, 1991. #91;86#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. #91;87#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Oslo, 24-25 September 1973. Among the largest users known in 1973 we find: The Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, the Swedish Research Institute of National Defence, the Finnish State Computing Center and delacroix liberty leading, Broken Hill Proprietary Co., Ltd. in Australia.
In addition to these major institutions, a number of European universities were also known to use the language for educational purposes. #91;88#93; The SIMULA Standards Group was formed after the Common Base Conference in 1967. It consisted of movie, one representative from liberty, each of the SIMULA implementation teams, plus two representatives from the of Amazon Essay, Norwegian Computing Centre. An important part of their task was to guard the SIMULA 67 standard against the undesirable flourishing of dialects experienced in so many other languages. Eugene Liberty. In this respect their efforts must be regarded as quite successful since the a search engine work, SIMULA 67 standard remained very much on eugene delacroix, track throughout the period and indeed up to the very present. #91;89#93; When talking about the ASU it would be wrong not to mention the Simulady herself, Mrs. Eileen Schreiner. As secretary of the ASU from 1973 to 1989, and treasurer and Newsletter editor to the present (1993), Mrs. Schreiner has been a thread of continuity in the SIMULA community and in many respects SIMULA's staunchest champion. #91;90#93; SIMULA Newsletter: Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1974, p. 3. Engine Work. As of August 1974 the following countries were represented in ASU; Australia, Austria, Belgium, Britain, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. In addition to this one must also take into account the SIMULA activity in the then Soviet Union, which in many ways constituted an ambiance of its own, isolated from the organizational framework of the ASU. #91;91#93; For interested readers I refer to Langdon Winner. Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading. Do artifacts have politics in Donald MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman (eds.) The Social Shaping of Technology . Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1985. #91;92#93; The following draws on oedipus test, an interview with Kristen Nygaard 28 November 1991. #91;94#93; In spite of these good intentions, however, it is interesting to note that SIMULA never became an easy language to eugene leading learn and use.
Most people found it extremely difficult to adapt to the SIMULA way of thinking and Bjarne Stroustrup, author of the manhunt armitage poem, C++ by far the most popular SIMULA-like language in the 1990s, claims that for people who were not familiar with the key concepts, SIMULA was incomprehensible. In his opinion, this also, to a large extent, explains why the language never became wide-spread in delacroix leading use. Source: Interview with Bjarne Stroustrup, 22 April 1993. #91;95#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November 1991. #91;97#93; In Norwegian: Jern- og metallprosjektet. #91;98#93; The Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility is an organization of computer professionals concentrating on certain areas of the impact of computer technology on society. Essay. The alliance dates back to the fall of 1981 when several researchers in Palo Alto, California decided to do something about their concern regarding the close connection between computing and the nuclear arms race. #91;99#93; John M. Liberty. Staudenmaier, S. J.: Technology's Storytellers - Reweaving the Human Fabric . Cambridge, Ma: The Society for the History of Technology and MIT Press, 1985. See also Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas Hughes and Trevor Pinch (eds.): The Social Construction of Technological Systems - New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology . Cambridge, Ma: MIT Press, 1987.
Buy Essay Online -
Liberty Leading the People by Eugene Delacroix
Nov 11, 2017 Eugene delacroix liberty leading, order essay paper from #1 paper writing service for students -
Free Essays on The Uses Of Coconut Tree. Coconut Tree in S. V. G Table of Content ? Introduction ? History of Coconut palm ? Where is coconut produce ?Types of coconut tree palm ? Different parts of the eugene liberty coconut tree ? Uses of coconut palm ? Nutritional Value of coconut ?Local Coconut Produce Introduction The coconut tree is call “ the tree. Coconut - Tree of Life The Coconut Tree (Cocos Nucifera L.) is called The Tree of Life because of the oedipus test endless list of eugene liberty leading products and by-products derived from Photo Enforcement its various parts. Food, shelter, fuel - name it, the coconut has it. The coconut industry is considered a major dollar earner that provides livelihood. Integrated Mobile Service Units for delacroix liberty Coconut Farms Add to favourite plans winners.jpg The coconut is dubbed The Tree of the manhunt simon armitage poem Life because of the different products that may be derived from its various parts. All typical farms have fruit bearing coconut trees. A fully integrated mobile processing unit. The Coconut Keeps Rp Economy from delacroix leading Going Nuts.
The coconut is popularly known as the tree of life. The coconut is considered such because of the many uses it can provide, starting from its roots up to its main fruit and still up to The Case of Amazon Essay, its very leaves. This wonder tree is delacroix liberty, so versatile it can generate different goods which are made available and concept, sold. PROJECT TITLE: Coconut Sugar Production PROJECT LOCATION: Poblacion, Mutia, Zamboanga del Norte A. PROJECT OVERVIEW 1. Background: Coconut sap sugar is an emerging high-value product that gained popularity because of its health benefits. It has a very low Glycemic Index making it a great natural.
Pilipog * The pilipog dwarf coconut is originally from the Philippines. Distinguishing features include female flowers, pink parts including the base of shoots, tips of roots and eugene liberty leading, just germinated seedlings and round, green nuts. Read more: Types of Dwarf Coconuts | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/info_8588814_types-dwarf-coconuts. Camera 20. Candles 21. Carrom Board 22. Carpet 23.
Carrot 24. Cauliflower 18 25. A Search Engine Work? Ceiling Fan 26. Chess Board 27. Coat 28. Coconut 29. Cot (In all States and Union Territories except in the State of Kerala) 30. Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading? Crown 31. Cup Saucer 32.
Cutting Plier 33. Dao . The coconut tree as a “ tree of life” is characteristically a food supplier as this tree provides fruit and is well-known to how does engine, be devoid of any anti-nutrient factors and is known as a whole food with 5,000 years of recorded use in eugene delacroix food preparation with health benefits.The fruit is edible at any stage of. Design of Climbing Mechanism for a Tree Climbing Robot. and the tools we use . We have devised this mechanism inspired from the locomotion of a worm called Stomatapod which uses its whole body as distributed foot facilitating it to move on any terrain and have high agility on a regular tree environment. The gripper assembly designed uses a flexible casing. The study of genealogy has never been easier.
The widespread use of the personal computer and the increasing benefits afforded by oedipus test, the Internet has made the once tedious task of finding ones Family Tree extremely easy. Eugene Delacroix Leading? An endeavor which only a few years ago required a great deal of time and Enforcement Essay, effort searching. Imaginative Journeys ‘This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison’ is the mental capacity for eugene delacroix leading experiencing, constructing, or manipulating mental imagery. Coleridge, through the the manhunt armitage use of poetry, explores the notion of eugene leading imaginative journeys in the poem 'Lime Tree bower, my prison’ and how it demonstrates the power of the oedipus test imagination. The poem begins with the opening lines. A Coconut-Based Food Manufacturing Plant. production sectors namely coconut , rice, corn, and sugar production. Of these sectors, the coconut industry proves to leading, be very important in the country since one third of the population depend on coconut production for livelihood. Simon? The country is the second top producer of delacroix coconuts next to Indonesia and. schools, churches and communities organize special events. These can include decorating the neighborhood or a shopping mall, putting up a Christmas tree and planning a Nativity display, concert or performance.
A lot of plays and songs have a aspect of Strategic and Management: The Case of Amazon Essay Christmas as a theme. Eugene Liberty Leading? Some groups arrange meals. the reality of the author's confinement by referring to his current position as a prison. (Well, they are gone and here I must remain, this lime tree bower my prison) Coleridge continues describing what he thinks his friends are experiencing without him throughout the remainder the first stanza. The Antipasmodic Activity of Molave Tree (Vitex Parviflora) Bark Extract in Albino Mice. The Antipasmodic Activity of Molave Tree (Vitex parviflora) Bark Extract in Albino Mice A Research Paper Presented to how does a search, Mrs. Ferrera Oira In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement in Research II Georgette Mae P. Dineros Jone Zelita C. Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading? Orlina Anna Dominique G. Humbe IV- Analysts. INTRODUCTION Coconut trees are very useful because they have various parts which can be utilized for various purposes. This article provides useful information about the parts of coconut tree and its uses . In fact, its fruit alone has many uses in the field medicine and cosmetics. How Does A Search? There have been numerous. Frost’s poem The Tree Fallen Across the Road.
In the poem a tree literally falls across the road, creates a barrier and brings the journey to a halt. The tree is used as the obstacle – something to be overcome by purpose of spirit and ingenuity. The poem is eugene, about the removal of the tree and proceeding. ? Coconut Tree “What is the Planning of Amazon most useful tree in eugene delacroix the world?” “Well, my answer is definitely a coconut tree ”. Coconut is a fruit of the coconut palm tree , its trunk is one to oedipus test, two feet in diameter. Leading? It has not branches but carries a crown leaves and its leaves are like a feather with many segments. Coconut.
those twenty-one million tons of rubber produced almost nine million tons of oedipus test that were completely natural coming from liberty leading plants such as the Para rubber tree . Strategic Planning Of Amazon? Also in 2005 Asia was the leading continent supplying rubber for the world with around ninety-four percent of the eugene world’s production. Without rubber. even mention their heritage. Alice Walker the author of the short story “ Everyday Use ” believes people should honor their own heritage. Alice Walker has very many similarities with the family in the business entity concept the story “Everyday Use ”. She was born in Eatonton, Georgia, which is in delacroix liberty leading the South, and the story setting.
Industrial Biomass Boiler in Central Heating. Industrial biomass boiler is an green boiler which takes wood waste, rice husks, corn cobs, tree branches, lees, straw, palm shell, coconut shell and other biomass energy as its fuels. ZG Boiler has been successful in converting energy plants, whether industrial or utility plants from coal, natural gas. Growing Spending on Healthy and Photo, Natural Beverages to delacroix liberty leading, Drive Organic Coconut Water Market Revenues, says TMR.pdf. Transparency Market Research Single User License: Organic Coconut Water Market - USD 4315.5 Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, ? Flat 10% Discount!! ? Free Customization as per your requirement Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2016 ? You will get Custom Report at Syndicated Report 2024 price . Security of the Double Tree Hotel in Down Town San Diego. “The Security Issues of the Double Tree Hotel” The issues of security that the Double Tree Hotel in down town is currently dealing with are theft, loitering of the how does a search homeless and the occasional noise disturbance; it is my job to make sure those things don’t happen. Eugene Liberty Leading? I am currently work the amadeus grave. feel he belonged in eugene delacroix liberty leading the town. He walked its concrete sidewalks, strolled on its wooden-planked wharf, rode its pony-drawn rigs, drank the fermented coconut juice, the tuba, and ate pork in its restaurants like a Christian; still, he felt he did not belong. Photo Enforcement Essay? Alih lived in the village across the river on.
playing volleyball After half-an-hour, I was at the beach scanning the crowd for my friends, Jimmy and Bobby. After a while, I spotted them near a coconut tree . I ran towards them and got into my swimming trunk. For about an hour, we played volleyball happily. Suddenly, Bobby hit the eugene liberty ball too hard and. foreword for the sixth edition of this beautiful and popular book which has been out of Essay print for several years and much missed and sought after by tree lovers.
Not that a fresh foreword is at all necessary or called for after the book has established popularity and usefulness so unmistakably and delacroix leading, especially. Coconut Derived Emollients Market : An Insight On the Photo Essay Important Factors Trends Influencing the Market. Transparency Market Research Single User License: Coconut Derived Emollients Market - USD 4315.5 Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, ? Flat 10% Discount!! ? Free Customization as per your requirement Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016 ? You will get Custom Report at Syndicated Report 2024 . Banyan Tree: Sustainability of a Brand. BANYAN TREE : SUSTAINABILITY OF A BRAND DURING RAPID GLOBAL EXPANSION Executive Summary Banyan Tree Holdings Limited is a leading manager and liberty leading, developer of premium resorts, hotels and spas in the Asia Pacific. After a successful IPO in June 2006, Banyan Tree Holdings Limited planned to use parts. is the oedipus test intentional combining of agriculture and working trees to create sustainable farming systems.
ICRAF defies: is a collective name for land- use systems and technologies where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos, etc.) are deliberately used on liberty leading, the same land-management units as agricultural. Rainforest 4. Coconut is grown in amadeus movie songs rainforests and tropical atmospheres. Coconut trees take around a year to eugene, develop more often than not in hot regions, the how does a search engine coconut trees appear close to oceans. This sort of tree develops in eugene Africa, Asia, Latin America, and how does a search engine work, Pacific area. In the middle of the coconut there is. than nghenh.
In the past, omitting any of these stages was a grievous violation of propriety that scandalized the families involved but nowadays only tree most important stages (nap thai, van danh, than nghenh) are kept to save time and money.” This is eugene delacroix liberty, very different from Strategic Planning The Case of Amazon traditional American weddings. Tree Power – Renewable Energy for Remote Applications Renewable Opportunity Analysis. Tree Power – Renewable Energy for Remote Applications Renewable Opportunity Analysis The “ELECTRIFYING” POTENTIAL OF TREES 1 Introduction and Executive Summary The need for alternative energy sources has been obvious for decades. Eugene Liberty Leading? Fossil fuels are being depleted at a rapid rate and amadeus songs, are becoming. Ecology CP Baobab Tree The Baobab tree is the national tree Madagascar and can be found all over the island and in the savannas of Africa and India. The genus Adansonia contains nine different species, six of leading which are native to Strategic Planning and Management: The Case, Madagascar, two native to the African mainland, one to Australia. Coconut Industry The Philippines remains as the world’s leading supplier of traditional coconut products.
The industry is also finding new products and uses for this the “ Tree of Life”: coco peat, geotextiles, activated carbon and eugene leading, virgin coconut oil. Description The coconut industry is a dominant sector. province east of Gumaca, Quezon. The Niyogyugan Fiestival For Filipinos, the coconut tree is the tree of life. This is especially the case in Quezon province, where coconut is Planning and Management: The Case of Amazon Essay, one of the liberty dominant crops. On Saturday, young Quezonians from different high schools in Photo Enforcement Essay the province. Emily Dickinson, the eugene delacroix liberty Red Tree and Looking for Alibrandi.
English essay Emily Dickinson, Melinda Machetta who is the composer of the film ‘Looking for Alibrandi’ and Shaun Tan who is the author of ‘The red tree ’ had particular rewards as far as belonging was concerned- especially for women. Domestic security and social approbation were possible rewards, but. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 protocol that runs on bridges and switches STP runs on bridges and switches that are 802.1D-compliant. There are different flavors of STP, but 802.1D is the Photo most popular and widely implemented. You implement STP on bridges and switches in order to prevent loops. Coconut The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family). It is the delacroix liberty leading only accepted species in the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the and Management: of Amazon seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. The spelling cocoanut is an.
short flight from Asia or Australia in comparision to a flight to Hawaii. The economy of delacroix liberty leading Guam has been stable since 2000, due to all the tourists. Guam uses the U.S dollar as their money type. Education System The entire island of Guam is served by Guam Public School System. Photo Enforcement? Some issues with the liberty public. 2014 hot sale low consumption coconut copra oil press machine. 2014 hot sale low consumption coconut copra oil press machine oil refinery oil press machinery Advantages of multifunctional screw oil press: Simple structure, easy to use , adaptable, high oil rate, energysaving, and low noise. Material selection is exquisite, reasonable design, reliable. COIR TRADE” COIR INDUSTRY IN INDIA Indian coir industry is an important cottage industry contributing significantly to the economy of the major coconut growing States and Union Territories, i.e., Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Goa, Orissa, Assam, Andaman Nicobar, Lakshadweep.
Global Polysorbate-80 Market: Proliferating Adoption of Bio-based Products to Enforcement, Lift Demand for Polysorbate-80, finds TMR. delivered with in 15-20 working days Request Sample Buy Now REPORT DESCRIPTION The mounting demand for polysorbate-80 from various end- use industries is likely to boost the growth of the market in the long term, states Transparency Market Research (TMR) in a new report. The report is titled. Biomass Fired Power Plant Boiler in eugene liberty leading Sugar Mill. that modern technologies could widely develop, overcome traditional and non-commercial uses , and it has a wide range of biomass energy, such as rice husks, straw, corn cobs, lees, tree branches, palm shell, coconut shell, wood waste and Strategic Essay, many other biomass energy. Power plant boiler for sale in ZG Boiler. Philippine coconut industry is a formidable pillar of the national, economic and cultural heritage of the country. It is a source of valuable commodity and a renewable asset, vital components to the building of eugene delacroix liberty a strong nation. The coconut tree is called the tree of a search engine work life for its myriad uses to humanity.
17. Eugene Delacroix Liberty? You use 35 J of how does engine energy to eugene delacroix leading, move a 7.0 N object. How far did you move it? 18. You do 45 J of work in 3.0 seconds. How much power do you use ? 19. A car uses 2,500 Joules in 25 seconds. Find power. The Manhunt Armitage? 20. A 60. watt light bulb runs for delacroix liberty 5.0 seconds.
How much energy does it use ? 21. How. On Robert Frost’s “ Tree at My Window” Jack Kang ? Robert Frost is American’s leading pastoral poet with lots of famous poems such as “Stopping by simon armitage, woods on a snowy evening”, “The road not taken ”, “The span of life” and “Mending wall”. He demonstrated in his verse that nature is man’s most revealing. fishmeat and shrimp. Fruit-wise tropical fruits abund such as bananas, guava, mango, pineapple, coconuts , melons and breadfruit. Breadfruit may sound like something peculiar for tourists. It is a native tree of the western Pacific islands which produces a large tasty fruit. Delacroix Leading? It is very versatile and used.
?DEFINITION OF COCONUT The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera), is a member of the Photo Essay family Arecaceae (palm family). It is the only accepted species in the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to eugene, the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the movie songs fruit, which, botanically, is eugene liberty, a drupe, not a nut. The spelling cocoanut is. Coconut Oil and Calamansi Peelings As Agent for Hair Oil Chapter I. Introduction A. Background Of the the business entity concept is important because Study The hair is our crowning glory that holds true for most people since it is one of the things that leave a lasting impression when we first meet someone. The way that we carry our hair. Kartie Tree Extract Market - Increasing Demand For Low Fat Content Substitute of leading Cocoa Palm Oil Boosts the Industry. Transparency Market Research Single User License: Kartie Tree Extract Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2016 - 2024 Transparency Market Research State Tower, 90, State Street, Suite 700.
Albany, NY 12207 United States www.transparencymarketresearch. Organic Coconut Water Market Will Increase Strongly Through 2024. Transparency Market Research Single User License: Organic Coconut Water Market - USD 4315.5 Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, ? Flat 10% Discount!! ? Free Customization as per your requirement Growth, Trends, and oedipus test, Forecast 2016 ? You will get Custom Report at Syndicated Report 2024 price . Biological Study of Larval Parasitoid, Asecodes hispinarum Boucek (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Pest Management Program for delacroix liberty Major Insect Pests of Coconut in a Golf Course NAME: Ms. Thitraporn Pundee THIS THESIS HAS BEEN ACCEPTED BY THESIS ADVISOR ( ( ( ( ( ( ( Associate Professor Surachate. COCONUT (Cocos Nucifera) HUSK, DURIAN (Durio zibethinus) HUSK AND CORN (Zea Mays) COB AS AN ALTERNATIVE SHOE POLISH. INVESTIGATORY PROJECT PROPONENTS Gultiano, Jessa Grace Maglupay, Carl Dizon Osita, Zyrah Glae Salvani, Prince Randy Jones Santos, Mary Albeona Kit COCONUT (Cocos Nucifera) HUSK, DURIAN (Durio zibethinus) HUSK AND CORN (Zea Mays) COB AS AN ALTERNATIVE SHOE POLISH CHAPTER 1 (BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY) . their learning. Planning Essay? They gain awareness of the cultural and eugene liberty, historical aspects of Aneityum Island while at armitage poem the same time get a chance to plant an endemic tree which they could revisit years after to see its growth.
Looking at the financial aspects of our operations and its projections, this venture is leading, going. SZL series chain grate double drum steam boiler. combustion, dust separation, so as to achieve a level of furnace dust removal, energy saving and environmental protection. This series of products uses double drum and full pipe structure with high technology, environmental protection and energy saving like biomass fired boiler and wood pellets fired. Cocos nucifera (Coconut) Water as Natural Growth Enhancer for Gallus gallus domesticus (Broiler Chicken) - ABSTRACT. contain antibiotics and a search engine, arsenic to promote growth on broiler chicken pose problems on eugene liberty leading, health and Photo Essay, the environment. Delacroix Liberty? Thus, this study, Cocos nucifera ( Coconut ) Water as Natural Growth Enhancer for Gallus gallus domesticus (Broiler Chicken) was investigated. Movie Songs? A total of 25 two-day old Gallus gallus domesticus. Executive Summary Banyan Tree Phuket was started with a 232-room Dusit Laguna Resort in 1987 by Ho Kwon Ping (KP), who is the chairman of Banyan Tree Hotels and delacroix liberty, resorts, and his younger brother.
It is a luxury accommodation that emphasized romance, intimacy, privacy and rejuvenation. It is a resort. has a pond in the middle which they used for shower and fishing. The Business Entity Concept? Every home is liberty leading, surrounded by lot of green trees – from engine small shrub to very large tree . The only leading, school in entity concept is important our village has first grade to 10th grade and delacroix, about ? mile away from our home. There are tube-wells usually shared by. moisture from movie songs humid air and strong rainfall in the rainy season (Chumbe Island, 2014). We will see the endangered coconut crab climbing to eugene delacroix, the tops of the coconut trees and oedipus test, easily cracking coconuts with their massive powerful claws as we hike around the Island (Chumbe Island, 2014). Liberty? Here on the island there.
The Coconut Levy Fund Abstract Summary Table of entity Contents Introduction Cocos Nucifera, better known as the eugene delacroix leading coconut , has been with the Filipinos since the oedipus test earliest forebears first inhabited the archipelago. When the eugene leading first western adventures stumbled into the Philippine shores, their scribes.
How to buy essay cheap with no worries -
July 28: Liberty Leading the People | Louvre Museum | Paris
Nov 11, 2017 Eugene delacroix liberty leading, custom essay order -
cosmology homework Cosmology is the study of the Universe and its components, how it formed, how its has evolved and what is its future. Modern cosmology grew from ideas before recorded history. Ancient man asked questions such as What's going on around me? which then developed into How does the Universe work?, the key question that cosmology asks. To religious studies, cosmology is about a theistically created world ruled by supernatural forces. To scientists, modern cosmology is about developing the most complete and economical as possible understanding of the Universe that is consistent with observations elucidated by natural forces. We will primarily explore the eugene liberty leading, latter type of cosmology in this course.
Many of the the manhunt simon, earliest recorded scientific observations were about cosmology, and pursue of understanding has continued for over 5000 years. Cosmology has exploded in eugene liberty, the last 20 years with radically new information about the structure, origin and evolution of the the business, Universe obtained through recent technological advances in telescopes and leading space observatories and basically has become a search for the understanding of not only what makes up the Universe (the objects within it) but also its overall architecture. Modern cosmology is on the borderland between science and philosophy, close to Strategic Planning The Case Essay philosophy because it asks fundamental questions about the Universe, close to science since it looks for delacroix, answers in entity is important, the form of empirical understanding by observation and rational explanation. Thus, theories about cosmology operate with a tension between a philosophical urge for eugene liberty leading, simplicity and a wish to amadeus movie include all the Universe's features versus the total complexity of it all. Cosmology is as old as humankind. Once primitive socal groups developed language, it was a short step to making their first attempts to understand the world around them. Eugene Liberty. Very early cosmology, from Neolithic times of 20,000 to 100,000 years ago, was extremely local. The Universe was what you immediately interacted with. Cosmological things were weather, earthquakes, sharp changes in your environment, etc. Things outside your daily experience appeared supernatural, and so we call this the Enforcement Essay, time of Magic Cosmology.
The earliest physical evidence of astronomical and cosmological thinking is a lunar calendar found on a bone fragment in Sub-Saharan Africa dated at about 20,000 BC. Late megalithic structures with astronomical purpose appear in delacroix leading, Africa and Europe around 5,000 BC (primitive versions of the famous Stonehenge complex in Britain). It is important to note that these structures and technologies were constructed by numerous different cultures which had had no contact with each other. In other words, the conclusions they reached about the cosmos were universal and the people of time were willing to commit significant resources to express these ideas. Early people projected their own inner thoughts and feelings into an outer animistic world, a world where everything was alive. Through prayers, sacrifices and gifts to the spirits, human beings gained control of the phenomena of their world. This is an anthropomorphic (magic) worldview, of the living earth, water, wind and fire, into which men and how does engine women projected their own emotions and motives as the guiding forces, the kind of world one finds in fantasy and fairy tales.
The earliest recorded astronomical observation is the Nebra sky disk from northern Europe dating approximately 1,600 BC (see above). This 30 cm bronze disk depicts the Sun, a lunar crescent and delacroix stars (including the Pleiades star cluster). The disk is oedipus test probably a religious symbol as well as a crude astronomical instrument or calendar. In the Western hemisphere, similar understanding of eugene liberty basic stellar and planetary behavior was developing. For example, Native American culture around the same time were leaving rock drawings, or petroglyphs, of astronomical phenomenon. Entity Is Important Because. The clearest example is found below, a petroglyph which depicts the 1,006 AD supernova that resulted in the Crab Nebula. Later in history, 5,000 to eugene 20,000 years ago, humankind begins to organize themselves and songs develop what we now call culture. A greater sense of permanence in your daily existences leads to the development of myths, particularly creation myths to explain the origin of the Universe. Most myths maintain supernatural themes, with gods, divine and semi-divine figures, but there was usually an internal logical consistence to the narrative.
Myths are often attempts at a rational explanation of the everyday world, their goal is to teach. Even if we consider some of the stories to be ridiculous, they were, in some sense, our first scientific theories. They also closely follow a particular religion, and this time is characterized by eugene delacroix a close marriage of science and religion. We call this the time of Mythical Cosmology. In the region now know as the Mideast, about 5,000 years ago humankind begins to Strategic Planning and Management: The Case organize themselves and develop the great Bronze Age cultures. These first great civilizations (clustered about the Nile and Euphrates rivers) gave the common man a greater sense of delacroix liberty leading permanence to their daily existences. How Does A Search Engine. This leads to the development of myths, particularly creation myths, to explain the origin of the Universe. Today, we divide the study of cosmology into cosmogony, the eugene liberty, study of the creation of the a search, Universe, versus cosmology, the eugene delacroix liberty leading, study of the structure and evolution of the Universe (and its destiny). Many of these early creation myths were first attempts at a logical, consistent cosmogony.
Historians tend to exaggerate the capabilities of ancient Egyptians, when, in fact, they were a practical culture. Strategic The Case Of Amazon Essay. The development of cosmology in ancient Egypt followed practical lines. Early man's impressions of the night sky formulated into liberty, various myths which then later became the core of Egyptian religion. Since its principal deities were heavenly bodies, a great deal of effort was made by the priesthood to calculate and predict the time and place of Photo Enforcement Essay their god's appearances. These skills led to the division of the day and night into delacroix liberty, twelve sections each, the development of a lunar calendar and the development of a solar calendar of oedipus test 12 30-day months with a special 5-day unit to bring the total to 365 days. Early Egyptians impressions of the night sky formulated into various myths which then later became the eugene liberty, core of Egyptian religion.
Since its principal deities were heavenly bodies, a great deal of effort was made by the priesthood to calculate and predict the time and place of Strategic The Case their god's appearances. Because the sun god, Ra, was the pre-eminent god, the eugene liberty leading, annual solar motion along the horizon was a key astronomical observation for the Egyptians. The timing and position of the northernmost and southernmost turning points, the solstices, ultimately fixed the mythology of Egyptian cosmology. Egyptian legend declares that the sky goddess Nut gives birth to Ra once a year, catalysing both calendar development and the concept of divine royalty plus the matrilineal inheritance of the throne. Nut is often portrayed as a naked female stretched across the sky. The Sun (Ra) is shown entering her mouth, passing through her star speckled body and emerging from her birth canal nine months later (from the spring equinox to the winter solstice). Thus, Ra becomes a self-creating god, i.e. the Universe is self-creating and eternal.
By the Old Kingdom, the astronomical/religious zeal of the pharaohs is reflected in the construction of massive pyramids at Giza. Their shape reflects the the business is important because, manner in which clouds and dust scatter sunlight into broad swaths forming stairways to heaven. These were stone pathways to the gods and were oriented to reach the eugene, immortal ones, i.e. the Planning The Case of Amazon, northern circumpolar stars. Perhaps the earliest of the combination of mythical and liberty leading theological ideas is found in how does, the Mesopotamian civilizations (divided into the Old Babylonian, Assyrian, New Babylonian and Late Babylonian periods). The Babylonian myths centered on plurality of the heavens and earth with a six-level universe consisting of three heavens and three earths: two heavens above the liberty, sky, the heaven of the stars, the earth, the underground of the Apsu, and the business is important because the underworld of the dead. The Earth was created by the god Marduk as a raft floating on fresh water (Apsu) surrounded by a vastly larger body of salt water (Tiamat). The gods were divided into two pantheons, one occupying the delacroix, heavens and the other in the underworld. Babylonian astronomy is noted for their detailed, and continuous, records of astronomical phenomenon such as eclipses, positions of the planets and rise and setting of the Moon. These records date back to 800 B.C. and are the oldest scientific documents in existence. The purpose of this activity was clearly astrological with the aim of forecasting the fortunes of the country as well as of the king. In addition to records, Babylonian astronomers also developed several arithmetic tools to aid in amadeus, the prediction of eclipses and planetary motion.
However, while their record keeping was a novel technology for the time, and their system of stellar names and eugene liberty leading measurement system was passed onto later civilizations, the Babylonians never developed a cosmological model in which to interpret their observations. Greek astronomers will achieve this goal using the Enforcement Essay, Babylonian data. Perhaps one of the greatest influences on modern thought are the eugene liberty, ideas that arose from Greek philosophy between 600 BC and start of the Roman Empire. The works of scholars from this era will influence philosophers and scientists into Enforcement, the 21st century and many of our modern cosmological frameworks have their root in ancient Greek ideas. Leading. While many of our first cosmologies were based on myths and simon legends, it is the Greek philosophical tradition that introduces an intellectual approach based on delacroix leading, evidence, reason and debate. Oedipus Test. While many of their ideas barely qualify as scientific theories, their reliance on mathematics as a tool to delacroix leading understand the Universe remains to this day. The third stage, what makes up the core of modern cosmology, grew out of ancient Greek, later adopted by the Church. The underlying theme in the manhunt armitage poem, Greek science is the use of observation and experimentation to search for simple, universal laws. We call this the time of Geometric Cosmology.
The struggle to formulation a Geometric Cosmology led to the development of the biggest philosophical achievement of eugene delacroix humankind, the philosophy of science. Indirectly, through an examination of our myths and creation stories, we developed the ideas and techniques that later would become the the manhunt armitage, core ideas to this thing we call science. Central to Greek cosmology is the belief that the underlying order of the Universe can be expressed in leading, mathematical form lies at the heart of science and is rarely questioned. But is mathematics a human invention or does it have an independent existence? Idealization of physical phenomenon led Plato to hypothesize that there were two Universes, the Strategic and Management: The Case Essay, physical world and an immaterial world of `forms', perfect aspects of everyday things such as a table, bird, and ideas/emotions, joy, action, etc. The objects and ideas in our material world are `shadows' of the forms (see Plato's Allegory of the Cave). This solves the problem of how objects in the material world are all distinct (no two tables are exactly the eugene delacroix liberty, same) yet they all have `tableness' in common. There are different objects reflecting the the business, `tableness' from the Universe of Forms.
Thus, there came into existence two schools of thought. Delacroix Liberty Leading. One school is attributed to Plato, and finds that Nature is a structure that is the manhunt simon precisely governed by timeless mathematical laws. According to Platonists we do not invent mathematical truths, we discover them. The Platonic world exists and physical world is a shadow of the truths in the Platonic world. This reasoning comes about when we realize (through thought and experimentation) how the behavior of delacroix liberty leading Nature follows mathematics to an extremely high degree of accuracy. The deeper we probe the laws of Nature, the more the physical world disappears and becomes a world of pure math. The other school held that mathematical concepts are mere idealizations of our physical world. The world of absolutes, what is called the Platonic world, has existence only through the physical world. In this case, the mathematical world is the same as the Platonic world and would be thought of as emerging from the world of physical objects. Note that mathematics plays a key role in how does a search engine, both worldviews. Mathematics transcends the physical reality that confronts our senses.
The fact that mathematical theorems are discovered by several investigators indicates some objective element to eugene delacroix liberty leading mathematical systems (supporting Plato's view). But, since our brains have evolved to reflect the properties of the physical world, it is of no surprise that we discover mathematical relationships in Nature. Both Plato and Pythagoras influenced the first logically consistent cosmological worldview, developed by the Greeks in the 4th century B.C. This early cosmology was an extrapolation of the Greek theory of matter proposed by Empedocles. This theory states that all matter in the Universe is composed of some combination of four elements: Earth, Water, Fire, Air. These four elements arise from the amadeus, working of the eugene delacroix liberty, two properties of hotness (and its contrary coldness) and dryness (and its contrary wetness) upon an original unqualified or primitive matter. The possible combinations of these two properties of primitive matter give rise to the four elements or elemental forms. Perhaps only a culture whose leaders were involved with logic and geometry would put the concepts of chemistry in such a logical and geometric form. Fire and Water are obvious opposites, and so are Earth and Air. These opposites share no common properties.
There are four properties, each shared by the manhunt armitage poem two non-opposite elements: fire and air share the property of hotness, water and air the property of wetness, and so on. Since the four elements are two pairs of opposite elements, so also are the four properties - hotness being the opposite of coldness and eugene delacroix leading wetness the opposite of dryness. Songs. Each of the delacroix liberty, four elements was held to exist in an ideal pure form, which could not actually be found on earth. The real things around us were considered impure, or mixed, forms of these four ideal elements. Thus the different airs, or gases, were the form of air mixed with different proportions of the forms of fire or water; smoke was a mixture of the forms of air and earth with some of the form of Photo Essay fire added. But there was an ideal or pure form of earth, air, fire, and water, and leading the real ones which we see and use were not ideal but of lesser purity. In other words, the real or observed different kinds of the Essay, same element are due to different degrees of the same properties. The elements could be changed into one another by removal of one property and eugene leading addition of another. In a seemingly unrelated discovery, Euclid, a Greek mathematician, proved that there are only five solid shapes that can be made from oedipus test simple polygons (the triangle, square and leading pentagon). Plato, strongly influenced by this pure mathematical discovery, revised the entity concept because, four element theory with the proposition that there were five elements to the Universe (earth, water, air, fire and quintessence) in correspondence with the delacroix leading, five regular solids. Elements had a natural tendency to separate in oedipus test, space; fire moved outwards, away from the eugene, earth, and earth moved inwards, with air and Essay water being intermediate.
Thus, each of these five elements occupied a unique place in liberty leading, the heavens (earth elements were heavy and, therefore, low; fire elements were light and located up high). Thus, Plato's system also became one of the first cosmological models and looked something like the following diagram: Like any good scientific model, this one offers explanations and various predictions. For example, hot air rises to reach the Essay, sphere of Fire, so heated balloons go up. Note that this model also predicts some incorrect things, such as all the liberty leading, planets revolve around the Earth, called the geocentric theory.
The geocentric cosmology becomes the first of a search engine work many anthropocentric universes, ones where humankind's special nature in the animal world leads to the idea that the Universe is designed for us, or by us.